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Biogeochemistry

, Volume 119, Issue 1–3, pp 259–273 | Cite as

Environmental dynamics of dissolved black carbon in wetlands

  • Yan Ding
  • Kaelin M. Cawley
  • Catia Nunes da Cunha
  • Rudolf Jaffé
Article

Abstract

Wetlands are ecosystems commonly characterized by elevated levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and although they cover a surface area less than 2 % worldwide, they are an important carbon source representing an estimated 15 % of global annual DOC flux to the oceans. Because of their unique hydrological characteristics, fire can be an important ecological driver in pulsed wetland systems. Consequently, wetlands may be important sources not only of DOC but also of products derived from biomass burning, such as dissolved black carbon (DBC). However, the biogeochemistry of DBC in wetlands has not been studied in detail. The objective of this study is to determine the environmental dynamics of DBC in different fire-impacted wetlands. An intensive, 2-year spatial and temporal dynamics study of DBC in a coastal wetland, the Everglades (Florida) system, as well as one-time sampling surveys for the other two inland wetlands, Okavango Delta (Botswana) and the Pantanal (Brazil), were reported. Our data reveal that DBC dynamics are strongly coupled with the DOC dynamics regardless of location, season or recent fire history. The statistically significant linear regression between DOC and DBC was applied to estimate DBC fluxes to the coastal zone through two main riverine DOC export routes in the Everglades ecosystem. The presence of significant amounts of DBC in these three fire-impacted ecosystems suggests that sub-tropical wetlands could represent an important continental-ocean carrier of combustion products from biomass burning. The discrimination of DBC molecular structure (i.e. aromaticity) between coastal and terrestrial samples, and between samples collected in wet and dry season, suggests that spatially-significant variation in DBC source strength and/or degree of degradation may also influence DBC dynamics.

Keywords

Wetland Dissolved organic carbon Dissolved black carbon Biomass burning BPCA 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank N. Mladenov, P. Wolski and staff from the Okavango Research Institute at the University of Botswana, J. A. Ferraz de Lima, Nuno Rodrigues and staff from Pantanal National Park, P. Teixeira de Sousa and staff at the Universidade de Mato Grosso (Brazil), for assistance with field logistics and sample preparation. This work was funded through the National Science Foundation-supported Florida Coastal Everglades Long-term Ecological Research program (DBI-0620409; to RJ), the DOI-NPS funded Everglades Fellowship Program (to KC), and through a contribution from the Southeast Environmental Research Center endowment (G. Barley Chair to RJ). YD thanks the FIU Graduate School for a doctoral evidence acquisition (DEA) fellowship. This is SERC contribution number 653.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yan Ding
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kaelin M. Cawley
    • 2
    • 4
  • Catia Nunes da Cunha
    • 3
  • Rudolf Jaffé
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Marine Sciences ProgramFlorida International UniversityNorth MiamiUSA
  2. 2.Southeast Environmental Research CenterFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Depto. Botânica e Ecologia, Núcleo de Estudos Ecológicos do PantanalUniversidade Federal de Mato GrossoCuiabaBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, The Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR)University of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA

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