Biogeochemistry

, Volume 120, Issue 1–3, pp 163–189 | Cite as

Net ecosystem carbon exchange and the greenhouse gas balance of tidal marshes along an estuarine salinity gradient

  • Nathaniel B. Weston
  • Scott C. Neubauer
  • David J. Velinsky
  • Melanie A. Vile
Article

Abstract

Tidal wetlands are productive ecosystems with the capacity to sequester large amounts of carbon (C), but we know relatively little about the impact of climate change on wetland C cycling in lower salinity (oligohaline and tidal freshwater) coastal marshes. In this study we assessed plant production, C cycling and sequestration, and microbial organic matter mineralization at tidal freshwater, oligohaline, and salt marsh sites along the salinity gradient in the Delaware River Estuary over four years. We measured aboveground plant biomass, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchange between the marsh and atmosphere, microbial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marsh soils, soil biogeochemistry, and C sequestration with radiodating of soils. A simple model was constructed to estimate monthly and annually integrated rates of gross ecosystem production (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) to carbon dioxide (\( {\text{ER}}_{{{\text{CO}}_{2} }} \)) or methane (\( {\text{ER}}_{{{\text{CH}}_{4} }} \)), net ecosystem production (NEP), the contribution of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis to ER, and the greenhouse gas (GHG) source or sink status of the wetland for 2 years (2007 and 2008). All three marsh types were highly productive but evidenced different patterns of C sequestration and GHG source/sink status. The contribution of sulfate reduction to total ER increased along the salinity gradient from tidal freshwater to salt marsh. The Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh was a C sink as indicated by both NEP (~140 g C m−2 year−1) and 210Pb radiodating (336 g C m−2 year−1), a minor sink for atmospheric CH4, and a GHG sink (~620 g CO2-eq m−2 year−1). The tidal freshwater marsh was a source of CH4 to the atmosphere (~22 g C–CH4 m−2 year−1). There were large interannual differences in plant production and therefore C and GHG source/sink status at the tidal freshwater marsh, though 210Pb radiodating indicated modest C accretion (110 g C m−2 year−1). The oligohaline marsh site experienced seasonal saltwater intrusion in the late summer and fall (up to 10 mS cm−1) and the Zizania aquatica monoculture at this site responded with sharp declines in biomass and GEP in late summer. Salinity intrusion was also linked to large effluxes of CH4 at the oligohaline site (>80 g C–CH4 m−2 year−1), making this site a significant GHG source (>2,000 g CO2-eq m−2 year−1). The oligohaline site did not accumulate C over the 2 year study period, though 210Pb dating indicated long term C accumulation (250 g C m−2 year−1), suggesting seasonal salt-water intrusion can significantly alter C cycling and GHG exchange dynamics in tidal marsh ecosystems.

Keywords

Tidal freshwater marsh Salt marsh Greenhouse gas Carbon Methane Accretion Climate change Salt-water intrusion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to especially thank James Quinn for substantial assistance in the field and laboratory. We received additional help from Paul Kiry, Kimberli Scott, Roger Thomas, Olivia Gibb, Christine McLaughlin, Avni Malhotra, and Stephen Mowbray, and undergraduate students Eric Au, Patrick Costello, Amanda Foskett, Margaret Garcia, Neil Mehta, Justin Meschter, Michael Patson, Melanie Pingoy, Tatjana Zivkovic, Daniel Russo, Mariozza Santini, John Ufferfilge, Justin Walsh, and Paul Weibel. We thank Lori Sutter, Julian Andrews, Chris Evans, and an anonymous reviewer for comments that improved the manuscript. This research was supported by Environmental Protection Agency Science to Achieve Results (EPA-STAR) Grant RD 83222202 (to MAV, DJV and SCN) and by National Science Foundation Grant DEB-0919173 (to NBW and MAV). This is contribution number 1695 from the University of South Carolina’s Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences.

References

  1. Adams CA, Andrews JE, Jickells T (2012) Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes vs. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus burial in new intertidal and saltmarsh sediments. Sci Total Environ 434:240–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert DB, Martens CS (1997) Determination of low-molecular-weight organic acid concentrations in seawater and pore-water samples via HPLC. Mar Chem 56(1–2):27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews JE, Jickells TD, Adams CA, Parkes DJ, Kelly SD (2012) Sediment record and storage of organic carbon and the nutrient elements (N, P, Si) in estuaries and near-coastal seas. In: Wolanski E, McLusky D (eds) Treatise on estuarine and coastal science, vol 4. Academic Press, London, pp 9–38Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong J, Armstrong W (1991) A convective through-flow of gases in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Aquat Bot 39:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin AH, Egnotovich MS, Clarke E (2001) Hydrologic change and vegetation of tidal freshwater marshes: field, greenhouse, and seed-bank experiments. Wetlands 21(4):519–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barendregt A, Whigham D, Baldwin A (2009) Tidal freshwater wetlands. Backhuys, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartlett KB, Bartlett DS, Harriss RC, Sebacher DI (1987) Methane emissions along a salt-marsh salinity gradient. Biogeochemistry 4(3):183–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bridgham SD, Megonigal JP, Keller JK, Bliss NB, Trettin C (2006) The carbon balance of North American wetlands. Wetlands 26(4):889–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brix H, Sorrell BK, Orr PT (1992) Internal pressurization and convective gas flow in some emergent freshwater macrophytes. Limnol Oceanogr 37:1420–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Capone DG, Kiene RP (1988) Comparison of microbial dynamics in marine and fresh-water sediments: contrasts in anaerobic carbon catabolism. Limnol Oceanogr 33(4):725–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chambers LG, Osborne TZ, Reddy KR (2013) Effect of salinity-altering pulsing events on soil organic carbon loss along an intertidal wetland gradient: a laboratory experiment. Biogeochemistry 115:363–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chanton JP, Whiting GJ, Showers WJ, Crill PM (1992) Methane flux from Peltandra virginica: stable isotope tracing and chamber effects. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 6:15–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chmura GL (2013) What do we need to assess the sustainability of the tidal salt marsh carbon sink? Ocean Coast Manag 83:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chmura GL, Anisfeld SC, Cahoon DR, Lynch JC (2003) Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 17(4):1111. doi: 10.1029/2002GB001917 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cline JD (1969) Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen sulfide in natural waters. Limnol Oceanogr 14:454–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Craft CB, Richardson CJ (1998) Recent and long-term organic soil accretion and nutrient accumulation in the everglades. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62(3):834–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dacey JWH (1981) How aquatic plants ventilate. Oceanus 24:43–51Google Scholar
  18. Dai T, Wiegert RG (1996) Estimation of the primary productivity of Spartina alterniflora using a canopy model. Ecography 19(4):410–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deegan LA, Johnson DS, Warren RS, Peterson BJ, Fleeger JW, Fagherazzi S, Wollheim WM (2012) Coastal eutrophication as a driver of salt marsh loss. Nature 490(7420):388–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delaune RD, Smith CJ, Patrick WH (1983) Methane release from Gulf-Coast wetlands. Tellus Ser B Chem Phys Meteorol 35(1):8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Doumelele DG (1981) Primary production and seasonal aspects of emergent plants in a tidal fresh-water marsh. Estuaries 4(2):139–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen T, Betts R, Fahey DW, Haywood J, Lean J, Lowe DC, Myhre G, Nganga J, Prinn R, Raga G, Schulz M, Van Dorland R (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  23. Gribsholt B, Kostka JE, Kristensen E (2003) Impact of fiddler crabs and plant roots on sediment biogeochemistry in a Georgia saltmarsh. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 259:237–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hines ME, Knollmeyer SL, Tugel JB (1989) Sulfate reduction and other sedimentary biogeochemistry in a northern New-England salt-marsh. Limnol Oceanogr 34(3):578–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hines ME, Evans RS, Genthner BRS, Willis SG, Friedman S, Rooney-Varga JN, Devereux R (1999) Molecular phylogenetic and biogeochemical studies of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(5):2209–2216Google Scholar
  26. Hirota M, Senga Y, Seike Y, Nohara S, Kunii H (2007) Fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in two contrastive fringing zones of a coastal lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan. Chemosphere 68:597–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hopfensperger KN, Kaushal SS, Findlay SEG, Cornwell JC (2009) Influence of plant communities on denitrification in a tidal freshwater marsh of the Potomac River, United States. J Environ Qual 38(2):618–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hopkinson CS, Schubauer JP (1984) Static and dynamic aspects of nitrogen cycling in the salt-marsh graminoid Spartina-alterniflora. Ecology 65(3):961–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Howarth RW (1993) Microbial processes in salt-marsh sediments. In: Ford TE (ed) Aquatic microbiology: an ecological approach. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 239–259Google Scholar
  30. Howarth RW, Giblin A (1983) Sulfate reduction in the salt marshes at Sapelo Island, Georgia. Limnol Oceanogr 28(1):70–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Inamori R, Gui P, Dass P, Matsumura M, Xu K-Q, Kondo T, Ebie Y, Inamori Y (2007) Investigating CH4 and N2O emissions from eco-engineering wastewater treatment processes using constructed wetland microcosms. Process Biochem 42:363–373Google Scholar
  32. IPCC (2014) 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands. In: Hiraishi T, Krug T, Tanabe K, Srivastava N, Baasansuren J, Fukuda M, Troxler TG (eds) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  33. Jørgensen BB (1982) Mineralization of organic-matter in the sea bed: the role of sulfate reduction. Nature 296(5858):643–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kallmeyer J, Ferdelman TG, Weber A, Fossing H, Jørgensen BB (2004) A cold chromium distillation procedure for radiolabeled sulfide applied to sulfate reduction measurements. Limnol Oceanogr 2:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Keller JK, Sutton-Grier AE, Bullock AL, Megonigal JP (2013) Anaerobic metabolism in tidal freshwater wetlands: I. Plant removal effects on iron reduction and methanogenesis. Estuar Coasts 36:457–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kirwan ML, Megonigal JP (2013) Tidal wetland stability in the face of human impacts and sea-level rise. Nature 504:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krauss KW, Whitbeck JL, Howard RJ (2012) On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater). Plant Soil 358:265–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leck MA, Simpson RL (1995) Ten-year seed bank and vegetation dynamics of a tidal freshwater marsh. Am J Bot 82(12):1547–1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Livesley SJ, Andrusiak SM (2012) Temperate mangrove and salt marsh sediments are a small methane and nitrous oxide source but important carbon store. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 97:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McKee KL, Mendelssohn IA (1989) Response of freshwater marsh plant community to increased salinity and increased water level. Aquat Bot 34:301–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McLeod E, Chmura GL, Bouillon S, Salm R, Bjork M, Duarte CM, Lovelock CE, Schlesinger WH, Silliman BR (2011) A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2. Front Ecol Environ 9(10):552–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Meehl GA, Stocker TF, Collins WD, Friedlingstein P, Gaye AT, Gregory JM, Kitoh A, Knutti R, Murphy JM, Noda A, Raper SCB, Watterson IG, Weaver AJ, Zhao ZC (2007) Global climate projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Megonigal JP, Neubauer SC (2009) Biogeochemistry of tidal freshwater wetlands. In: Perillo GME, Wolanski E, Cahoon DR, Brinson MM (eds) Coastal wetlands: An integrated ecosystem approach. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 535–562Google Scholar
  44. Megonigal JP, Schlesinger WH (2002) Methane-limited methanotrophy in tidal freshwater swamps. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 16(4):1088. doi: 10.1029/2001GB001594 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Milly PCD, Dunne KA, Vecchia AV (2005) Global pattern of trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing climate. Nature 438:347–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Milne GA, Gehrels WR, Hughes CW, Tamisiea ME (2009) Identifying the causes of sea-level rise. Nat Geosci 2:471–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mitsch WJ, Bernal B, Nahlik AM, Mander Ü, Zhang L, Anderson CJ, Jørgensen SE, Brix H (2013) Wetlands, carbon, and climate change. Landsc Ecol 28:583–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morris JT, Haskin B (1990) A 5-year record of aerial primary production and stand characteristics of Spartina-alterniflora. Ecology 71(6):2209–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Moseman-Valtiera S (2012) Reconsidering climatic roles of marshes: are they sinks or sources of greenhouse gases? In: Abreu DC, Borbón SL (eds) Marshes: ecology, management and conservation. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  50. Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 26(1):31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Neubauer SC (2013) Ecosystem responses of a tidal freshwater marsh experiencing saltwater intrusion and altered hydrology. Estuar Coasts 36(3):491–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Neubauer SC, Miller WD, Anderson IC (2000) Carbon cycling in a tidal freshwater marsh ecosystem: a carbon gas flux study. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 199:13–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Neubauer SC, Givler K, Valentine SK, Megonigal JP (2005) Seasonal patterns and plant-mediated controls of subsurface wetland biogeochemistry. Ecology 86(12):3334–3344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Neubauer SC, Franklin RB, Berrier DJ (2013) Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical cycling of organic carbon. Biogeosciences 10:8171–8183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Noe GB, Krauss KW, Lockaby BG, Conner WH, Hupp CR (2013) The effect of increasing salinity and forest mortality on soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in tidal freshwater forested wetlands. Biogeochemistry 114:225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Odum WE (1988) Comparative ecology of tidal freshwater and salt marshes. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19:147–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Odum WE, Heywood MA (1978) Decomposition of intertidal freshwater plants. In: Good RE, Whigham DF, Simpson RL (eds) Freshwater wetlands, ecological processes and management potential. Academic Press, New York, pp 89–97Google Scholar
  58. Oldfield F, Appleby PG (1984) Empirical testing of 210Pb-dating models for lake sediments. In: Haworth EY, Lund JWG (eds) Lake sediments and environmental history. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, pp 93–124Google Scholar
  59. Oliveira V, Santos AL, Coelho F, Gomes NCM, Silva H, Almeida A, Cunha A (2010) Effects of monospecific banks of salt marsh vegetation on sediment bacterial communities. Microb Ecol 60(1):167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Orcutt B, Boetius A, Elvert M, Samarkin V, Joye SB (2005) Molecular biogeochemistry of sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and the anaerobic oxidation of methane at Gulf of Mexico cold seeps. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69(17):4267–4281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pezeshki SR, DeLaune RD, Patrick WH Jr (1987) Response of the freshwater marsh species, Panicum hemitomon Schult., to increased salinity. Freshw Biol 17:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Phleger CF (1971) Effect of salinity on growth of a salt marsh grass. Ecology 52(5):908–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Poffenbarger HJ, Needelman BA, Megonigal JP (2011) Salinity influence on methane emissions from tidal marshes. Wetlands 31:831–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rahmstorf S (2007) A semi-empirical approach to modeling future sea level rise. Science 315:358–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Redfield AE (1965) Ontogeny of a salt marsh estuary. Science 147:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ritchie JC, McHenry JR (1990) Application of radioactive fallout cesium-137 for measuring soil-erosion and sediment accumulation rates and patterns: a review. J Environ Qual 19(2):215–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roden EE, Wetzel RG (1996) Organic carbon oxidation and suppression of methane production by microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction in vegetated and unvegetated freshwater wetland sediments. Limnol Oceanogr 41:1733–1748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ross AC (2013) Influences of salinity variability and change in the Delaware Estuary. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  69. Schubauer JP, Hopkinson CS (1984) Above-ground and belowground emergent macrophyte production and turnover in a coastal marsh ecosystem, Georgia. Limnol Oceanogr 29(5):1052–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sebacher DI, Harriss RC, Bartlett KB (1985) Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants. J Environ Qual 14:40–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Seitzinger SP (1988) Denitrification in fresh-water and coastal marine ecosystems: ecological and geochemical significance. Limnol Oceanogr 33(4):702–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith KK, Good RE, Good NF (1979) Production dynamics for above and belowground components of a New-Jersey Spartina-alterniflora tidal marsh. Estuar Coast Mar Sci 9(2):189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith CJ, DeLaune RD, Patrick WH Jr (1983) Nitrous oxide emission from Gulf Coast wetlands. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:1805–1814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smith SJ, Thomson AM, Rosenberg NJ, Izaurralde RC, Brown RA, Wigley TML (2005) Climate change impacts for the conterminous USA: an integrated assessment: Part 1. Scenarios and context. Climatic Change 69(1):7–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Solórzano L (1969) Determination of ammonia in natural waters by phenolhypochlorite method. Limnol Oceanogr 14(5):799–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sorrel BK, Boon PI (1994) Convective gas-flow in Eleocharis sphacelata R. Br.: methane transport and release from wetlands. Aquat Bot 47:197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Spalding EA, Hester MW (2007) Interactive effects of hydrology and salinity on oligohaline plant species productivity: implications of relative sea-level rise. Estuar Coasts 30(2):214–225Google Scholar
  78. Strobel BW (2001) Influence of vegetation on low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids in soil solution: a review. Geoderma 99(3–4):169–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sun ZG, Wang LL, Mou XL, Jiang HH, Sun WL (2014) Spatial and temporal variations of nitrous oxide flux between coastal marsh and the atmosphere in the Yellow River estuary of China. Environ Sci Pollut Bull 21:419–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sutter LA, Perry JE, Chambers RM (2014) Tidal freshwater marsh plant responses to low level salinity increases. Wetlands 34:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sutton-Grier AE, Megonigal JP (2011) Plant species traits regulate methane production in freshwater wetland soils. Soil Biol Biochem 43(2):413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Syvitski JPM, Kettner AJ, Overeem I, Hutton EWH, Hannon MT, Brakenridge GR, Day J, Vörösmarty C, Saito Y, Giosan L, Nicholls RJ (2009) Sinking deltas due to human activities. Nat Geosci 2(10):681–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tobias C, Neubauer SC (2009) Salt marsh biogeochemistry: an overview. In: Perillo GME, Wolanski E, Cahoon DR, Brinson MM (eds) Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  84. Tong C, Huang JF, Hu ZQ, Jin YF (2013) Diurnal variations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide vertical fluxes in a subtropical estuarine marsh on neap and spring tide days. Estuar Coasts 36:633–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vann CD, Megonigal JP (2003) Elevated CO2 and water depth regulation of methane emissions: comparison of woody and non-woody wetland plant species. Biogeochemistry 63(2):117–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vile MA, Bridgham SD, Wieder RK, Novák M (2003) Response of anaerobic carbon mineralization rates to sulfate amendments in a boreal peatland. Ecol Appl 13:720–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wang YH, Ye C, Yang H, Zhang JX, Huang CC, Xie B (2013) Methane formation in soil-plant systems treating wastewater as influenced by microbial populations. Environ Earth Sci 70:1647–1652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Watson A, Stephen KD, Nedwell DB, Arah JRM (1997) Oxidation of methane in peat: kinetics of CH4 and O2 removal and the role of plant roots. Soil Biol Biochem 29:1257–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Webb JW (1983) Soil-water salinity variations and their effects on Spartina alterniflora. Contrib Mar Sci 26:1–13Google Scholar
  90. Weider RK, Scott KD, Kamminga SK, Vile MA, Vitt DH, Xu B, Benscoter BW, Bhatti JS (2009) Post-fire carbon balance in boreal bogs of Alberta Canada. Glob Change Biol 15:63–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Weston NB (2014) Declining sediments and rising seas: an unfortunate convergence for tidal wetlands. Estuar Coasts 37:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Weston NB, Dixon RE, Joye SB (2006) Ramifications of increased salinity in tidal freshwater sediments: geochemistry and microbial pathways of organic matter mineralization. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 111:G01009. doi: 10.1029/2005JG000071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Weston NB, Vile MA, Neubauer SC, Velinsky DJ (2011) Accelerated microbial organic matter mineralization following salt-water intrusion into tidal freshwater marsh soils. Biogeochemistry 102(1–3):135–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Westrich JT, Berner RA (1988) The effect of temperature on rates of sulfate reduction in marine sediments. Geomicrobiol J 6:99–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Whigham DF (1978) Relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass of freshwater tidal wetland macrophytes. Aquat Bot 5(4):355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Whigham D, Simpson R (1977) Growth, mortality, and biomass partitioning in freshwater tidal wetland populations of wild rice (Zizania-aquatica-var-aquatica). Bull Torrey Bot Club 104(4):347–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Whigham DF, McCormick J, Good RE, Simpson RL (1978) Biomass and primary production in freshwater tidal wetlands of the middle Atlantic Coast. In: Good RE, Whigham DF, Simpson RL (eds) Freshwater wetlands: ecological processes and management potential. Academic Press, New York, pp 3–20Google Scholar
  98. Whiting GJ, Chanton JP (1993) Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands. Nature 364(6440):794–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Whiting GJ, Chanton JP (1996) Control of the diurnal pattern of methane emission from emergent aquatic macrophytes by gas transport mechanisms. Aquat Bot 54:237–253Google Scholar
  100. Whiting GJ, Chanton JP (2001) Greenhouse carbon balance of wetlands: methane emission versus carbon sequestration. Tellus Ser B Chem Phys Meteorol 53(5):521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Whiting GJ, Bartlett DS, Fan SM, Bakwin PS, Wofsy SC (1992) Biosphere atmosphere CO2 exchange in tundra ecosystems: community characteristics and relationships with multispectral surface reflectance. J Geophys Res Atmos 97(D15):16671–16680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Willis JM, Hester MW (2004) Interactive effects of salinity, flooding, and soil type on Panicum hemitomon. Wetlands 24(1):43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nathaniel B. Weston
    • 1
  • Scott C. Neubauer
    • 2
    • 3
  • David J. Velinsky
    • 4
  • Melanie A. Vile
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Geography & the EnvironmentVillanova UniversityVillanovaUSA
  2. 2.Baruch Marine Field LaboratoryUniversity of South CarolinaGeorgetownUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental ScienceThe Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiologyVillanova UniversityVillanovaUSA

Personalised recommendations