Advertisement

BioMetals

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 207–210 | Cite as

Tobacco smoke iron: an initiator/promoter of multiple diseases

  • E. D. Weinberg
Article

Abstract

Tobacco smoking enhances risk for a diversity of acute and chronic diseases. Iron is a constant prominent component of mainstream tobacco smoke. The manifold toxic activities of inhaled iron could be responsible for a notable portion of the spectrum of smoking-related diseases.

Keywords

Impaired hearing Infection Iron Neoplasm Osteoporosis Tobacco smoke Vascular disease 

Notes

Acknowledgment

Dedicated to Dr. L. S. Wesselius in recognition of his distinguished career in respiratory tract physiology and iron metabolism.

References

  1. Abbud RA, Finegan CK, Guay LA, Rich EA (1995) Enhanced production of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by in vitro-infected alveolar macrophages from otherwise healthy cigarette smokers. J Infect Dis 172:859–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Basaraba RJ, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Eschelbach EK, Tolmay AE, Taraba LC, Shanlay CA et al (2008) Increased expression of host iron-binding proteins precedes iron accumulation and calcification of primary lung lesions in experimental tuberculosis in the guinea pig. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 88:69–79. doi: 10.1016/j.tube.2007.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boelaert JR, Blasi E (1999) Cryptococcosis and smoking: the potential role of iron. J Infect Dis 180:1412. doi: 10.1086/315045 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boelaert JR, Gomes MS, Gordeuk VR (2003) Smoking, iron and tuberculosis. Lancet 362:1243–1244. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14529-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen Z-M, Liu B, Boreham J, Wu Y, Chen J, Peto R (2003) Smoking and liver cancer in China: case control comparison of 36,000 liver cancer deaths versus 17,000 cirrhosis deaths. Int J Cancer 107:106–117. doi: 10.1002/ijc.11342 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cruickshanks KJ, Klein R, Klein BK, Wiley TL, Nordahl DM, Tweed TS (1998) Cigarette smoking and hearing loss. J Am Med Assoc 279:1715–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Day SM, Duquaine D, Mundada LV, Menon RG, Khan BV, Rajagopolan S et al (2003) Chronic iron administration increases vascular oxidative stress and accelerates arterial thrombosis. Circulation 107:2601–2606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Drakesmith H, Prentice A (2008) Viral infection and iron metabolism. Nat Rev Microbiol 6:541–552. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro1930 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edelstein PH (2008) Legionairre’s disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D (eds) Cecil medicine, 23rd edn. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 2261–2265Google Scholar
  10. Fischer M, Hedberg K, Cardosi P, Phikaytis BD, Hoesly FC, Steingart KR et al (1997) Tobacco smoke as a risk factor for meningococcal disease. Pediatr Infect Dis 16:979–983. doi: 10.1097/00006454-199710000-00015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forge A, Schacht J (2000) Aminoglycoside antibiotics. Audiol Neurootol 5:3–22. doi: 10.1159/000013861 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gajalakshmi V, Peto R, Kanaka TS, Jha P (2003) Smoking and mortality from tuberculosis and other diseases in India: retrospective study of 43,000 adult male deaths and 35,000 controls. Lancet 362:507–515. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14109-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hajjeh RA, Conn LA, Stephen DS, Baughman W, Hamill B, Gravis E et al (1999) Cryptococcus population-based multistate active surveillance and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Infect Dis 179:449–454. doi: 10.1086/314606 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kikendall JWS, Bowen PE, Burgess MB, Magnetti C, Woodward J, Langenberg P (1989) Cigarettes and alcohol as independent risk factors for colonic adenoma. Gastroenterology 97:660–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lambert CC, Hunter RL (1990) Low levels of unsaturated transferrin as a predictor of survival in pneumococcal pneumonia. Ann Clin Lab Sci 20:140–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lapenna D, de Gioia S, Mezzattgi A, Ciofani G, Consoli A, Marzio L, Cuccurollo F (1995) Cigarette smoke, ferritin and lipid peroxidation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:431–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. McBride PE (1992) The health consequences of smoking. Cardiovascular disease. Med Clin North Am 76:333–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. McGowan SE, Henley SA (1988) Iron and ferritin contents and distribution in human alveolar macrophages. J Lab Clin Med 111:611–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Marrero JA, Fontana RJ, Fu S, Conjeevaram HS, Su GL, Lee AS (2005) Alcohol, tobacco and obesity are synergistic risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol 42:218–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mateos F, Brock JH, Perez-Arellano JL (1998) Iron metabolism in the lower respiratory tract. Thorax 53:594–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mussala-Rauhammae H, Salmela SS, Lepannen A, Pyysalo H (1986) Cigarettes as a source of some trace and heavy metals and pesticides in man. Arch Environ Health 41:49–55Google Scholar
  22. Newcomb PA, Carbone PP (1992) The health consequences of smoking. Med Clin North Am 76:305–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Nuorte JP, Butler JG, Farley MM, Harrison LF, McGeer A, Kolczak MS, Beinan RF (2000) Cigarette smoking and invasive pneumococcal disease. N Engl J Med 342:681–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Seeman E, Melton RJ, O’Fallon WM, Riggs BL (1983) Risk factors for osteoporosis in men. Am J Med 75:977–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thompson AB, Bohling T, Heires A, Lindner J, Rennard SI (1991) Lower respiratory tract iron burden is increased in association with cigarette smoking. J Lab Clin Med 117:493–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Viswanathan VK, Cianciotto NP (2001) Role of iron acquisition in Legionella pneumophila virulence. Microbe 67:253–258Google Scholar
  27. Weinberg ED (1996) The role of iron in cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 5:19–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Weinberg ED (1999) The development of awareness of the carcinogenic hazard of inhaled iron. Oncol Res 11:109–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Weinberg ED (2006) Iron loading: a risk factor for osteoporosis. BioMetals 19:633–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Weinberg ED (2007) Iron loading in humans: a risk factor for enhanced morbidity and mortality. J Nutr Environ Med 16:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wesselius LJ, Nelson ME, Skikne BS (1994) Increased release of ferritin and iron by iron-loaded alveolar macrophages in cigarette smoking. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150:690–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Yuan XM, Lik W, Olsson AG, Brunk UT (1996) Iron in human atheroma and LDL oxidation by macrophages following erythrophagocytosis. Atherosclerosis 124:61–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zarantonelli ML, Szatanik M, Georgini D, Hong E, Huerra M, Guillou F, Alonso JM, Taha MK (2007) Transgenic mice expressing human transferrin as a model for the study of meningococcal infection. Infect Immun 75:5609–5614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and Program in Medical SciencesIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations