Particle-associated and cell-free extracellular enzyme activity in relation to nutrient status of large tributaries of the Lower Mississippi River
- 300 Downloads
Microbial extracellular enzyme activity is responsible for much of the carbon and nutrient cycling in freshwaters, and logically there should a relationship between the chemical properties of a system and its enzymatic profile. To evaluate this concept, we surveyed extracellular enzyme activity in five large rivers (the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and Arkansas) of the Mississippi River Basin, one of the world’s largest river systems. The rivers drain areas of different climate, physiography, and land use, and differ in their physicochemical properties. Despite differences in nutrient concentrations, there were no consistent differences in enzyme activity between the five rivers, with as much variation in activity between sites on the same river as among different rivers. Enzymatic profiles were dominated by leucine aminopeptidase, phosphatase, and β-glucosidase, and appreciable enzymatic activity was still present following the removal of particles (3-micron filtration) or cells (0.22-micron filtration). The proportion of particle- or cell- associated enzymatic activity contributing to overall activity varied between enzymes, being higher for β-glucosidase, leucine aminopeptidase, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase than for sulfatase or cellobiohydrolase. Dissolved elemental stoichiometry suggested that bacterioplankton in all rivers were limited by C overall, with P also being more limiting than N. While regional-scale patterns in enzyme activity in large rivers may indicate anthropogenic influences, this study demonstrates that finer-scale variation, such as between sites on the same river, or between particles and free-living bacterioplankton, may be equally as important.
KeywordsBacterioplankton Extracellular enzyme activity Large rivers Mississippi River Nutrient status
This study was funded by a National Science Foundation (Division of Environmental Biology 1049911) award to CAO and CRJ. We thank Alexa Lampkin and Derek Bussan for help with sample collection, Natasha Stracener for help with bacterial enumeration, and Lisa Brooks and James Hill of the USDA National Sedimentation Laboratory in Oxford, Mississippi, for water chemistry analyses.
- Goolsby DA, Battaglin WA, Lawrence GB, Artz RS, Aulenbach BT, Hooper RP, Keeney DR, Stensland GJ (1999) Flux and sources of nutrients in the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River basin. Topic 3 Report—integrated assessment of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. NOAA Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analyses Series no. 17. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver SpringsGoogle Scholar
- Howarth RW, Billen G, Swaney D, Townsend A, Jaworski N, Lajtha K, Downing JA, Elmgren R, Caraco N, Jordan T, Berendse F, Freney J, Kudeyarov V, Murdoch P, Zhao-Liang Z (1996) Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes from the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35:75–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jackson CR, Millar JJ, Payne JT, Ochs CO (2014) Free-living and particle-associated bacterioplankton in large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin demonstrate biogeographic patterns. Appl Environ Microbiol 80:7186–7195. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01844-14
- Meade RH, Moody JA (2010) Causes for the decline of suspended-sediment discharge in the Mississippi River system, 1940–2007. Hydrol Process 24:35–49Google Scholar
- Redfield AC (1958) The biological control of chemical factors in the environment. Am Sci 46:205–221Google Scholar
- Simon M (1985) Specific uptake rates of amino acids by attached and free-living bacteria in a mesotrophic lake. Appl Environ Microbiol 49:1254–1259Google Scholar