Direct response of dissolved organic nitrogen to nitrate availability in headwater streams
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Despite decades of research documenting the quantitative significance of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) across ecosystems, the drivers controlling its production and consumption are not well understood. As an organic nutrient DON may serve as either an energy or nitrogen source. One hypothesized control on DON concentration in streams is nitrate (NO3 −) availability. Synoptic surveys of DON and NO3 −, however, have yielded inconsistent spatial and temporal patterns. Using a nutrient pulse method we experimentally manipulated stream NO3 − and measured the response of both the manipulated solute and ambient concentrations of DON in three New Hampshire headwater streams. This direct experimental addition of NO3 − often altered ambient DON concentrations in situ, with both increases and decreases observed. The overall relationship between NO3 − and DON suggests that DON is primarily used as a nutrient source in these streams, as evidenced by net DON accumulation with added NO3 −. However, strong underlying seasonal patterns in the response to NO3 − addition are also discernable, indicating that the role of DON can switch between serving as a nutrient source to an energy source (as evidenced by net DON reduction with added NO3 −). We also observed differences in the NO3 −—DON relationship (net DON accumulation vs. net DON reduction) in two streams less than five miles apart when experiments were conducted within the same month. Based on these results, we expect the role of DON within ecosystems to vary among watersheds and throughout the growing season, alternating between serving as a nutrient and energy source depending on environmental conditions. With the incorporation of a new field-based method we demonstrate that the ambient DON pool can be manipulated in situ. This approach has the potential for furthering our understanding of DON across ecosystems.
KeywordsDissolved organic nitrogen Nitrate Organic matter Stream ecosystems Nitrogen cycling
The authors thank Jody Potter, Alison Appling, and the Water Quality Analysis Lab at the University of New Hampshire for assistance. We also thank Dr. Sujay Kaushal and two anonymous reviewers whose comments have helped strengthen the manuscript. Partial funding was provided by the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station. This is Scientific Contribution Number 2635. This work was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (McIntire-Stennis) Project (1006760). The University of New Hampshire Graduate School, The NH Water Resources Research Center, and the EPSCoR Ecosystems and Society Project (NSF EPS-1101245) provided additional support.
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