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Biogeochemistry

, Volume 125, Issue 2, pp 185–202 | Cite as

Soil respiration variability across a soil moisture and vegetation community gradient within a snow-scoured alpine meadow

  • John F. KnowlesEmail author
  • Peter D. Blanken
  • Mark W. Williams
Article

Abstract

The alpine tundra landscape is a patchwork of co-mingled ecosystems that vary due to meso-topographical (<100 m) landscape position, shallow subsurface heterogeneity, and subsequent soil moisture availability. This results in hotspots of biological activity, variable carbon cycling over short horizontal distances, and confounds predictions of the alpine tundra response to forecasted environmental change. To advance our understanding of carbon cycling within snow-scoured alpine meadows, we characterized the spatio-temporal variability of soil respiration (R S) from 17 sites across a broadly representative soil moisture and vegetation gradient, within the footprint of ongoing eddy covariance measurements at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, USA. Chamber-based R S samples were collected on a weekly to bi-weekly basis over three complete growing seasons (2011–2013), and a soil moisture threshold was used to integrate the data into dry, mesic, and wet tundra categories. In every year, measured R S was greatest from mesic tundra, followed by wet and then dry tundra locations. Increasing soil moisture invoked a bidirectional R S response from areas of dry and mesic tundra (directly proportional) compared to wet tundra (inversely proportional), and the optimum R S conditions were between 0.30 and 0.45 m3 m−3 soil moisture, which mainly coincided with soil temperatures below 8 °C. We also developed simple models to predict R S from concurrent measurements of soil moisture and temperature, and from nighttime eddy covariance measurements. Both models were significant predictors of R S in all years and for all ecosystem types (where applicable), but the models did not adequately capture the intra-seasonal R S variability. The median cumulative growing season R S flux ranged from 138.6 g C m−2 in the driest year (2013) to 221.4 g C m−2 in the wettest year (2011), but the cumulative growing season fluxes varied by a factor of five between sites. Our results suggest that increased or more intense precipitation in the future has the potential to increase alpine tundra R S, although this effect will be buffered to some degree by compensatory responses from dry, mesic, and wet alpine tundra.

Keywords

Alpine tundra Soil respiration Soil moisture Bidirectional Carbon cycle Climate change 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by NSF grant DEB 1027341 to the Niwot Ridge LTER. John Knowles would also like to acknowledge support from an NSF Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grant (DDRI) BCS 1129562. We thank Dr. Diego Riveros-Iregui for constructive feedback on an early version of this manuscript, Dr. William Bowman for help with plant identification, and Theo Barnhart for assisting with Fig. 3.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Arctic and Alpine ResearchUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

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