Siderophores of Marinobacter aquaeolei: petrobactin and its sulfonated derivatives
- 343 Downloads
Siderophores are low molecular weight, high-affinity iron(III) ligands, produced by bacteria to solubilize and promote iron uptake under low iron conditions. Two prominent structural features characterize the majority of the marine siderophores discovered so far: (1) a predominance of suites of amphiphilic siderophores composed of an iron(III)-binding headgroup that is appended by one or two of a series of fatty acids and (2) a prevalence of siderophores that contain α-hydroxycarboxylic acid moieties (e.g., β-hydroxyaspartic acid or citric acid) which are photoreactive when coordinated to Fe(III). Variation of the fatty acid chain length affects the relative amphiphilicity within a suite of siderophores. Catecholate sulfonation is another structural variation that would affect the hydrophilicity of a siderophore. In addition to a review of the marine amphiphilic siderophores, we report the production of petrobactin disulfonate by Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8.
KeywordsMarine siderophores Petrobactins Bacillibactins Sulfonated siderophores
Support from the National Institutes of Health GM38130 is gratefully acknowledged.
- Balzano S, Statham PJ, Lloyd JR, Pancost RD (2008) Role of microbial populations in the release of reduced iron to the water column from marine aggregates. Abstracts of the 12th international symposium on microbial ecology, Cairns, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- Barbeau K, Rue EL, Trick CG, Bruland KW, Butler A (2003) The photochemical reactivity of siderophores produced by marine heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria based on characteristic iron(III)-binding groups. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1069–1078Google Scholar
- Budzikiewicz H, Fuchs R, Taraz K, Marek-Kozuczuk M, Slorupska A (1998) Dihydropyoverdin-7-sulfonic acids—unusual bacterial metabolites. Nat Prod Lett 12:125–130Google Scholar
- Haygood MG, Holt PD, Butler A (1993) Aerobactin production by a planktonic marine Vibrio sp. Limnol Oceanogr 38:1091–1097Google Scholar
- Homann VV, Sandy M, Tincu A, Templeton A, Tebo B, Butler A (2009) Loihichelins A-F, a suite of amphiphilic siderophores produced by the marine bacterium halomonas LOB-5. J Nat Prod 72 (in press)Google Scholar
- Ito Y, Butler A (2005) Structure of synechobactins, new siderophores of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Limnol Oceanogr 50:1918–1923Google Scholar
- Kaye JZ, Marquez MC, Ventosa A, Baross JA (2004) Halomonas neptunia sp. nov., Halomonas sulfidaeris sp. nov., Halomonas axialensis sp. nov. and Halomonas hydrothermalis sp. nov.: halophilic bacteria isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal-vent environments. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:499–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar