Salmochelin, the long-overlooked catecholate siderophore of Salmonella
- 1.4k Downloads
Salmochelin is a C-glucosylated enterobactin produced by Salmonella species, uropathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, and certain Klebsiella strains. It was the first glucosylated siderophore described. The glucosylation has been interpreted as a bacterial evasion mechanism against the mammalian catecholate siderophore-binding protein siderocalin (NGAL-lipocalin). The synthesis, excretion, and uptake of salmochelin requires five genes, iroBCDEN, and also the enterobactin biosynthesis and utilization system. Some salmochelin-producing strains also secrete microcins, which possess a C-terminal, linear glucosyl-enterobactin moiety. These microcins recognize the catecholate siderophore receptors IroN, Cir, Fiu, and FepA, and may inhibit the growth of competitors for catecholate siderophores.
KeywordsSalmochelin Iron transport Siderocalin Salmonella C-glucosylation Microcin E492
We thank Andreas Kulik for help with the illustrations, G. Winkelmann and the group of R. D. Süßmuth group for collaborations, and V. Braun and Karen Brune (Marburg) for comments on the manuscript and editing. Financial support by the DFG is gratefully acknowledged.
- Fischbach MA, Lin H, Zhou L, Yu Y, Abergel RJ, Liu DR, Raymond KN, Wanner BL, Strong RK, Walsh CT, Aderem A, Smith KD (2006) The pathogen-associated iroA gene cluster mediates bacterial evasion of lipocalin 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:16502–16507. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0604636103 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fu JM (1985) The structure elucidation of methyl pacifarinic acid. Thesis, University of Illinois at ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Thomas X, Destoumieux-Garzon D, Peduzzi J, Afonso C, Blond A, Birlirakis N, Goulard C, Dubost L, Thai R, Tabet JC, Rebuffat S (2004) Siderophore peptide, a new type of post-translationally modified antibacterial peptide with potent activity. J Biol Chem 279:28233–28242. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M400228200 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wawszkiewicz EJ (1975) Riddle of pacifarins. In: Schlesinger MJ (ed) Microbiology—1974. ASM, Washington D.C., pp 299–305Google Scholar