, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 1179–1189 | Cite as

Inactivation of bacterial and viral biothreat agents on metallic copper surfaces

  • Pauline Bleichert
  • Christophe Espírito Santo
  • Matthias Hanczaruk
  • Hermann Meyer
  • Gregor GrassEmail author


In recent years several studies in laboratory settings and in hospital environments have demonstrated that surfaces of massive metallic copper have intrinsic antibacterial and antiviral properties. Microbes are rapidly inactivated by a quick, sharp shock known as contact killing. The underlying mechanism is not yet fully understood; however, in this process the cytoplasmic membrane is severely damaged. Pathogenic bacterial and viral high-consequence species able to evade the host immune system are among the most serious lethal microbial challenges to human health. Here, we investigated contact-killing mediated by copper surfaces of Gram-negative bacteria (Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis tularensis and Yersinia pestis) and of Gram-positive endospore-forming Bacillus anthracis. Additionally, we also tested inactivation of monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus on copper. This group of pathogens comprises biothreat species (or their close relatives) classified by the Center for Disease and Control and Prevention (CDC) as microbial select agents posing severe threats to public health and having the potential to be deliberately released. All agents were rapidly inactivated on copper between 30 s and 5 min with the exception of B. anthracis endospores. For vegetative bacterial cells prolonged contact to metallic copper resulted in the destruction of cell structure.


Metallic copper surfaces Antimicrobial Biothreat agent Contact-killing 



The authors thank Holger Scholz (InstMikroBioBw, München), Wolf Splettstößer (InstMikroBioBw, München) and Birgit Strommenger (RKI, Werningerode) for sharing bacterial strains. Thanks are due to Daniela Horenkamp and Jutta Brohl for assistance in BSL-3-work. This work was supported by a research grant from the International Copper Association (ICA)/Copper Development Association (CDA) and CES by a graduate fellowship of the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pauline Bleichert
    • 1
  • Christophe Espírito Santo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Matthias Hanczaruk
    • 1
  • Hermann Meyer
    • 1
  • Gregor Grass
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Bundeswehr Institute of MicrobiologyMunichGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Liver & Digestive HealthUniversity College London Medical SchoolLondonUK

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