Biogeochemistry

, Volume 106, Issue 2, pp 281–302

Assessment of the eutrophication status of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon (Australia)

  • J. E. Brodie
  • M. Devlin
  • D. Haynes
  • J. Waterhouse
Article

Abstract

Current scientific consensus is that inshore regions of the central and southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia, are at risk of impacts from increased nutrient (as well as sediment and pesticide) loads delivered to Reef waters. Increases in the discharge of water quality contaminants to the Reef are largely a consequence of the expansion of agricultural practices in northern Queensland catchments following European settlement in the 1850s. In particular, the presence of elevated chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations in many parts of the inshore Great Barrier Reef together with intense and extensive phytoplankton blooms following the discharge of nutrient-rich river flood waters suggest that the central and southern inshore area of the Great Barrier Reef is likely to be significantly impacted by elevated nutrient loads. The biological consequences of this are not fully quantified, but are likely to include changes in reef condition including hard and soft coral biodiversity, macroalgal abundance, hard coral cover and coral recruitment, as well as change in seagrass distribution and tissue nutrient status. Contemporary government policy is centered around promotion and funding of better catchment management practices to minimize the loss of catchment nutrients (both applied and natural) and the maintenance of a Reef wide water quality and ecosystem monitoring program. The monitoring program is designed to assess trends in uptake of management practice improvements and their associated impacts on water quality and ecosystem status over the next 10 years. A draft set of quantitative criteria to assess the eutrophication status of Great Barrier Reef waters is outlined for further discussion and refinement.

Keywords

Eutrophication Great Barrier Reef Nutrients Water quality management 

References

  1. Armour JD, Hateley LR, Pitt GL (2009) Catchment modelling of sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient loads with SedNet/ANNEX in the Tully-Murray basin. Mar Freshw Res 60:1091–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aronson RB, Precht WF (2000) Herbivory and algal dynamics on the coral reef at Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Limnol Oceanogr 45:251–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Australian Government (2007) Labour’s reef rescue plan. Election 2007 Policy Document. http://www.alp.org.au/download/071028___labors_reef_rescue_plan.pdf
  4. Babcock R, Davies P (1991) Effects of sedimentation on settlement of Acropora millepora. Coral Reefs 9:204–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bainbridge Z, Lewis S, Brodie J (2007) Sediment and nutrient exports for the Burdekin River catchment, NQ: a comparison of monitoring and modelling data. In: MODSIM 2007. International congress on modelling and simulation. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, 10–13th December 2007, pp 874–880Google Scholar
  6. Bainbridge ZT, Brodie JE, Lewis SE, Waterhouse J, Wilkinson SN (2009) Utilising catchment modelling as a tool for monitoring Reef Rescue outcomes in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area. In: Amderssen B et al (eds) 18th IMACS world congress—MODSIM international congress on modelling and simulation, 13–17 July 2009, Cairns, Australia. ISBN: 978-0-9758400-7-8. http://mssanz.org.au/modsim09
  7. Bell PRF (1991) The status of eutrophication in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Mar Pollut Bull 23:89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell PRF (1992) Eutrophication and coral reefs—some examples in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Water Res 28:553–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bell PRF, Elmetri I (1995) Ecological indicators of large-scale eutrophication in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Ambio 24:208–215Google Scholar
  10. Bell PRF, Elmetri I, Uwins P (1999) Nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium spp. in the Central and Northern Great Barrier Reef Lagoon: relative importance of the fixed-nitrogen load. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 186:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bell PRF, Lapointe BR, Elmetri I (2007) Re-evaluation of ENCORE: support for the eutrophication threshold model for coral reefs. Ambio 36:416–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, Nystrom M (2004) Confronting the coral reef crises. Nature 429:827–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bellwood DR, Hoey AS, Ackerman JL, Depczynski M (2006) Coral bleaching, reef fish community phase shifts and the resilience of coral reefs. Glob Chang Biol 12(9):1587–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bricker SB, Ferreira JG, Simas T (2003) An integrated methodology for assessment of estuarine trophic status. Ecol Modell 169:39–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brock RE, Smith SV (1983) Response of coral reef cryptofaunal communities to food and space. Coral Reefs 1:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brodie JE (1995) Nutrients and eutrophication in the Australian marine environment. In: Zann L, Sutton DC (eds) The State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia, technical annex 2, DEST report, Canberra, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  17. Brodie JE (1997) Nutrients in the Great Barrier Reef region. In: Cosser P (ed) Nutrients in marine and estuarine environments. Australia: State of the Environment technical paper series (Estuaries and the Sea). Environment Australia, Canberra, pp 7–28Google Scholar
  18. Brodie JE (2003) The Great Barrier Reef: 25 years of management as a large marine ecosystem. In: Hempel G, Sherman K (eds) Large marine ecosystems of the world: trends in exploration, protection, and research. pp 313–336 Google Scholar
  19. Brodie J, Bainbridge Z (2008) Water quality targets for the Burdekin WQIP. Australian Centre for Marine and Tropical Freshwater research report no. 08/05. James Cook University, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  20. Brodie JE, Mitchell AW (2005) Nutrients in Australian tropical rivers: changes with agricultural development and implications for receiving environments. Mar Freshw Res 56(3):279–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brodie JE, Mitchell AW (2006) Sediments and nutrients in north Queensland tropical streams: changes with agricultural development and pristine condition status. CRC Reef Research Centre technical report no. 62. CRC Reef Research Centre, Townsville, 140 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Brodie JE, Waterhouse J (2009). Assessment of the relative risk of impacts of broad-scale agriculture on the Great Barrier Reef and priorities for investment under the Reef Protection Package. Stage 1 Report: April 2009. ACTFR technical report 09/17. Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  23. Brodie J, Furnas M, Ghonim S, Haynes D, Mitchell A, Morris S, Waterhouse J, Yorkston H, Audas D, Lowe D, Ryan M (2001) Great Barrier Reef catchment water quality action plan. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, 116 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. Brodie J, Fabricius K, De’ath G, Okaji K (2005) Are increased nutrient inputs responsible for more outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish? An appraisal of the evidence. Mar Pollut Bull 51:266–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brodie J, De’ath G, Devlin M, Furnas M, Wright M (2007) Spatial and temporal patterns of near-surface chlorophyll a in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Mar Freshw Res 58:342–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brodie J, Binney J, Fabricius K, Gordon I, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Hunter H, O’Reagain P, Pearson R, Quirk M, Thorburn P, Waterhouse J, Webster I, Wilkinson S (2008a) Scientific consensus statement on water quality in the Great Barrier Reef. The State of Queensland (Department of Premier and Cabinet), BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  27. Brodie J, Binney J, Fabricius K, Gordon I, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Hunter H, O’Reagain P, Pearson R, Quirk M, Thorburn P, Waterhouse J, Webster I, Wilkinson S (2008b) Synthesis of evidence to support the Scientific Consensus Statement on Water Quality in the Great Barrier Reef. The State of Queensland (Department of Premier and Cabinet), BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  28. Brodie JE, Lewis SE, Bainbridge ZT, Mitchell A, Waterhouse J, Kroon F (2009a) Target setting for pollutant discharge management of rivers in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area. Mar Freshw Res 60:1141–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brodie JE, Mitchell A, Waterhouse J (2009b) Regional assessment of the relative risk of the impacts of broad-scale agriculture on the Great Barrier Reef and priorities for investment under the Reef Protection Package. Stage 2 Report, July 2009. ACTFR technical report 09/30. Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  30. Brodie J, Schroeder T, Rohde K, Faithful J, Masters B, Dekker A, Brando V, Maughan M (2010) Dispersal of suspended sediments and nutrients in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon during river discharge events: conclusions from satellite remote sensing and concurrent flood plume sampling. Mar Freshw Res 61:651–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bruno JF, Selig ER (2007). Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: timing, extent and subregional comparisons. PLoS ONE 2:e711Google Scholar
  32. Caperon J, Cattell SA, Krasnick G (1971) Phytoplankton kinetics in a subtropical estuary: eutrophication. Limnol Oceanogr 16:599–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cooper TF, Uthicke S, Humphrey C, Fabricius KE (2007) Gradients in water column nutrients, sediment parameters, irradiance and coral reef development in the Whitsunday Region, central Great Barrier Reef. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 74:458–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cooper TF, Ridd PV, Ulstrup KE, Humphrey C, Slivkoff M, Fabricius K (2008) Temporal dynamics in coral bioindicators for water quality on coastal coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. Mar Freshw Res 59(8):703–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cox EF, Ribes M, Kinzie RA (2006) Temporal and spatial scaling of planktonic responses to nutrient inputs into a subtropical embayment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 324:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Crosbie ND, Furnas MJ (2001) Abundance, distribution and flowcytometric characterization of picophytoprokaryote populations in central (17_S) and southern (20_S) shelf waters of the Great Barrier Reef. J Plankton Res 23:809–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. De’ath G, Fabricius KE (2008) Water quality of the Great Barrier Reef: distributions, effects on reef biota and trigger values for the conservation of ecosystem health. Research publication no. 89. Great Barrier Marine Park Authority, Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and published by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, 104 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. De’ath G, Fabricius KE (2010) Water quality as regional driver of coral biodiversity and macroalgal cover on the Great Barrier Reef. Ecol Appl 20:840–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Delesalle B, Pichon M, Frankignoulle M, Gattuso J-P (1993) Effects of a cyclone on coral reef phytoplankton biomass, primary production and composition (Moorea Island, French Polynesia). J Plankton Res 15:1413–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Devantier LM, De’ath G, Turak E, Done TJ, Fabricius KE (2006) Species richness and community structure of reef-building corals on the nearshore Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 25:329–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Devlin M, Brodie J (2005) Terrestrial discharge into the Great Barrier Reef lagoon: nutrient behaviour in coastal waters. Mar Pollut Bull 51:9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Devlin M, Schaffelke B (2009) Extent and exposure of riverine flood plumes in the Tully coastal region. Mar Freshw Res 60:1109–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Devlin M, Waterhouse J, Taylor J, Brodie J (2001) Flood plumes in the Great Barrier Reef: spatial and temporal patterns in composition and distribution. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority research publication no. 68. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  44. Devlin MJ, Best M, Haynes D (eds) (2007) Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in European Waters (special edition). Mar Pollut Bull 55:1–6Google Scholar
  45. Devlin M, Brodie J, Lewis S, Bainbridge Z (2009) Reef rescue marine monitoring program: flood plumes in the GBR—case studies for marine monitoring program, Tully and Burdekin. Final report for 2008/2009 activities JCU. ACTFR Catchment to Reef Group, James Cook University, Townsville. http://www.rrrc.org.au/mmp/mmp_pubs.html
  46. Devlin M, Harkness P, Waterhouse J (2010) Mapping of risk and exposure of Great Barrier Reef ecosystems to anthropogenic water quality. A review and synthesis of current status. ACTFR report number 10/12. James Cook UniversityGoogle Scholar
  47. Diaz-Pulido G, McCook LJ, Dove S, Berkelmans R, Roff G, Kline DI, Weeks S, Evans RD, Williamson DH, Hoegh-Guldberg O (2009) Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery. PLoS One 4(4):e5239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fabricius KE (2005) Effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs: Review and synthesis. Mar Pollut Bull 50:125–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fabricius KE (2007) Conceptual model of the effects of terrestrial runoff on the ecology of corals and coral reefs of the GBR. Report to the Australian Government’s Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility (MTSRF), 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Fabricius KE, De’ath G (2004) Identifying ecological change and its cause: a case study on coral reefs. Ecol Appl 14(5):1448–1465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fabricius K, De’ath G, McCook L, Turak E, Williams D (2005) Changes in algal, coral and fish assemblages along water quality gradients on the inshore Great Barrier Reef. Mar Pollut Bull 51:384–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fabricius KE, Okaji K, De’ath G (2010) Three lines of evidence to link outbreaks of the crown-of-thornsseastar Acanthaster planci to the release of larval food limitation. Coral Reefs 29:593–605Google Scholar
  53. Foden J, Devlin M, Malcolm SJ, Mills D (2010) Searching for undesirable disturbance: an application of the OSPAR eutrophication assessment method to marine waters of England and Wales. Biogeochemistry. doi:10.1007/s10533-010-9475-9
  54. Furnas MJ (2003) Catchments and corals: terrestrial runoff to the Great Barrier Reef. Australian Institute of Marine Science and Reef CRC, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  55. Furnas MJ, Brodie J (1996) Current status of nutrient levels and other water quality parameters in the Great Barrier Reef. In: Hunter H, Eyles AG, Rayment GE (eds) Downstream effects of land use. Department of Natural Resources, Brisbane, pp 9–23Google Scholar
  56. Furnas MJ, Mitchell AW (1986) Phytoplankton dynamics in the central Great Barrier Reef—I. Seasonal changes in biomass and community structure and their relations to intrusive activity. Cont Shelf Res 6:363–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Furnas MJ, Mitchell AW, Skuza M (1995) Nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for the central Great Barrier Reef. Research report no. 36, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  58. Furnas MJ, Mitchell A, Skuza M (1997) Shelf scale nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for the Central Great Barrier Reef (16°–19° S). In: Lessios HA, Macintyre IG (eds) Proceedings of the 8th international coral reef symposium, vol 1, Panama City, Panama, pp 809–814Google Scholar
  59. Furnas MJ, Mitchell A, Skuza M, Brodie J (2005) The other 90 percent: phytoplankton responses to enhanced nutrient availability in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Mar Pollut Bull 51:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gagan MK, Sandstrom MW, Chivas AR (1987) Restricted terrestrial carbon input to the continental shelf during cyclone Winifred: implications for terrestrial run-off to the Great Barrier Reef province. Coral Reefs 6:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gilbert M, Brodie J (2001) Population, major land use in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area: spatial and temporal trends. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  62. Gin KY-H, Lin X, Zhang S (2000) Dynamics and size structure of phytoplankton in the coastal waters of Singapore. J Plankton Res 22(8):1465–1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (2009) Water quality guidelines for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, 99 ppGoogle Scholar
  64. Grigg RW (1995) Coral reefs in an urban embayment in Hawaii: a complex case history controlled by natural and anthropogenic stress. Coral Reefs 14(4):253–266Google Scholar
  65. Hallock P (1988) The role of nutrient availability in bioerosion: consequences to carbonate buildups. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 63:275–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harris GP (2001) Biogeochemistry of nitrogen and phosphorus in Australian catchments, rivers and estuaries: effects of land use and flow regulation and comparisons with global patterns. Mar Freshw Res 52(1):139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harrison PL, Ward S (2001) Elevated levels of nitrogen and phosphorus reduce fertilisation success of gametes from scleractinian reef corals. Mar Biol 139:1057–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Haynes D, Ralph P, Prange J, Dennison B (2000) The impact of the herbicide diuron on photosynthesis in three species of tropical seagrass. Mar Pollut Bull 41:288–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Haynes D, Brodie J, Christie C, Devlin M, Michalek-Wagner K, Morris S, Ramsay M, Storrie J, Waterhouse J, Yorkston H (2001) Great Barrier Reef water quality current issues. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  70. Haynes D, Brodie J, Waterhouse J, Bainbridge Z, Bass D, Hart B (2007) Assessment of the water quality and ecosystem health of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia): conceptual models. Environ Manage 40:993–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hopcroft RR, Roff JC (2003) Response of tropical marine phytoplankton communities to manipulations of nutrient concentration and grazing pressure. Bull Mar Sci 73:397–420Google Scholar
  72. Hughes TP, Szmant AM, Stenek R, Carpenter R, Miller S (1999) Algal blooms on coral reefs: what are the causes? Limnol Oceanogr 44:1583–1586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hughes TP, Rodrigues MJ, Bellwood DR, Ceccerelli D, Hoegh-Guldberg O, McCook L, Moltchaniwskyj N, Pratchett MS, Steneck RS, Willis BL (2007) Regime-shifts, herbivory and the resilience of coral reefs to climate change. Curr Biol 17:360–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hunter CL, Evans CW (1995) Coral reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii: two centuries of western influence and two decades of data. Bull Mar Sci 57(2):501–515Google Scholar
  75. Hunter HM, Walton RS (2008) Land-use effects on fluxes of suspended sediment, nitrogen and phosphorus from a river catchment of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. J Hydrol 356:131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hutchings P, Peyrot-Clausade M, Osnorno A (2005) Influence of land runoff on rates and agents of bioerosion of coral substrates. Mar Pollut Bull 51:438–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jacquet S, Delesalle B, Torréton J, Blanchot J (2006) Response of phytoplankton communities to increased anthropogenic influences (southwestern lagoon, New Caledonia). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 320:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Johnson JE, Waterhouse J, Maynard JA, Morris S (Writing Team) (2010) Reef rescue marine monitoring program: 2008/2009 synthesis report. Report prepared by the Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Consortium of monitoring providers for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Reef and Rainforest Research Centre Limited, Cairns, 160 pp. http://www.rrrc.org.au/mmp/mmp_pubs.html
  79. Jompa J, McCook LJ (2002) The effect of herbivory on competition between a macroalgae and a hard coral. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 271:25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jompa J, McCook LJ (2003) Contrasting effects of turf algae on corals: massive Porites spp. are unaffected by mixed-species turfs, but killed by the red alga Anotrichium tenue. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 258:29–86Google Scholar
  81. Jupiter S, Roff G, Marion G, Henderson M, Schrameyer V, McCulloch M, Hoegh-Guldberg O (2008) Linkages between coral assemblages and coral proxies of terrestrial exposure along a cross-shelf gradient on the southern Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 27:887–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kiene WE (1997) Enriched nutrients and their impact on bioerosion: results from ENCORE. In: Proceedings of the eighth international coral reef symposiumGoogle Scholar
  83. Kiene WE, Hutchings PA (1994) Bioerosion experiments at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 13:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kinsey DW (1988) Coral reef system response to some natural and anthropogenic stresses. Galaxea 7:113–128Google Scholar
  85. Kinsey DW (1991) Can we resolve the nutrient issue for the Reef? Search 22:119–121Google Scholar
  86. Kline DI, Kuntz NM, Breitbart M, Knowlton N, Rohwer F (2006) Role of elevated organic carbon levels and microbial activity in coral mortality. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 314:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Koop K, Booth D, Broadbent A, Brodie J, Bucher D, Capone D, Coll J, Dennison W, Erdmann M, Harrison P, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Hutchings P, Jones GB, Larkum AWD, O’Neil J, Steven A, Tentori E, Ward S, Williamson J, Yellowlees D (2001) ENCORE: the effect of nutrient enrichment on coral reefs. Synthesis of results and conclusions. Mar Pollut Bull 42:91–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lapointe BE (1997) Nutrient thresholds for bottom-up control of macroalgal blooms on coral reefs in Jamaica and southeast Florida. Limnol Oceanogr 42(5–2):1119–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lapointe BE, Barile PJ, Yentsch CS, Littler MM, Littler DS, Kakuk B (2004) The relative importance of nutrient enrichment and herbivory on macroalgal communities near Norman’s Pond Cay, Exumas Cays, Bahamas: a “natural” enrichment experiment. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 298(2):275–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Laws EA, Allen CB (1996) Water quality in a subtropical embayment more than a decade after diversion of sewage discharges. Pac Sci 50(2):194–210Google Scholar
  91. Lewis SE, Brodie J, Ledee E, Alewijnse M (2006) The spatial extent of delivery of terrestrial materials from the Burdekin region of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. ACTFR report no. 06/02, Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, James Cook University, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  92. Lewis SE, Brodie JE, Bainbridge ZT, Rohde KW, Davis AM, Masters BL, Maughan M, Devlin MJ, Mueller JF, Schaffelke B (2009) Herbicides: a new threat to the Great Barrier Reef. Environ Pollut 157:2470–2484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Littler MM, Littler DS (1984) Models of tropical reef, biogenesis: the contribution of algae. Prog Phycol Res 3:323–364Google Scholar
  94. Littler MM, Littler DS, Brooks BL (2006) Harmful algae on tropical coral reefs: bottom-up eutrophication and top-down herbivory. Harmful Algae 5:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Loya Y (1976) Recolonisation of Red Sea corals affected by natural catastrophes and man-made perturbations. Ecology 57:278–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Loya Y, Lubinevsky H, Rosenfeld M, Kramarsky-Winter E (2004) Nutrient enrichment caused by in situ fish farms at Eilat, Red Sea is detrimental to coral reproduction. Mar Pollut Bull 49(4):344–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Maughan M, Brodie JE (2009) Reef exposure to river-borne contaminants: a spatial model. Mar Freshw Res 60:1132–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McClanahan TR, Graham NAJ (2005) Recovery trajectories of coral reef fish assemblages within Kenyan marine protected areas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 294:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. McCook LJ (1999) Macroalgae, nutrients and phase shifts on coral reefs: scientific issues and management consequences for the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 18(4):357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. McCook LJ (2001) Competition between coral and algal turfs along a water quality gradient in the nearshore central Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 19:419–425Google Scholar
  101. McCook LJ, Jompa J, Diaz-Pulido G (2001) Competition between corals and algae on coral reefs: a review of evidence and mechanisms. Coral Reefs 19:400–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. McKenzie L, Unsworth R (2009) Reef rescue marine monitoring program: intertidal seagrass. Final report for the sampling period 1 September 2008 to 31 May 2009. Fisheries Queensland, Cairns. http://www.rrrc.org.au/mmp/mmp_pubs.html
  103. McKergow L, Prosser IP, Hughes AO, Brodie JE (2005) Regional scale nutrient modelling: exports to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Mar Pollut Bull 51:186–199Google Scholar
  104. Mellors JE, Waycott M, Marsh H (2005) Variation in biogeochemical parameters across intertidal seagrass meadows in the central Great Barrier Reef region. Mar Pollut Bull 51:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mitchell AW, Furnas M (1997) Terrestrial inputs of nutrients and suspended sediments to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. The Great Barrier Reef: science, use and management, a national conference. James Cook University, Townsville, pp 59–71Google Scholar
  106. Mitchell AW, Bramley RGV, Johnson AKL (1997) Export of nutrients and suspended sediment during a cyclone-mediated flood event in the Herbert River catchment, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 48:79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mitchell A, Reghenzani J, Furnas M (2001) Nitrogen levels in the Tully River—a long-term view. Water Sci Technol 43:99–105Google Scholar
  108. Mitchell C, Brodie J, White I (2005) Sediments, nutrients and pesticide residues in event flow conditions in streams of the Mackay Whitsunday Region, Australia. Mar Pollut Bull 51:23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mitchell A, Reghenzani J, Faithful J, Furnas M, Brodie J (2009) Relationships between land use and nutrient concentrations in streams draining a ‘wet-tropics’ catchment in northern Australia. Mar Freshw Res 60:1097–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Moran PJ, De’ath G (1992) Estimates of the abundance of the crown-of-throns starfish Acanthaster planci in outbreaking and non-outbreaking populations on reefs within the Great Barrier Reef. Mar Biol 113:509–515. doi:10.1007/BF00349178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Packett R, Dougall C, Rohde K, Noble R (2009) Agricultural lands are hot-spots for annual runoff polluting the southern Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Mar Pollut Bull 58:976–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pandolfi JM, Bradbury RH, Sala E, Hughes TP et al (2003) Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems. Science 301:955–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet (2009) Reef Water Quality Protection Plan 2009. For the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and adjacent catchments. Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet, Brisbane. http://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/about/rwqpp.shtm
  114. Rabalais NN (2002) Nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. Ambio 31(2):102–112Google Scholar
  115. Rayment GE (2003) Water quality in sugar catchments in Queensland. Water Sci Technol 48(7):35–47Google Scholar
  116. Risk MJ, Sammarco PW, Edinger EN (1995) Bioerosion in Acropora across the continental shelf of the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 14:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rodier M, Le Borgne R (2008) Population dynamics and environmental conditions affecting Trichodesmium spp. (filamentous cyanobacteria) blooms in the south–west lagoon of New Caledonia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 358:20–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rohde K, Masters B, Fries N, Noble R, Carroll C (2008) Fresh and marine water quality in the Mackay Whitsunday region 2004–05 to 2006–07. Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Water for the Mackay Whitsunday Natural Resource Management Group, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  119. Sammarco PW, Risk M (1990) Large-scale patterns in internal bioerosion of Porites: cross continental shelf trends on the Great Barrier Reef. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 59:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Schaffelke B, Thompson A, Carleton J, Davidson J, Doyle J, Furnas M, Gunn K, Skuza M, Wright M, Zagorskis I (2009) Reef rescue marine monitoring program. Final report of AIMS activities 2008/2009. Report submitted to the Reef and Rainforest Research Centre. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. http://www.rrrc.org.au/mmp/mmp_pubs.html
  121. Shaw EC, Gabric AJ, McTainsh GH (2008) Impacts of Aeolian dust deposition on phytoplankton dynamics in Queensland coastal waters. Mar Freshw Res 59(11):951–962. doi:10.1071/MF08087 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Smith VS, Kimmerer WJ, Laws EA, Brock RE, Walsh TW (1981) Kaneohe Bay sewage diversion experiment: perspectives on ecosystem responses to nutritional perturbation. Pac Sci 35:279–340Google Scholar
  123. Smith JE, Smith CM, Hunter CL (2001) An experimental analysis of the effects of herbivory and nutrient enrichment on benthic community dynamics on a Hawaiian reef. Coral Reefs 19:332–342Google Scholar
  124. Smith JE, Shaw M, Edwards RA, Obura D, Pantos O et al (2006) Indirect effects of algae on coral: algae-mediated, microbe-induced coral mortality. Ecol Lett 9:835–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sotka EE, Hay ME (2009) Effects of herbivores, nutrient enrichment, and their interactions on macroalgal proliferation and coral growth. Coral Reefs 28:555–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Stimson J, Conklin E (2008) Potential reversal of a phase shift: the rapid decrease in the cover of the invasive green macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forsskål) on coral reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Coral Reefs 27:717–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stimson J, Larned ST, Conklin E (2001) Effects of herbivory, nutrient levels, and introduced algae on the distribution and abundance of the invasive macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Coral Reefs 19:343–357Google Scholar
  128. Sweatman H, Burgess S, Cheal AJ, Coleman G, Delean S, Emslie M, Miller I, Osborne K, McDonald A, Thompson A (2005) Long-term monitoring of the Great Barrier Reef. Status report no. 7. CDRom. Australian Institute of Marine Science, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  129. Sweatman HPA, Cheal AJ, Coleman GJ, Emslie MJ, Johns K, Jonker M, Miller IR, Osborne K (2008) Long-term Monitoring of the Great Barrier reef, Status Report. 8. Australian Institute of Marine Science, 369 ppGoogle Scholar
  130. Tada K, Sakai K, Nakano Y, Takemura A, Montani S (2003) Size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass in coral reef waters off Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan. J Plankton Res 25(8):991–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Tenório MMB, Le Borgne R, Rodier M, Neveux J (2005) The impact of terrigeneous inputs on the Bay of Ouinné (New Caledonia) phytoplankton communities: a spectrofluorometric and microscopic approach. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 64:531–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tett P, Gowen R, Mills D, Fernandes T, Gilpin L, Huxham M, Kennington K, Read P, Service M, Wilkinson M, Malcolm S (2007) Defining and detecting undesirable disturbance in the context of eutrophication. Mar Pollut Bull 53:282–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Thompson A, Schaffelke B, De’ath G, Cripps E, Sweatman H (2010) Water quality and ecosystem monitoring programme-reef water quality protection plan. Synthesis and spatial analysis of inshore monitoring data 2005-08. Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, 78 pp. http://www.rrrc.org.au/mmp/mmp_pubs.html
  134. Tomascik T, Sander F (1985) Effects of eutrophication on reef-building corals. I. Growth rates of the reef-building coral Montastera annularis. Mar Biol 87:143–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Touchette BW, Burkholder JM (2000) Overview of the physiological ecology of carbon metabolism in seagrasses. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 250:169–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tribollet A, Golubic S (2005) Cross-shelf differences in the pattern and pace of bioerosion of experimental carbonate substrates exposed for 3 years on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Coral Reefs 24:422–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Udy JW, Dennison WC, Lee Long W, McKenzie LJ (1999) Responses of seagrass to nutrients in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 185:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Van Duyl FC, Gast GJ, Steinhoff W, Kloff S, Veldhius MJW, Bak RPM (2002) Factors influencing the short-term variation in phytoplankton composition and biomass in coral reef waters. Coral Reefs 21:293–306Google Scholar
  139. van Woesik R, Tomascik T, Blake S (1999) Coral assemblages and physico-chemical characteristics of the Whitsunday Islands: evidence of recent community changes. Mar Freshw Res 50:427–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Walker TA (1991) Is the Reef really suffering from chronic pollution? Search 22:115–117Google Scholar
  141. Walker TA, O’Donnell G (1981) Observations on nitrate, phosphate and silicate in Cleveland Bay, Northern Queensland. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 32:877–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Walker D, Dennison W, Edgar G (1999) Status of Australian seagrass research and knowledge, Chap 1. In: Walker D, Dennison W, Edgar G (eds) Seagrass in Australia. CSIRO Australia, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  143. Wallace J, Stewart L, Hawdon A, Keen R (2008) The role of coastal floodplains in generating sediment, nutrient fluxes to the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon in Australia. Ecohydrological processes, sustainable floodplain management opportunities, concepts for water hazard mitigation, ecological, socio-economic sustainability. 19–23 May 2008 Lodz, Poland. Int J Ecohydrol Hydrobiol 8:183–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wallace J, Stewart L, Hawdon A, Keen R, Karim F, Kemei J (2009) Flood water quality and marine sediment and nutrient loads from the Tully and Murray catchments in north Queensland, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 60:1123–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ward S, Harrison PL (1997) The effect of elevated nutrient levels on the settlement of coral larvae during the ENCORE experiment, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. In: Lessios HA, McIntyre IG (eds) Proceedings of the eighth international coral reef symposium, pp 890–896Google Scholar
  146. Ward S, Harrison PL (2000) Changes in gametogenic patterns and fecundity of acroporid reef corals that were exposed to elevated nitrogen and phosphorus during the ENCORE experiment. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 246:179–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Waterhouse J, Grundy M, Brodie J, Gordon I, Yorkston H, Eberhard R (2009) Flagship basin study—Great Barrier Reef. In: Ferrier R, Jenkins J (eds) Handbook of catchment management. Blackwell Publishing, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  148. Wilkinson C (2008) Status of coral reefs of the world: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  149. Wismer S, Hoey AS, Bellwood DR (2009) Cross-shelf benthic community structure on the Great Barrier Reef: relationships between macroalgal cover and herbivore biomass. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 376:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wooldridge SA (2009a) A new conceptual model for the warm-water breakdown of the coral-algae endosymbiosis. Mar Freshw Res 60:483–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wooldridge SA (2009b) Water quality and coral bleaching thresholds: Formalising the linkage for the inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mar Pollut Bull 58:745–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wooldridge SA, Done TJ (2009) Improved water quality can ameliorate effects of climate change on corals. Ecol Appl 19:1492–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Brodie
    • 1
  • M. Devlin
    • 1
  • D. Haynes
    • 2
    • 3
  • J. Waterhouse
    • 1
  1. 1.Catchment to Reef Research Group, Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater ResearchJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Great Barrier Reef Marine Park AuthorityTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.SPREP (Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme)ApiaSamoa

Personalised recommendations