Advertisement

BioMetals

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 1005–1015 | Cite as

Role of aluminum in red-to-blue color changes in Hydrangea macrophylla sepals

  • Henry D. Schreiber
  • Andrew H. Jones
  • Corinne M. Lariviere
  • Kelly M. Mayhew
  • Judith B. Cain
Article

Abstract

Red, purple, and blue sepals on selected cultivars of Hydrangea macrophylla were analyzed for their aluminum content. This content was determined to be a function of the sepal color with red sepals possessing 0–10 μg Al/g fresh sepal, purple sepals having 10–40 μg Al/g fresh sepal, and blue sepals containing greater than 40 μg Al/g fresh sepal. Accordingly, the threshold aluminum content needed to change H. macrophylla sepals from red to blue was about 40 μg Al/g fresh sepal. Higher aluminum concentrations were incorporated into the sepals, but this additional aluminum did not affect the intensity or hue of the blue color. These observations agreed with a chemical model proposing that the concentration of the blue Al3+-anthocyanin complex reached a maximum when a sufficient excess of aluminum was present. In addition, the visible absorbance spectra of harvested red, purple, and blue sepals were duplicated by Al3+ and anthocyanin (delphinidin-3-glucoside) mixtures in this model chemical system.

Keywords

Aluminum Bluing Delphinidin-3-glucoside Hydrangea macrophylla Sepal color 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Thomas F. and Kate Miller Jeffers Memorial Trust, Virginia Military Institute, and BackCountry Research. Samantha Wade and Taylor Godsey provided technical aid for the completion of this research.

References

  1. Allen R (1943) Influence of aluminum on the flower color of Hydrangea macrophylla. Contrib Boyce Thompson Inst 13:221–242Google Scholar
  2. Asen S, Stuart NW, Siegelman HW (1959) Effect of various concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on sepal color of Hydrangea macrophylla. Proc Am Soc Hort Sci 73:495–501Google Scholar
  3. Asen S, Stuart NW, Specht AW (1960) Color of Hydrangea macrophylla sepals as influenced by the carry-over effects from summer applications of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Proc Am Soc Hort Sci 76:631–636Google Scholar
  4. Bir R (2007) Big flowered bigleaf hydrangeas. Great Plants (Special Issue of Fine Gardening) Spring 2007:78–83Google Scholar
  5. Dirr MA (2004) Hydrangeas for American gardens. Timber Press, Portland, ORGoogle Scholar
  6. Ito D, Shinkai Y, Kato Y, Kondo T, Yoshida K (2009) Chemical studies on different color development in blue- and red-colored sepal cells of Hydrangea macrophylla. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73:1054–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ma JF, Hiradate S, Nomoto K, Iwashita T, Matsumoto H (1997) Internal detoxification mechanism of Al in hydrangea: identification of Al form in leaves. Plant Physiol 113:1033–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ma JF, Ryan PR, Delhaize E (2001) Aluminum tolerance in plants and the complexing role of organic acids. Trends Plant Sci 6:273–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Naumann A, Horst WJ (2003) Effect of aluminum supply on aluminum uptake, translocation, and blueing of Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) ser. Cultivars in a peat-clay substrate. J Hort Sci Biotechnol 76:463–469Google Scholar
  10. Schreiber HD, Wade NA (2007) Field-portable analysis of anthocyanin concentration in sepals of Hydrangea macrophylla. HortSci 42:1323–1325Google Scholar
  11. Schreiber HD, Swink AM, Godsey TD (2010) The chemical mechanism for Al3+ complexing with delphinidin: a model for the bluing of hydrangea sepals. J Inorg Biochem 104:732–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schreiber HD, Wade SE, Mayhew KM, Cobb JA (2011) Characterization of Hydrangea macrophylla cultivars by the anthocyanin content of their sepals. J Environ Hort (in press)Google Scholar
  13. Takeda K, Kariuda M, Itoi H (1985) Blueing of sepal color of Hydrangea macrophylla. Phytochem 24:2251–2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Toyama-Kato Y, Yoshida K, Fujimori E, Haraguchi H, Shimizu Y, Kondo T (2003) Analysis of metal elements of hydrangea sepals at various growing stages by ICP-AES. Biochem Eng J 14:237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Yoshida K, Toyama-Kato Y, Kameda K, Kondo T (2003) Sepal color variation of Hydrangea macrophylla and vacuolar pH measured with a proton-selective microelectrode. Plant Cell Physiol 44:262–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Yoshida K, Mori M, Kondo T (2009) Blue flower color development by anthocyanins: from chemical structure to cell physiology. Nat Prod Rep 26:857–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henry D. Schreiber
    • 1
  • Andrew H. Jones
    • 1
  • Corinne M. Lariviere
    • 1
  • Kelly M. Mayhew
    • 1
  • Judith B. Cain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryVirginia Military InstituteLexingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations