, Volume 128, Issue 3, pp 353–368 | Cite as

Large differences in potential denitrification and sediment microbial communities across the Laurentian great lakes

  • Gaston E. SmallEmail author
  • Jacques C. Finlay
  • R. M. L. McKay
  • Mark J. Rozmarynowycz
  • Sandra Brovold
  • George S. Bullerjahn
  • Kurt Spokas
  • Robert W. Sterner


Large lakes can efficiently remove reactive nitrogen (N) through denitrification, but nitrate levels in some large oligotrophic lakes are increasing, indicating that denitrification in these lakes is not capable of removing excess N. To better understand how lake trophic status and sediment redox conditions affect the capacity of the microbial community to remove excess N, we measured potential denitrification rates at 86 different stations across Lakes Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. We also relate sediment microbial communities to potential denitrification rates and sediment characteristics for a subset of these sites. In eutrophic/mesotrophic Lake Erie, characterized by sediment with minimal oxygen penetration and relatively high sediment carbon (C) and N, potential denitrification rates were relatively high and increased by 2–3 orders of magnitude in response to additional nitrate and organic C. In contrast, in oligotrophic Lakes Superior and Ontario, and mesotrophic Lake Huron, where oxygen can penetrate several cm into sediment, potential denitrification rates were generally low and did not respond to additional nitrate and organic carbon. Sediment microbial communities showed a similar pattern across this gradient, correlated with potential denitrification rates, sediment %C, and bottom-water nitrate concentrations. This observed relationships between sediment redox conditions, potential denitrification rates, and microbial diversity suggest that sediment microbial communities in these and other oligotrophic large lakes may already be operating at or near their maximum denitrification rates. Unlike mesotrophic Lake Erie, microbial communities in oligotrophic lake sediments may lack the ability to mitigate increases in N loading through denitrification.


Denitrification Great Lakes Nitrate Nitrogen Lake Erie Lake Superior Microbial community 



We thank the crew of the R/V Blue Heron for their support during this study, and the U.S. Coast Guard, Canadian Coast Guard, and Environment Canada for providing additional sampling opportunities. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants OCE-0927512 and OCE-0927277. The work conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute was supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and Community Sequencing Project 723.

Supplementary material

10533_2016_212_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3131 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaston E. Small
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jacques C. Finlay
    • 2
  • R. M. L. McKay
    • 3
  • Mark J. Rozmarynowycz
    • 3
  • Sandra Brovold
    • 4
  • George S. Bullerjahn
    • 3
  • Kurt Spokas
    • 5
    • 6
  • Robert W. Sterner
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of St. ThomasSaint PaulUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and BehaviorUniversity of Minnesota-Twin CitiesSaint PaulUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesBowling Green State UniversityBowling GreenUSA
  4. 4.Large Lakes ObservatoryUniversity of Minnesota-DuluthDuluthUSA
  5. 5.United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research ServiceSaint PaulUSA
  6. 6.Department of Soil, Water and ClimateUniversity of Minnesota-Twin CitiesSaint PaulUSA

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