, Volume 93, Issue 1–2, pp 49–77 | Cite as

Challenges to incorporating spatially and temporally explicit phenomena (hotspots and hot moments) in denitrification models

  • Peter M. Groffman
  • Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
  • Robinson W. Fulweiler
  • Arthur J. Gold
  • Jennifer L. Morse
  • Emilie K. Stander
  • Christina Tague
  • Christina Tonitto
  • Philippe Vidon


Denitrification, the anaerobic reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogenous gases, is an extremely challenging process to measure and model. Much of this challenge arises from the fact that small areas (hotspots) and brief periods (hot moments) frequently account for a high percentage of the denitrification activity that occurs in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In this paper, we describe the prospects for incorporating hotspot and hot moment phenomena into denitrification models in terrestrial soils, the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and in aquatic ecosystems. Our analysis suggests that while our data needs are strongest for hot moments, the greatest modeling challenges are for hotspots. Given the increasing availability of high temporal frequency climate data, models are promising tools for evaluating the importance of hot moments such as freeze-thaw cycles and drying/rewetting events. Spatial hotspots are less tractable due to our inability to get high resolution spatial approximations of denitrification drivers such as carbon substrate. Investigators need to consider the types of hotspots and hot moments that might be occurring at small, medium, and large spatial scales in the particular ecosystem type they are working in before starting a study or developing a new model. New experimental design and heterogeneity quantification tools can then be applied from the outset and will result in better quantification and more robust and widely applicable denitrification models.


Denitrification Nitrogen Riparian Sediment Soil Stream 



This paper is a product of a workshop on Denitrification Modeling Across Terrestrial, Freshwater, and Marine Systems, held November 28–30, 2006, at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, with support from the Denitrification Research Coordination Network of the National Science Foundation (NSF), award DEB0443439 and the Northeastern States Research Cooperative (Grant # 02-CA-11242343-105). The work was also supported by NSF Grant DEB 0614158.


  1. Allison SD, Vitousek PM (2004) Rapid nutrient cycling in leaf litter from invasive plants in Hawai’i. Oecologia 141:612–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angers DA, Mehuys GR (1989) Effects of cropping on carbohydrate content and water-stable aggregation of a clay soil. Can J Soil Sci 69:373–380Google Scholar
  3. Arango CP, Tank JL, Schaller JL, Royer TV, Bernot MJ, David MB (2007) Benthic organic carbon influences denitrification in streams with high nitrate concentration. Freshw Biol 52:1210–1222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aref S, Wander MM (1998) Long-term trends of corn yield and soil organic matter in different crop sequences and soil fertility treatments on the Morrow plots. Adv Agron 62:153–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstrong MP, Densham PJ, Lolonis P, Rushton G (1992) Cartographic displays to support locational decision making. Cartogr Geogr Inform 19:154–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold CL (1999) Educating municipalities: land use is the key to managing nonpoint source pollution. Water Environ Tech 11:41–44Google Scholar
  7. Arnold JG, Srinivasan R, Engel BA (1994) Flexible watershed configurations for simulation models. Hydrol Sci Tech 30:5–14Google Scholar
  8. Ashton IW, Hyatt LA, Howe KM, Gurevitch J, Lerdau MT (2005) Invasive species accelerate decomposition and nitrogen loss in a mixed deciduous forest. Ecol Appl 15:1263–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker LA, Hope D, Xu Y, Edmonds J, Lauver L (2001) Nitrogen balance for the Central Arizona-Phoenix (CAP) ecosystem. Ecosystems 4:582–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker ME, Weller DE, Jordan TE (2007) Effects of stream map resolution on measures of riparian buffer distribution and nutrient retention potential. Landscape Ecol 22:973–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Band LE, Patterson JP, Nemani R, Running SW (1993) Forest ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: incorporating hillslope hydrology. Ag For Met 63:93–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Band LE, Tague CL, Groffman P, Belt K (2001) Forest ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: hydrological and ecological controls of nitrogen export. Hydrol Process 15:2013–2028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernhardt ES, Likens GE, Buso DC, Driscoll CT (2003) In-stream uptake dampens effects of major forest disturbance on watershed nitrogen export. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:10304–10308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beven KJ (2001) How far can we go in distributed hydrological modelling? Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 5:1–12Google Scholar
  15. Beven K (2006) Searching for the Holy Grail of scientific hydrology: Qt = H(S, R, t)A as a closure problem. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 10:609–618Google Scholar
  16. Birch H (1958) The effect of soil drying on humus decomposition and nitrogen availability. Plant Soil 10:9–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bohlen PJ, Scheu S, Hale CM, McLean MA, Migge S, Groffman PM, Parkinson D (2004) Non-native invasive earthworms as agents of change in northern temperate forests. Front Ecol Environ 2:427–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Böhlke JK, Denver JM (1995) Combined use of groundwater dating, chemical, and isotopic analyses to resolve the history and fate of nitrate contamination in two agricultural watersheds, Atlantic coastal plain, Maryland. Wat Resour Res 31:2319–2339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Böhlke JK, Wanty R, Tuttle M, Delin G, Landon M (2002) Denitrification in the recharge area and discharge area of a transient agricultural nitrate plume in a glacial outwash sand aquifer, Minnesota. Wat Resour Res 38:1–26Google Scholar
  20. Böhlke JK, O’Connell ME, Prestegaard KL (2007) Ground water stratification and delivery of nitrate to an incised stream under varying flow conditions. J Environ Qual 36:664–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Boulton AJ (2007) Hyporheic rehabilitation in rivers: restoring vertical connectivity. Freshw Biol 52:632–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boulton AJ, Findlay S, Marmonier P, Stanley EH, Valett HM (1998) The functional significance of the hyporheic zone in streams and rivers. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 29:59–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boustany RG, Crozier CR, Rybczyk JM, Twilley RR (1997) Denitrification in a South Louisiana wetland forest receiving treated sewage effluent. Wetlands Ecol Manage 4:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boyer EW, Goodale CL, Jaworski NA, Howarth RW (2002) Anthropogenic nitrogen sources and relationships to riverine nitrogen export in the northeastern USA. Biogeochemistry 57:137–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Boyer EW, Alexander RB, Parton WJ, Li C, Butterbach-bahl K, Donner SD, Skaggs RW, Del Grosso SJ (2006) Modeling denitrification in terresterial and aquatic ecosystems at regional scales. Ecol Appl 16:2123–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bruland GL, Richardson CJ, Whalen SC (2006) Spatial variability of denitrification potential and related soil properties in created, restored, and paired natural wetlands. Wetlands 26:1042–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brusch W, Nilsson B (1993) Nitrate transformation and water movement in a wetland area. Hydrobiologia 251:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Burgin AJ, Hamilton SK (2007) Have we overemphasized the role of denitrification in aquatic ecosystems? A review of nitrate removal pathways. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Burke IC, Lauenroth WK, Parton WJ (1997) Regional and temporal variation in net primary production and nitrogen mineralization in grasslands. Ecology 78:1330–1340Google Scholar
  30. Burrough PA (2001) GIS and geostatistics: essential partners for spatial analysis. Environ Ecol Stat 8:361–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Burt TP (2005) A third paradox in catchment hydrology and biogeochemistry: Decoupling in the riparian zone. Hydrol Process 19:2087–2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Butterbach-Bahl K, Stange F, Papen H, Li C (2001) Regional inventory of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emissions for forest soils of Southeast Germany using the biogeochemical model PnET-N-DNDC. J Geophys Res 106:34155–34166Google Scholar
  33. Butterbach-Bahl K, Gasche R, Willibald G, Papen H (2002) Exchange of N-gases at the Hoglwald Forest—a summary. Plant Soil 240:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Butterbach-Bahl K, Kock M, Willibald G, Hewett B, Buhagiar S, Papen H, Kiese R (2004) Temporal variations of fluxes of NO, NO2, N2O, CO2 and CH4 in a tropical rain forest ecosystem. Global Biogeochem Cy 18: Art. No. GB3012. doi: 10.1029/2004GB002243
  35. Caffrey JM, Sloth NP, Kaspar HF, Blackburn TH (1993) Effect of organic loading on nitrification and denitrification in a marine sediment microcosm. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 12:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cambardella CA, Moorman TB, Novak JM, Parkin TB, Karlen DL, Turco RF, Konopka AE (1994) Field-scale variability of soil properties in central Iowa soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:1501–1511Google Scholar
  37. Campbell CA, Zentner RP (1993) Soil organic matter as influenced by crop rotations and fertilization. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:1034–1040Google Scholar
  38. Capone DG, Kiene RP (1988) Comparison of microbial dynamics in marine and freshwater sediments: Contrasts in anaerobic carbon catabolism. Limnol Oceanogr 33:725–749Google Scholar
  39. Carver S, Frysinger S, Reitsma R (1996) Environmental modeling and collaborative spatial decision-making: some thoughts and experiences arising from the I–17 meeting proceedings. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference/workshop on integrating GIS and environmental modeling, NCGIA, Santa Fe, 21–25 January 1996Google Scholar
  40. Chen Y, Tessier S, MacKenzie AF, Laverdière MR (1995) Nitrous oxide emission from an agricultural soil subjected to different freeze-thaw cycles. Agr Ecosyst Environ 55:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cheng W, Zhang Q, Coleman DC, Carroll CR, Hoffman CA (1996) Is available carbon limiting microbial respiration in the rhizosphere? Soil Biol Biochem 28:1283–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chenu C, Tessier D (1995) Low temperature scanning electron microscopy of clay and organic constituents and their relevance to soil microstructures. Scanning Microsc 9:989–1010Google Scholar
  43. Chenu C, Hassink J, Bloem J (2001) Short-term changes in the spatial distribution of microorganisms in soil aggregates as affected by glucose addition. Biol Fert Soils 34:349–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Christensen S, Christensen BT (1991) Organic matter available for denitrification in different soil fractions: effect of freeze/thaw cycles and straw disposal. J Soil Sci 42:637–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Christensen PB, Sorensen J (1986) Temporal variation of denitrification activity in plant covered littoral sediment from Lake Hampen, Denmark. Appl Environ Microbiol 51:1174–1179Google Scholar
  46. Christensen S, Tiedje JM (1990) Brief and vigorous N2O production by soil at spring thaw. J Soil Sci 41:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Chung SW, Gassman PW, Huggins DR, Randall GW (2001) EPIC tile flow and nitrate loss predictions for three Minnesota cropping systems. J Environ Qual 30:822–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cirmo CP, McDonnell JJ (1997) Linking the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen transport in near-stream zones of temperate-forested catchments: a review. J Hydrol 199:88–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Clark JS, Carpenter SR, Barber M, Collins S, Dobson A, Foley JA, Lodge DM, Pascual M, Pielke R, Pizer W, Pringle C, Reid WV, Rose KA, Sala O, Schlesinger WH, Wall DH, Wear D (2001) Ecological forecasts: an emerging imperative. Science 293:657–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Clemens J, Schillinger MP, Goldback H (1999) Spatial variability of N2O emissions and soil parameters of an arable silt loam—a field study. Biol Fert Soils 28:403–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cornwell JC, Kemp WM, Kana TM (1999) Denitrification in coastal ecosystems: Methods, environmental controls, and ecosystem level controls, a review. Aquat Ecol 33:41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Corwin DL, Loague K, Ellsworth TR (1998) GIS-based modeling of non-point pollutants in the vadose zone. J Soil Water Conserv 53:34–38Google Scholar
  53. Cova TJ, Church RL (1997) Modelling community evacuation vulnerability using GIS. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 11:763–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. David MB, Gentry LE (2000) Anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus and riverine export for Illinois, USA. J Environ Qual 29:494–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Davidson EA, Swank WT (1986) Environmental parameters regulating gaseous nitrogen losses from 2 forested ecosystems via nitrification and denitrification. Appl Environ Microb 52:1287–1292Google Scholar
  56. Davidson EA, Vitousek PM, Matson PA, Riley R, Garciá-Méndez G, Maass JM (1991) Soil emissions of nitric oxide in a seasonally dry tropical forest of México. J Geophys Res 96:15439–15445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Davidson EA, Matson PA, Vitousek PM, Riley R, Dunkin K, Garciá-Méndez G, Maass JM (1993) Processes regulating soil emissions of NO and N2O in a seasonally dry tropical forest. Ecology 74:130–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Davis TJ, Keller CP (1997) Modelling uncertainty in natural resource analysis using fuzzy sets and Monte Carlo simulation: slope stability prediction. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 11:409–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. DeLuca TH, Keeney DR, McCarty GW (1992) Effect of freeze-thaw events on mineralization of soil nitrogen. Biol Fertil Soils 14:116–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Devito KJ, Fitzgerald D, Hill AR, Aravena R (2000) Nitrate dynamics in relation to lithology and hydrologic flow path in a river riparian zone. J Environ Qual 29:1075–1084Google Scholar
  61. Di Toro DM (2001) Sediment flux modeling. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Dillon PJ, Mollot LA (1990) The role of ammonium and nitrate retention in the acidification of lakes and forested catchments. Biogeochemistry 11:23–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dobbie KE, Smith KA (2001) The effects of temperature, water filled pore space and land use on N2O emissions from an imperfectly drained gleysol. Eur J Soil Sci 52:667–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dobbie KE, McTaggert IP, Smith KA (1999) Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agricultural systems: variations between crops and seasons, key driving variables, and mean emission factors. J Geophys Res 104:26891–26899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dosskey MG (2001) Toward quantifying water pollution abatement in response to installing buffers on crop land. Environ Manag 28:577–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Drinkwater LE, Snapp SS (2007) Nutrients in agroecosystems: rethinking the management paradigm. Adv Agron 92:164–186Google Scholar
  67. Du B, Arnold JG, Saleh A, Jaynes DB (2005) Development and application of SWAT to landscapes with tiles and potholes. T ASAE 48:1121–1133Google Scholar
  68. Edwards AC, Cresser MS (1992) Freezing and its effect on chemical and biological properties of soil. Adv Soil Sci 18:61–79Google Scholar
  69. Ehrenfeld JG (2000) Evaluating wetlands within an urban context. Ecol Eng 15:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ehrenfeld JG (2003) Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems 6:503–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ehrenfeld JG, Kourtev P, Huang WZ (2003a) Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests. Ecol Appl 11:1287–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ehrenfeld JG, Cutway HB, Hamilton IV R, Stander E (2003b) Hydrologic description of forested wetlands in northeastern New Jersey, USA: an urban/suburban region. Wetlands 23:685–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Faulkner S (2005) Urbanization impacts on the structure and function of forested wetlands. Urban Ecosys 7:89–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Fernandez RN, Rusinkiewicz M, Dasilva LM, Johannsen CJ (1993) Design and implementation of a soil geographic database for rural planning and management. J Soil Water Conserv 48:140–145Google Scholar
  75. Fernandez GP, Chescheir GM, Skaggs RW, Amatya DM (2006) DRAINMOD-GIS: a lumped parameter watershed scale drainage and water quality model. Agr Water Manage 81:77–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fisher H, Kloep F, Wilzceki S, Pusch MT (2005) A river’s liver—microbial processes within the hyporheic zone of a large lowland river. Biogeochem 76:349–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Flessa H, Dörsch P, Beese F (1995) Seasonal variation of N2O and CH4 fluxes in differently managed arable soils in southern Germany. J Geophys Res 100:23115–23124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Flessa H, Russow R, Schmidt G, Bueggera F, Muncha JC (2006) Emission of N2O, N2 and CO2 from soil fertilized with nitrate: effect of compaction, soil moisture and rewetting. Soil Biol Biochem 38:263–274Google Scholar
  79. Folorunso OA, Rolston DE (1984) Spatial variability of field-measured denitrification gas fluxes and soil properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49:1087–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fulweiler RW, Nixon SW, Buckley BA, Granger SL (2007) Reversal of the net dinitrogen gas flux in coastal marine sediments. Nature 448:180–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Funk JL (2005) Hedychium gardnerianum invasion into Hawaiian montane rainforest: interactions among litter quality, decomposition rate, and soil nitrogen availability. Biogeochemistry 76:441–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Galloway JN, Cowling EB (2002) Reactive nitrogen and the world: 200 years of change. Ambio 31:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Galloway JN, Aber JD, Erisman JW, Seitzinger SP, Howarth RW, Cowling EB, Cosby BJ (2003) The nitrogen cascade. Bioscience 53:341–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Galloway JN, Dentener FJ, Capone DG, Boyer EW, Howarth RW, Seitzinger SP, Asner GP, Cleveland CC, Green PA, Holland EA, Karl DM, Michaels AF, Porter JH, Townsend AR, Vörösmarty CJ (2004) Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future. Biogeochemistry 70:153–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. García-Méndez G, Maass JM, Matson P, Vitousek PM (1991) Nitrogen transformations and nitrogen oxide flux in tropical deciduous forest in México. Oecologia 88:362–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Garcia-Montiel DA, Steudler PA, Piccolo M, Neill C, Melillo J, Cerri CC (2003) Nitrogen oxide emissions following wetting of dry soils in forest and pastures in Rondônia, Brazil. Biogeochemistry 64:319–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gasche R, Papen H (1999) A 3 year continuous record of nitrogen trace gas fluxes from untreated and limed soil of a N-saturated spruce and beech forest ecosystem in Germany 2. NO and NO2 fluxes. J Geophys Res 104:18505–18520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gassman PW, Campbell T, Izaurralde C, Thomson AM, Atwood JD (2003) Regional estimation of soil carbon and other environmental indicators using EPIC and i_EPIC. Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University, Ames, Technical Report, 03-TR 46Google Scholar
  89. Gilliam JW (1994) Riparian wetlands and water quality. J Environ Qual 23:896–900Google Scholar
  90. Gold AJ, Groffman PM, Addy K, Kellog DQ, Stolt M, Rosenblatt AE (2001) Landscape attributes as controls on ground water nitrate removal capacity of riparian zones. J Am Water Resour Assoc 37:1457–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Goodroad LL, Keeney DR (1984) Nitrous oxide emissions from soils during thawing. Can J Soil Sci 64:187–194Google Scholar
  92. Goolsby DA, Battaglin WA (2001) Long-term changes in concentration and flux of nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Hydrol Process 15:1209–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Grayson RB, Blosch B (2000) Spatial patterns in catchment hydrology-observations and modelling. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  94. Grimm NB, Sheibley RW, Crenshaw CL, Dahm CN, Roach WJ, Zeglin LH (2005) N retention and transformation in urban streams. J N Am Benthol Soc 24:626–642Google Scholar
  95. Groffman PM (2008) Nitrogen balances at ecosystem, landscape, regional and global scales. In: Schepers J, Raun W (eds) Nitrogen in agricultural soils. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 731–758Google Scholar
  96. Groffman PM, Crawford MK (2003) Denitrification potential in urban riparian zones. J Environ Qual 32:144–1149Google Scholar
  97. Groffman PM, Tiedje JM (1988) Denitrification hysteresis during wetting and drying cycles. Soil Sci Soc Am 52:1626–1629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Groffman PM, Tiedje JM (1989) Denitrification in north temperate forest soils: spatial and temporal patterns at the landscape and seasonal scales. Soil Biol Biochem 21:613–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Groffman PM, Tiedje JM, Robertson GP, Christensen S (1987) Denitrification at different temporal and geographical scales: proximal and distal controls. In: Wilson JR (ed) Advances in nitrogen cycling in agricultural ecosystems. CAB International, Oxon, pp 174–192Google Scholar
  100. Groffman PM, Boulware NJ, Zipperer WC, Pouyat RV, Band LE, Colosimo MF (2002) Soil nitrogen cycle processes in urban riparian zones. Environ Sci Technol 36:4547–4552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Groffman PM, Dorsey AM, Mayer PM (2005) N processing within geomorphic structures in urban streams. J N Am Benthol Soc 24:613–625Google Scholar
  102. Groffman PM, Altabet MA, Bohlke JK, Butterbach-Bahl K, David MB, Firestone MK, Giblin AE, Kana TM, Nielsen LP, Voytek MA (2006a) Methods for measuring denitrification: diverse approaches to a difficult problem. Ecol Appl 16:2091–2122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Groffman PM, Hardy JP, Driscoll CT, Fahey TJ (2006b) Snow depth, soil freezing, and fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane in a northern hardwood forest. Global Change Biol 12:1748–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Groffman PM, Pouyat RV, Cadenasso ML, Zipperer WC, Szlavecz K, Yesilonis ID, Band LE, Brush GH (2006c) Land use context and natural soil controls on plant community composition and soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in urban and rural forests. Forest Ecol Manage 236:177–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hafner SD, Groffman PM (2005) Soil nitrogen cycling under litter and coarse woody debris in a mixed forest in New York State. Soil Biol Biochem 37:2159–2162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Haider K, Mosier AR, Heinemeyer O (1987) The effect of growing plants on denitrification at high soil nitrate concentrations. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:97–102Google Scholar
  107. Hale RL, Groffman PM (2006) Chloride effects on nitrogen dynamics in forested and suburban stream debris dams. J Environ Qual 35:2425–2432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hall RO Jr, Tank JL, Dybdahl MF (2003) Exotic snails dominate carbon and nitrogen cycling in a highly productive stream. Front Ecol Evol 1:407–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hawkes CV, Wren IF, Herman DJ, Firestone MK (2005) Plant invasion alters nitrogen cycling by modifying the soil nitrifying community. Ecol Lett 8:976–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Haycock NE, Pinay G (1993) Groundwater nitrate dynamics in grass and poplar vegetated riparian buffer strips during the winter. J Environ Qual 22:273–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Haynes RJ, Beare MH (1997) Influence of six crop species on aggregate stability and some labile organic matter fractions. Soil Biol Biochem 29:1647–1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hebert RA (1999) Nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems. FEMS Microbiol Rev 23:563–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hedin LO, von Fischer JC, Ostrom NE, Kennedy BP, Brown MG, Robertson GP (1998) Thermodynamic constraints on nitrogen transformations and other biogeochemical processes at soil-stream interfaces. Ecol 79:684–703Google Scholar
  114. Herrmann A, Witter E (2002) Sources of C and N contributing to the flush in mineralization upon freeze-thaw cycles in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1495–1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hill AR (1996) Nitrate removal in stream riparian zones. J Environ Qual 25:743–755Google Scholar
  116. Hill AR (2000) Stream chemistry and riparian zones. In: Jones J, Mulholland P (eds) Streams and ground waters. Academic Press, New York, pp 83–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hill AR, Labadia CF, Sanmugadask K (1998) Hyporheic zone hydrology and nitrogen dynamics in relation to the streambed topography of a N rich stream. Biogeochem 42:285–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Hill AR, Devito K, Campagnolo S, Sanmugadas K (2000) Subsurface denitrification in a forested riparian zone: interactions between hydrology and supplies of nitrate and organic carbon. Biogeochemistry 51:193–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Holland EA, Coleman DC (1987) Litter placement effects on microbial and organic matter dynamics in an agroecosystem. Ecology 62:425–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Holst J, Liu C, Yao Z, Brüggemann N, Zheng X, Giese M, Butterbach-Bahl K (2008) Fluxes of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide during freezing–thawing cycles in an Inner Mongolian steppe. Plant Soil 308:105–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Holtan-Hartwig L, Dörsch P, Bakken LR (2002) Low temperature control of soil denitrifying communities: kinetics of N2O production and reduction. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1797–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Howarth RW, Billen G, Swaney D, Townsend A, Jaworski N, Lajtha K, Downing JA, Elmgren R, Caraco N, Jordan T, Berendse F, Freney J, Kudeyarov V, Murdoch P, Zhu ZL (1996) Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N&P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35:75–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Iizumi H, Hattori A, McRoy CP (1980) Nitrate and nitrite in interstitial waters of eelgrass beds in relation to the rhizosphere. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 47:191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Inwood SE, Tank JL, Bernot ML (2005) Patterns of denitrification associated with land use in 9 midwestern headwater streams. J N Am Benthol Soc 24:227–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Iribar A, Sánchez-Pérez JM, Lyautey E, Garabétian F (2008) Differentiated free-living and sediment-attached bacterial community structure inside and outside denitrification hotspots in the river–groundwater interface. Hydrobiologia 598:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Jackson LE, Koch GW (1997) The ecophysiology of crops and their wild relatives. In: Jackson LE (ed) Ecology in agriculture. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 3–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jenkins MC, Kemp WM (1984) The coupling of nitrification and denitrification in two estuarine sediments. Limnol Oceanogr 29:609–619Google Scholar
  128. Johansson C, Rohde H, Sanhueza E (1988) Emission of NO in a tropical savanna and a cloud forest during the dry season. Appl Environ Microbiol 47:1284–1289Google Scholar
  129. Jones JB Jr, Holmes RM (1996) Surface–subsurface interaction in stream ecosystems. Trends Ecol Evol 11:239–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Jordan TE, Correll DL, Weller DE (1993) Nutrient interception by a riparian forest receiving inputs from adjacent cropland. J Environ Qual 22:467–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Jørgensen BB, Revsbech NP (1985) Diffusive boundary layers and the oxygen uptake of sediments and detritus. Limnol Oceanogr 30:111–122Google Scholar
  132. Jørgensen BB, Sorensen J (1985) Seasonal cycles of O2, NO3 , and SO4 2−, reduction in estuarine sediments: the signifigance of an NO3 reduction maximum in spring. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 24:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Joye SB, Hollibaugh JT (1995) Sulfide inhibition of nitrification influences nitrogen regeneration in sediments. Science 270:623–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kamman C, Grünhage L, Müller C, Jacobi S, Jäger H-J (1998) Seasonal variability and migitation options for N2O emissions from differently managed grasslands. Environ Pollut 102:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kaushal SS, Groffman PM, Mayer PM, Striz EA, Doheny EJ, Gold AJ (2008) Effects of stream restoration on denitrification at the riparian-stream interface of an urbanizing watershed of the mid-Atlantic US. Ecol Applic 18:789–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kaye JP, Groffman PM, Grimm NB, Baker LA, Pouyat RV (2006) A distinct urban biogeochemistry? Trends Ecol Evol 21:192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Kelly CA, Rudd JWM, Hesslein RH, Schindler DW, Dillon PJ, Driscoll CT, Gherini SA, Hecky RE (1987) Prediction of biological acid neutralization in acid-sensitive lakes. Biogeochemistry 3:129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kiese R, Li C, Hilbert W, Papen H, Butterbach-Bahl K (2005) Regional application of PnET-N-DNDC for estimating the N2O source strength of tropical rainforests in the wet tropics of Australia. Global Change Biol 11:28–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Kirchner JW (2006) Getting the right answers for the right reasons: linking measurements, analyses, and models to advance the science of hydrology. Water Resour Res 42:W03S04. doi: 10.1029/2005WR004362 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Kirchner JW, Feng X, Neal C (2000) Fractal stream chemistry and its implications for contaminant transport in catchments. Nature 403:524–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Koch B, Worm J, Jensen LE, Højberg O, Nybroe O (2001) Carbon limitation induces σS-dependent gene expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3363–3370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Koponen HT, Martikainen PJ (2004) Soil water content and freezing temperature affect freeze-thaw related N2O production in organic soil. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 69:213–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Koponen HT, Durana CE, Maljanena M, Hytönen J, Martikainen PJ (2006) Temperature responses of NO and N2O emissions from boreal organic soils. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1779–1787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kulkarni MV, Groffman PM, Yavitt JB (2008) Solving the global nitrogen problem: it’s a gas!. Front Ecol Environ 4:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Kurganova IN, Tipe P (2003) The effect of freezing-thawing processes on soil respiration activity. Eurasian Soil Sci 36:976–985Google Scholar
  146. Last DG (1995) Incremental land-use decision making displayed by county zoning committees. J Soil Water Conserv 50:21–24Google Scholar
  147. Legendre P, Dale MRT, Fortin MJ, Gurevitch J, Hohn M, Myers D (2002) The consequences of spatial structure for the design and analysis of ecological field surveys. Ecography 25:601–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Lennon JJ (2000) Red-shifts and red herrings in geographical ecology. Ecography 23:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Levin SA (1992) The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73:1943–1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Li C, Frolking SE, Frolking TA (1992) A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: 1. Model structure and sensitivity. J Geophys Res 97:9759–9776Google Scholar
  151. Li C, Frolking SE, Harriss R (1994) Modeling carbon biogeochemistry in agricultural soils. Glob Biogeochem Cy 8:237–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Li X, Inubushi K, Sakamoto K (2002) Nitrous oxide concentrations in an Andisol profile and emissions to the atmosphere as influenced by the application of nitrogen fertilizers and manure. Biol Fert Soils 35:108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Li C, Farahbakhshazad N, Jaynes DB, Dinnes DL, Salas W, McLaughlin D (2006) Modeling nitrate leaching with a biogeochemical model modified based on observations in a row-crop field in Iowa. Ecol Model 196:116–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Lindsay EA, French K (2005) Litterfall and nitrogen cycling following invasion by Chyrsanthemoides monilifera (ssp. rotundata) in coastal Australia. J Appl Ecol 42:556–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Lovett GM, Christenson LM, Groffman PM, Jones CG, Hart JE, Mitchell MJ (2002) Insect defoliation and nitrogen cycling in forests. Bioscience 52:335–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Lowrance R (1992) Groundwater nitrate and denitrification in a coastal riparian forest. J Environ Qual 21:401–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Lowrance R, Todd R, Fail J, Hendrickson O, Leonard R, Asmussen L (1984) Riparian forests as nutrient filters in agricultural watersheds. Bioscience 34:374–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Lowrance R, Newbold JD, Schnabel RR, Groffman PM, Denver JM, Correll DL, Gilliam JW, Robinson JL, Brinsfield RB, Staver KS, Lucas W, Todd AH (1997) Water quality functions of riparian forest buffers in Chesapeake Bay watersheds. Environ Manag 21:687–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Ludwig B, Teepe R, de Gerenyu VL, Flessa H (2006) CO2 and N2O emissions from gleyic soils in the Russian tundra and a German forest during freeze-thaw periods—a microcosm study. Soil Biol Biochem 38:3516–3519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Lundquist EJ, Jackson LE, Scow KM, Hsu C (1999) Changes in microbial biomass and community composition, and soil carbon and nitrogen pools after incorporation of rye into three California agricultural soils. Soil Biol Biochem 31:221–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Mahboubi AA, Lal R, Faussey NR (1993) Twenty-eight years of tillage effects on two soils in Ohio. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:506–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Mathieu O, Leveque J, Henault C (2006) Emissions and spatial variability of N2O, N-2 and nitrous oxide mole fraction at the field scale, revealed with N-15 isotopic techniques. Soil Biol Biochem 38:941–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. McClain ME, Boyer EW, Dent CL, Gergel SE, Grimm NB, Groffman PM, Hart SC, Harvey JW, Johnston CA, Mayorga E, McDowell WH, Pinay G (2003) Biogeochemical hot spots and hot moments at the interface of terresterial and aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystems 6:301–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. McSwiney CP, Robertson GP (2005) Nonlinear response of N2O flux to incremental fertilizer addition in a continuous maize (Zea mays L) cropping system. Glob Change Biol 11:1712–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Meyer JL, Paul MJ, Taulbee WK (2005) Stream ecosystem function in urbanizing landscapes. J N Am Benthol Soc 24:602–612Google Scholar
  166. Miller AE, Schimel JP, Meixner T, Sickman O, Melack JM (2005) Episodic rewetting enhances carbon and nitrogen release from chaparral soils. Soil Biol Biochem 37:2195–2204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Moran MS, Peters-Lidard CD, Watts JM, McElroy S (2004) Estimating soil moisture at the watershed scale with satellite-based radar and land surface models. Can J Remote Sens 30:805–826Google Scholar
  168. Mørkved PT, Dörsch P, Henriksen TM, Bakken LR (2006) N2O emissions and product ratios of nitrification and denitrification as affected by freezing and thawing. Soil Biol Biochem 38:3411–3420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Mosier AR, Duxbury JM, Freney JR, Heinemeier O, Minami K (1998) Assessing and mitigating N2O emissions from agricultural soils. Clim Chang 40:7–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Müller C, Martin M, Stevens RJ, Laughlin RJ, Kammann C, Ottow JCG, Jäger H-J (2002) Processes leading to N2O emissions in grassland soil during freezing and thawing. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1325–1331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Naiman RJ, Decamps H, McClain ME (2005) Riparian: ecology, conservation, and management of streamside communities. Elsevier Academic Press, London, p 430Google Scholar
  172. Nixon SW (1988) Physical energy inputs and the comparative ecology of lake and marine ecosystems. Limnol Oceanogr 33:1005–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Norman J, Jansson PE, Farahbakhshazad N, Butterbach-Bahl K, Li C, Klemedtsson L (2008) Simulations of NO and N2O emissions from a spruce forest using two dynamic ecosystem models. Ecol Model 216:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Otter LB, Yang WX, Scholes MC, Meixner FX (1999) Nitric oxide emissions from a southern African savanna. J Geophys Res 104:18471–18485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Otto S, Groffman PM, Findlay SEG, Arreola AE (1999) Invasive species and microbial processes in a tidal freshwater marsh. J Environ Qual 28:1252–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Panikov NS, Flanagan PW, Oechel WC, Mastepanov MA, Christensen TR (2006) Microbial activity in soils frozen to below −39°C. Soil Biol Biochem 38:785–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Papen H, Butterbach-Bahl K (1999) A 3 year continuous record of nitrogen trace gas fluxes from untreated and limed soil of an N-saturated spruce and beech forest ecosystems in Germany 1 N2O emissions. J Geophys Res 104:18487–18503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Parkin TB (1987) Soil microsites as a source of denitrification variability. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1194–1199Google Scholar
  179. Parkin TB (1993) Spatial variability of microbial processes in soil—a review. J Environ Qual 22:409–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Parton WJ, Schimel DS, Cole CV, Oijima DS (1987) Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands. Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1173–1179Google Scholar
  181. Parton W, Mosier A, Ojima D, Valentine D, Schimel D, Weier K, Kulmala A (1996) Generalized model for N2 and N2O production from nitrification and denitrification. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 10:401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Paul MJ, Meyer JL (2001) Streams in the urban landscape. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32:333–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Pedersen JK, Bjerg PL, Christensen TH (1991) Correlation of nitrate profiles with groundwater and sediment characteristics in a shallow sandy aquifer. J Hydrol 124:263–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Pelegri SP, Blackburn TH (1994) Bioturbation effects of the amphipod Corophium volutator on microbial nitrogen transformations in marine sediments. Mar Biol 121:253–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Perry JN, Liebhold AM, Rosenberg MS, Dungan J, Miriti M, Jakomulska A, Citron-Pousty S (2002) Illustrations and guidelines for selecting statistical methods for quantifying spatial pattern in ecological data. Ecography 25:578–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Peterjohn WT, Correll DL (1984) Nutrient dynamics in an agricultural watershed: observations on the role of a riparian forest. Ecology 65:1466–1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Peters DPC, Herrick JE (2004) Strategies for ecological extrapolation. Oikos 106:627–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML, Grove JM, Nilon CH, Pouyat RV, Zipperer WC, Costanza R (2001) Urban ecological systems: linking terrestrial, ecological, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32:127–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Pinay G, Roques L, Fabre A (1993) Spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification in a riparian forest. J Appl Ecol 30:581–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Pinay G, Gumiero B, Tabacchi E, Gimenez O, Tabacchi-Planty AM, Hefting MM, Burt TP, Black VA, Nilsson C, Iordache V, Bureau F, Vought L, Petts GE, Decamps H (2007) Patterns of denitrification rates in European alluvial soils under various hydrological regimes. Freshw Biol 52:252–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Poole GC, Stanford JA, Running SW, Frissell CA, Woessner WW, Ellis BK (2004) A patch hierarchy approach to modeling surface and subsurface hydrology in complex flood-plain environments. Earth Surf Proc Land 29:1259–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Postma D, Boesen C, Kristiansen H, Larsen F (1991) Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer: water chemistry, reduction processes, and geochemical modeling. Water Resour Res 27:2027–2045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Priemé A, Christensen S (2001) Natural pertubations, drying-wetting and freezing-thawing cycles, and the emission of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane from farmed organic soils. Soil Biol Biochem 33:2083–2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Puckett LJ (2004) Hydrogeologic controls on the transport and fate of nitrate in ground water beneath riparian buffer zones: results from thirteen studies across the United States. Water Sci Technol 49:47–53Google Scholar
  195. Puckett LJ, Cowdery TK, McMahon PB, Tornes LH, Stoner JD (2002) Using chemical, hydrologic, and age dating analysis to delineate redox processes and flow paths in the riparian zone of a glacial outwash aquifer-stream system. Wat Resour Res l38:Art No 1134Google Scholar
  196. Puget P, Drinkwater LE (2001) Short-term dynamics of root- and shoot-derived carbon from a leguminous green manure. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:771–779Google Scholar
  197. Rabalais NN, Turner RE, Dortch Q, Justic D, Bierman VJ Jr, Wiseman WJ Jr (2002) Nutrient-enhanced productivity in the northern Gulf of Mexico: past, present and future. Hyrdobiologia 475(476):39–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Reddy KR, Patrick WH (1984) Nitrogen transformations and loss in flooded soils and sediments. Crit Rev Env Cont 13:273–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Reitsma R, Zigurs I, Lewis C, Wilson V, Sloane A (1996) Experiment with simulation models in water-resources negotiations. J Water Res PL-ASCE 122:64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Rice SK, Westerman B, Federici R (2004) Impacts of the exotic, nitrogen-fixing black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) on nitrogen-cycling in a pine-oak ecosystem. Plant Ecol 174:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Richardson MC, Branfireum BA, Robinson VB, Graniero PA (2007) Towards simulating biogeochemical hot spots in the landscape: a geographic object- based approach. J Hydrol 342:97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Rivkina EM, Friedmann EI, McKay CP, Gilichinsky DA (2000) Metabolic activity of permafrost bacteria below the freezing point. Appl Environ Microb 66:3230–3233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Robertson GP (1987) Geostatistics in ecology: interpolating with known variance. Ecology 68:744–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Robertson GP, Huston MA, Evans FC, Tiedje JM (1988) Spatial variability in a successional plant community: patterns of nitrogen availability. Ecology 69:1517–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Robertson GP, Klingensmith KM, Klug MJ, Paul EA, Crum JR, Ellis BG (1997) Soil resources, microbial activity, and primary production across an agricultural ecosystem. Ecol Appl 7:158–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Rosenblatt AE, Gold AJ, Stolt MH, Groffman PM, Kellogg DQ (2001) Identifying riparian sinks for watershed nitrate using soil surveys. J Environ Qual 30:1596–1604Google Scholar
  207. Rouatt JW, Katznelson H, Payne TMB (1960) Statistical evaluation of rhizosphere effect. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 24:271–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Röver M, Heinemeyer O, Kaiser E-A (1998) Microbial induced nitrous oxide emissions from an arable soil during winter. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1859–1865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Rysgaard S, Christensen PB, Nielsen LP (1995) Seasonal variation in nitrification and denitrification in estuarine sediment colonized by benthic microalgae and bioturbating infauna. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 126:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Rysgaard S, Thamdrup B, Risgaard-Petersen N, Fossing H, Berg P, Christensen PB, Dalsgaard T (1998) Seasonal carbon and nutrient mineralization in a high-Arctic coastal marine sediment, Young Sound, Northeast Greenland. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 175:261–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Sakai A, Larcher W (1987) Frost survival of plants: responses and adaptations to freezing stress. In: Billings WD, Golley F, Lange OL, Olson S, Remmert H (eds) Ecological studies, vol 62. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  212. Schelsinger WH (1996) Biogeochemistry: an analysis of global change. Academic Press, New York, p 588Google Scholar
  213. Schimel JP, Clein JS (1996) Microbial response to freeze-thaw cycles in tundra and taiga soils. Soil Biol Biochem 28:1061–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Schimel JP, Mikan C (2005) Changing microbial substrate use in Arctic tundra soils through a freeze-thaw cycle. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1411–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Seitzinger SP (1988) Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: ecological and geochemical significance. Limnol Oceanogr 33:702–724Google Scholar
  216. Seitzinger SP, Giblin AE (1996) Estimating denitrification in North Atlantic continental shelf sediments. Biogeochemistry 35:235–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Seitzinger SP, Styles RV, Boyer EW, Alexander RB, Billen G, Howarth RW, Mayer B, van Breemen N (2002) Nitrogen retention in rivers: model development and application to watersheds in the northeastern USA. Biogeochemistry 57:199–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Seitzinger S, Harrison JA, Bohlke JK, Bouwman AF, Lowrance R, Peterson B, Tobias C, Van Drecht G (2006) Denitrification across landscapes and waterscapes: a synthesis. Ecol Appl 16:2064–2090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Sexstone AJ, Revsbech N-P, Parkin TB, Tiedje JM (1985) Direct measurement of oxygen profiles and denitrification rates in soil aggregates. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49:645–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Silver WL, Scatena FN, Johnson AH, Siccama TG, Sanchez MJ (1994) Nutrient availability in a montane wet topical forest: spatial patterns and methodological considerations. Plant Soil 164:129–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Skogland T, Lomeland S, Goksøyr J (1988) Respiratory burst after freezing and thawing of soil: experiments with soil bacteria. Soil Biol Biochem 20:851–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Slemr F, Seiler W (1984) Field measurements of NO and NO2 emissions from fertilized and unfertilized soils. J Atm Chem 2:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Smil V (1999) Nitrogen in crop production: an account of global flows. Glob Biogeochem Cy 13:647–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Smith KA (1980) A model of the extent of anaerobic zones in aggregated soils, and its potential application to estimates of denitrification. J Soil Sci 31:263–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Smith MS, Tiedje JM (1979) Effect of roots on soil denitrification. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:951–955Google Scholar
  226. Smith CJ, DeLaune RD, Patrick WH Jr (1985) Fate of riverine nitrate entering an estuary: denitrification and nitrogen burial. Estuaries 8:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Smith RA, Schwarz GE, Alexander RB (1997) Regional interpretation of water-quality monitoring data. Water Resour Res 33:2781–2798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Sobczak WV, Findlay S (2002) Variation in bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon among stream hyporheic flowpaths. Ecol 83:3194–3209Google Scholar
  229. Sobczak WV, Findlay S, Dye S (2002) Relationships between DOC bioavailability and nitrate removal in an upland stream: an experimental approach. Biogeochem 62:309–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Sorensen J, Jorgensen BB, Revsbech NP (1979) A comparison of oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate respiration in coastal marine sediments. Mar Ecol 5:105–115Google Scholar
  231. Stadler B, Muller T, Orwig D, Cobb R (2005) Hemlock woolly adelgid in New England forests: canopy impacts transforming ecosystems processes and landscapes. Ecosystems 8:233–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Stähli M, Stadler D (1997) Measurement of water and solute dynamics in freezing soil columns with time domain reflectometry. J Hydrol 195:352–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Stander EK, Ehrenfeld JG (2008) Rapid assessment of urban wetlands: do hydrogeomorphic classification and reference criteria work. Environ Manag. doi  10.1007/s00267-008-9211-6
  234. Strayer DL, Caraco NF, Cole JJ, Findlay S, Pace ML (1999) Transformation of freshwater ecosystems by bivalves: a case study of zebra mussels in the Hudson River. Bioscience 49:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Tague CL, Band LE (2004) RHESSys: regional hydro-ecologic simulation system—an object-oriented approach to spatially distributed modeling of carbon, water, and nutrient cycling. Earth Interact 8:1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Teepe R, Brumme R, Beese F (2000) Nitrous oxide emissions from frozen soils under agricultural, fallow and forest land. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1807–1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Teissier S, Garabetian F, Torre M, Dalger D, Labroue L (2002) Impact of an urban centre on the nitrogen cycle processes of epilithic biofilms during a summer low-water period. Riv Res Appl 18:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Thorup-Kristensen K (2001) Are differences in root growth of nitrogen catch crops important for their ability to reduce soil nitrate-N content, and how can this be measured? Plant Soil 230:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Thumerer T, Jones AP, Brown D (2000) A GIS based coastal management system for climate change associated flood risk assessment on the east coast of England. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 14:265–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Tiedje JM, Sexstone AJ, Myrold DD, Robinson JA (1982) Denitrification: ecological niches, competition and survival. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 48:569–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Tierney GL, Fahey TJ, Groffman PM, Hardy JP, Fitzhugh RD, Driscoll CT (2001) Soil freezing alters fine root dynamics in a northern hardwood forest. Biogeochemistry 56:175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Tonitto C, David MB, Drinkwater LE (2006) Replacing bare fallows with cover crops in fertilizer-intensive cropping systems: a meta-analysis of crop yield and N dynamics. Agr Ecosyst Environ 112:58–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Tonitto C, David MB, Li C, Drinkwater LE (2007a) Application of the DNDC model to tile-drained Illinois agroecosystems: model comparison of conventional and diversified rotations. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 78:65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Tonitto C, David MB, Drinkwater LE, Li C (2007b) Application of the DNDC model to tile-drained Illinois agroecosystems: model calibration, validation, and uncertainty analysis. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 78:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Triska FJ, Oremland RS (1981) Denitrification associated with periphyton communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 42:745–748Google Scholar
  246. van der Perk M, Burema JR, Burrough PA, Gillett AG, Van der Meer MB (2001) A GIS based environmental decision support system to assess the transfer of long-lived radiocaesium through food chains in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 15:43–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. van Elsas JD, van Overbeek LS (1996) Bacterial responses to soil stimuli. In: Kjelleberg S (ed) Starvation in bacteria. Plenum Press, New York, pp 55–79Google Scholar
  248. Van Haren JLM, Handley LL, Biel KY, Kudeyarov VN, McLain JET, Martens DA, Colodner DC (2005) Drought-induced nitrous oxide flux dynamics in an enclosed tropical forest. Glob Change Biol 11:1247–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Van Hoewyk D, Groffman PM, Kiviat E, Mihocko G, Stevens G (2000) Soil nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil calcareous wetlands in eastern New York. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:2168–2173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Ver Hoef J (2002) Sampling and geostatistics for spatial data. Ecoscience 9:152–161Google Scholar
  251. Vidon P, Hill AR (2004) Landscape controls on nitrate removal in stream riparian zones. Water Res Res 40:Art No W03201Google Scholar
  252. Vidon P, Hill AR (2006) A landscape based approach to estimate riparian hydrological and nitrate removal functions. J Am Water Resour As 42:1099–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Vitar T, Aggarwal PK, Mcdonnell JJ (2005) A review of isotope applications in catchment hydrology. In: Aggarwal PK, Gat JR, Froehlich KF (eds) Isotopes in the water cycle. Springer, Berlin, pp 151–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Wagner HH, Fortin MJ (2005) Spatial analysis of landscapes: concepts and statistics. Ecol 86:1975–1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Wagner-Riddle C, Thurtell GW (1998) Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields during winter and spring thaw as affected by management practices. Nutr Cy Agroecosyst 52:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Wander MM, Traina SJ (1996) Organic matter fractions from organically and conventionally managed soils: II characterization of composition. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60:1087–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Weier KL, Doran JW, Power JF, Walters DT (1993) Denitrification and the dinitrogen/nitrous oxide ratio as affected by soil water, available carbon, and nitrate. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:66–72Google Scholar
  258. Welsch DJ (1991) Riparian forest buffers. USDA-FS Publ No NA-PR-07-91, RadnorGoogle Scholar
  259. Werner C, Butterbach-Bahl K, Haas E, Hickler T, Kiese R (2007) A global inventory of N2O emissions from tropical rainforest soils using a detailed biogeochemical model source. Global Biogeochem Cy 21 (3): Art. No. GB3010Google Scholar
  260. Wigington PJ, Griffith SM, Field JA, Baham JE, Horwath WR, Owen J, Davis JH, Rain SC, Steiner JJ (2003) Nitrate removal effectiveness of a riparian buffer along a small agricultural stream in western Oregon. J Environ Qual 32:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Wigington PJ Jr, Moser TJ, Linderman DR (2005) Stream network expansion: a riparian water quality factor. Hydrol Process 19:1715–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Windham L, Ehrenfeld JG (2003) Net impact of a plant invasion on nitrogen-cycling processes within a brackish tidal marsh. Ecol Appl 13:883–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Woldendorp JW (1962) The quantitative influence of the rhizosphere on denitrification. Plant Soil 17:267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Yelenik SG, Stock WD, Richardson DM (2004) Ecosystem level impacts of invasive Acacia saligna in the South African fynbos. Restor Ecol 12:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Yan XY, Ohara T, Akimoto I (2005) Statistical modeling of global soil NOx emission. Global Biogeochem Cycl 19:GB3019. doi: 10.1029/2004GB002276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Youssef MA, Skaggs RW, Chescheir GM, Gilliam JW (2005) The nitrogen simulation model, DRAINMOD-N II. T ASAE 48:611–626Google Scholar
  267. Zhu WX, Dillard ND, Grimm MB (2004) Urban nitrogen biogeochemistry: status and processes in green retention basins. Biogeochemistry 71:177–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Zigurs I, Reitsma R, Lewis C, Hubscher R, Hayes C (1999) Accessibility of computer-based simulation models in inherently conflict-laden negotiations. Group Decis Negot 8:511–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter M. Groffman
    • 1
  • Klaus Butterbach-Bahl
    • 2
  • Robinson W. Fulweiler
    • 3
  • Arthur J. Gold
    • 4
  • Jennifer L. Morse
    • 5
  • Emilie K. Stander
    • 6
  • Christina Tague
    • 7
  • Christina Tonitto
    • 8
  • Philippe Vidon
    • 9
  1. 1.Cary Institute of Ecosystem StudiesMillbrookUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU)Forschungszentrum KarlsruheGarmisch-PartenkirchenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Earth SciencesBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Natural Resources ScienceUniversity of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  6. 6.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural ResourcesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  7. 7.Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and ManagementUniversity of California Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA
  8. 8.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Department of HorticultureCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  9. 9.Department of Earth SciencesIndiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)IndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations