In situ phosphorus dynamics in soil: long-term ion-exchange resin study
Phosphorus (P) availability to soil biota is commonly determined using soil extraction methods, which can mobilise unclearly specified and stable soil P fractions. Alternatively, natural P availability can be estimated using in situ exposition of ferrous-oxide impregnated resin that continually removes P from soil solution. Over 10 consecutive years, we measured phosphate dynamics using such resin in soils of two catchments, differing in their bedrocks (P-poor mica-schist and P-rich granite), P-sorption characteristics (different Al- and Fe-hydroxide pools) and terrestrial P export to receiving waters. The catchment with granitic bedrock loses P in the long-term, while soils on mica-schist permanently accumulate P from atmospheric deposition. We observed substantially higher soil P availability in the organo-mineral horizons along with higher terrestrial P export in the granitic catchment rather than in the mica-schist one. These results indicate that soils developed on the P-rich bedrock, and concurrently with lower P sorption capacity, have high in situ P availability. We further evaluated the main factors affecting soil P availability, using data on long-term environmental and edaphic variables. Soil P availability was partly controlled by abiotic factors such as throughfall chemistry, precipitation amount and the C-to-P ratio of litter. However, we assume that high losses of P in the granitic catchment can also be driven by microbial processes since decomposition activity was the most influential variable of available soil P in this catchment.
KeywordsPhosphorus availability P leaching Ion-exchange resin Granite Spruce forest
The study was financed by Czech Science Foundation (Project 17-15229S) and from MEYS (Projects LM2015075, EF16_013/0001782: SoWa Ecosystems Research). We thank Eva Kaštovská and Jiří Kaňa for the inspiring discussion about data, to Gabriela Scott Zemanová and Ryan A. Scott for the language corrections, to Jiří Kaňa, Michal Choma, Jiří Bárta, and Daniel Vaněk for the field assistance throughout the years, Gabriela Prášilová for the laboratory assistance, and the authorities of the Šumava NP, who enabled us to conduct the study.
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