Trophodynamics and functional feeding groups of North Sea fauna: a combined stable isotope and fatty acid approach
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- Kürten, B., Frutos, I., Struck, U. et al. Biogeochemistry (2013) 113: 189. doi:10.1007/s10533-012-9701-8
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The trophodynamics of pelagic and benthic animals of the North Sea, North Atlantic shelf, were assessed using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of natural abundance carbon and nitrogen isotopes, lipid fingerprinting and compound-specific SIA (CSIA) of phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs). Zooplankton (z), epi- and supra-benthic macrofauna were collected in the Southern Bight, at the Oyster Grounds and at North Dogger, 111 km north of the Dogger Bank. The study included 22 taxonomic groups with particular reference to Mollusca (Bivalvia and Gastropoda) and Crustacea. Primary consumers (Bivalvia) were overall most 15N enriched in the southern North Sea (6.1‰) and more depleted in the Oyster Grounds (5.5‰) and at North Dogger (2.8‰) demonstrating differences in isotopic baselines for bivalve fauna between the study sites. Higher trophic levels also followed this trend. Over an annual cycle, consumers tended to exhibit 15N depletion during spring followed by 15N enriched signatures in autumn and winter. The observed seasonal changes of δ15N were more pronounced for suspension feeders and deposit feeders (dfs) than for filter feeders (ffs). The position of animals in plots of δ13C and δ15N largely concurred with the expected position according to literature-based functional feeding groups. PLFA fingerprints of groups such as z were distinct from benthic groups, e.g. benthic ffs and dfs, and predatory macrobenthos. δ13CPLFA signatures indicated similarities in 13C moiety sources that constituted δ13CPLFA. Although functional groups of pelagic zooplankton and (supra-) benthic animals represented phylogenetically distinct consumer groups, δ13CPLFA demonstrated that both groups were supported by pelagic primary production and relied on the same macronutrients such as PLFAs. Errors related to the static categorization of small invertebrates into fixed trophic positions defined by phylogenetic groupings rather than by functional feeding groups, and information on seasonal trophodynamic variability, may have implications for the reliability of numerical marine ecosystem models.