, Volume 138, Issue 3, pp 277–295 | Cite as

Organic carbon transfers in the subtropical Red River system (Viet Nam): insights on CO2 sources and sinks

  • Huong Thi Mai Nguyen
  • Gilles Billen
  • Josette Garnier
  • Thi Phuong Quynh Le
  • Quoc Long Pham
  • Sylvain Huon
  • Emma Rochelle-Newall


The Red River, draining a 169,000 km2 watershed, is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main source of water for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an investigation into the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively) in the Red River Basin. POC concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 5.80 mg C L−1 and DOC concentrations ranged from 0.26 to 5.39 mg C L−1. The application of the Seneque/Riverstrahler model to monthly POC and DOC measurements showed that, in general, the model simulations of the temporal variations and spatial distribution of organic carbon (OC) concentration followed the observed trends. They also show the impact of high population densities (up to 994 inhab km−2 in the delta area) on OC inputs in surface runoff from the different land use classes and from urban point sources. A budget of the main fluxes of OC in the whole river network, including diffuse inputs from soil leaching and runoff and point sources from urban centers, as well as algal net primary production and heterotrophic respiration was established using the model results. It shows the predominantly heterotrophic character of the river system and provides an estimate of CO2 emissions from the river of 330 Gg C year−1. This value is in reasonable agreement with the few available direct measurements of CO2 fluxes in the downstream part of the river network.


Sub-tropical watershed modeling Organic carbon Point and diffuse sources C metabolism 



This work was financed by the NAFOSTED-Vietnam (105.09-2012.10 Project), the Asian Pacific Network (ARCP2014_03CMY_Quynh Project), the UMR METIS, the UMR iEES-Paris and the World Academy of Sciences (16-096 RG/CHE/AS_I Project). NTMH was financed by a PhD Fellowship (ARTS) from the French Research Institute for Development (IRD). This work forms part of the PhD Thesis requirements of NTMH.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 437 kb)


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Natural Product ChemistryVietnam Academy of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Sorbonne Université, IRD, UPD, UPEC, CNRS, INRA, Institut d’Ecologie et des Sciences de l’Environnment de Paris (iEES Paris)Paris Cedex 05France
  3. 3.UMR METIS (Sorbonne Université, CNRS, EPHE)ParisFrance

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