Advertisement

Biogeochemistry

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 201–215 | Cite as

Extracellular Enzyme Activities and Soil Organic Matter Dynamics for Northern Hardwood Forests receiving Simulated Nitrogen Deposition

  • Robert L. SinsabaughEmail author
  • Marcy E. Gallo
  • Christian Lauber
  • Mark P. Waldrop
  • Donald R. Zak
Article

Abstract

Anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment alters decomposition processes that control the flux of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from soil organic matter (SOM) pools. To link N-driven changes in SOM to microbial responses, we measured the potential activity of several extracellular enzymes involved in SOM degradation at nine experimental sites located in northern Michigan. Each site has three treatment plots (ambient, +30 and +80 kg N ha−1 y−1). Litter and soil samples were collected on five dates over the third growing season of N treatment. Phenol oxidase, peroxidase and cellobiohydrolase activities showed significant responses to N additions. In the Acer saccharumTilia americana ecosystem, oxidative activity was 38% higher in the litter horizon of high N treatment plots, relative to ambient plots, while oxidative activity in mineral soil showed little change. In the A. saccharumQuercus rubra and Q. velutinaQ. alba ecosystems, oxidative activities declined in both litter (15 and 23%, respectively) and soil (29 and 38%, respectively) in response to high N treatment while cellobiohydrolase activity increased (6 and 39% for litter, 29 and 18% for soil, respectively). Over 3 years, SOM content in the high N plots has decreased in the AcerTilia ecosystem and increased in the two Quercus ecosystems, relative to ambient plots. For all three ecosystems, differences in SOM content in relation to N treatment were directly related (r2 = 0.92) to an enzyme activity factor that included both oxidative and hydrolytic enzyme responses.

Keywords

Cellulase Decomposition Extracellular enzyme activity Nitrogen deposition Phenol oxidase Soil organic matter 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aber, J.D., McDowell, W., Nadelhoffer, K., Magill, A., Berntson, G., Kamakea, M., McNulty, S.G., Currie, W., Rustad, L., Fernandez, I. 1998Nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosystems: hypotheses revisitedBioScience48921933Google Scholar
  2. Aber, J.D., Goodale, C.L., Ollinger, S.V., Smith, M.-L., Magill, A.H., Martin, M.E., Hallet, RA., Stoddard, J.L. 2003Is nitrogen deposition altering the nitrogen status of northeastern forests?BioScience53375389Google Scholar
  3. Ajwa, H.A., Dell, C.J., Rice, C.W. 1999Changes in enzyme activities and microbial biomass of tallgrass prairie soil as related to burning and nitrogen fertilizationSoil Biol. Biochem.31769777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albert, D.A., Denton, S.R., Barnes, B.V. 1986Regional Landscape Ecosystems of MichiganUniversity of Michigan, School of Natural ResourcesAnn ArborGoogle Scholar
  5. Berg, B., Matzner, E. 1997Effect of N deposition on decomposition of plant litter and soil organic matter in forest systemsEnviron. Rev.5125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bermek, H., Li, K., Eriksson, KE. 1998Laccase-less mutants of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cannot delignify kraft pulpJ. Biotechnol.66117124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burton, A.J., Ramm, C.W., Pregitzer, K.S. 1991Use of multivariate methods in forest research site selectionCan. J. Forest Restorat.2115731580Google Scholar
  8. Carreiro, M.M., Sinsabaugh, R.L., Repert, D.A., Parkhurst, D.F. 2000Microbial enzyme shifts explain litter decay responses to simulated nitrogen depositionEcology8123592365Google Scholar
  9. DeForest, J.L., Zak, D.R., Pregitzer, K.S., Burton, A.J. 2004Anthropogenic NO3 deposition alters microbial community function in northern hardwood forestsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.68 132138Google Scholar
  10. Dix, N.J., Webster, J. 1995Fungal EcologyChapman & HallLondon549Google Scholar
  11. Egerton-Warburton, L.M., Allen, E.B. 2000Shifts in arbuscular mycorrhizal communities along an anthropogenic nitrogen deposition gradientEcol. Appl.10484496Google Scholar
  12. Fenn, M.E., Baron, J.S., Allen, E.B., Reuth, H.M., Nydick, K.R., Geiser, L., Bowman, W.D., Sickman, J.O., Meixner, T., Johnson, D.W., Neitlich, P. 2003Ecological effects of nitrogen deposition in the western United StatesBioScience53404420Google Scholar
  13. Fog, K. 1988The effect of added nitrogen on the rate of decomposition of organic matterBiol. Rev.63433462Google Scholar
  14. Gallo ME, Amonette R, Lauber C, Sinsabaugh RL & Zak DR (2004) Short-term changes in oxidative enzyme activity and microbial community structure in nitrogen-amended north temperate forest soils. Microbial Ecology 47Google Scholar
  15. Hammel, K.E. 1997Fungal degradation of ligninCadisch, G.Giller, K.E. eds. Driven by Nature: Plant Litter Quality and DecompositionCAB InternationalWallingford3346Google Scholar
  16. Hobbie, S.E. 2000Interactions between litter lignin and soil nitrogen availability during leaf litter decomposition in a Hawaiian montane forestEcosystems3484494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hobbie, S.E., Vitousek, P.M. 2000Nutrient limitation of decomposition in Hawaiian ForestsEcology8118671877Google Scholar
  18. Holmes, W.E., Zak, D.R. 1999Soil microbial control of nitrogen loss following clear-cut harvest in northern hardwood ecosystemsEcol. Appl.9202215Google Scholar
  19. Host, G.E., Pregitzer, K.S., Ramm, C.W., Lusch, D.P., Cleland, D.T. 1988Variation in overstory biomass among glacial landforms and ecological land units in northwestern Lower MichiganCan. J. Forest Res.18659668Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, D., Leake, J.R., Lee, J.A., Campbell, C.D. 1998Changes in soil microbial biomass and microbial activities in response to 7 years pollutant nitrogen deposition on a heathland and two grasslandsEnviron. Pollut.103239250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li, K., Eriksson, K.-E., Xu, F. 1999Comparison of fungal laccases and redox mediators in oxidation of a nonphenolic lignin model compoundAppl. Environ. Microbiol.6526542660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lilleskov, E.A., Fahey, T.J., Horton, T.R., Lovett, G.M. 2002Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal community change over a nitrogen deposition gradient in AlaskaEcology83104115Google Scholar
  23. MacDonald, N.W., Witter, J.A., Burton, A.J., Pregitzer, K.S., Richter, D.D. 1993Relationships among atmospheric deposition, throughfall, and soil properties in oak forest ecosystemsCan. J. Forest Res.2323482357Google Scholar
  24. Magill, A.H., Aber, J.D. 1998Long-term effects of experimental nitrogen additions on foliar litter decay and humus formation in forest ecosystemsPlant Soil203301311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Månsson, K.F., Falkengren-Grerup, U. 2003The effect of nitrogen deposition on nitrification, carbon and nitrogen mineralisation and litter C:N ratios in oak (Quercus robur L.) forestsForest Ecol. Manage.179455467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Matson, P., Lohse, K.A., Hall, S.J. 2002The globalization of nitrogen deposition: consequences for terrestrial ecosystemsAmbio31113119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Michel, K., Matzner, E. 2002Nitrogen content of forest floor Oa layers affects carbon pathways and nitrogen mineralizationSoil Biol. Biochem.3418071813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Michel, K., Matzner, E. 2003Response of enzyme activities to nitrogen addition in forest floors of different C-to-N ratiosBiol. Fertil. Soils38102109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Myers, R.T., Zak, D.R., White, D.C., Peacock, A. 2001Landscape-level patterns of microbial community composition and substrate use in upland forest ecosystemsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.65359367Google Scholar
  30. Neff, J.C., Gleixner, G., Townsend, A.R. 2002Variable effects of nitrogen addition on the stability and turnover of soil carbonNature419915917CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Pregitzer, K.S., Zak, D.R., Burton, A.J., Ashby, J.A., MacDonald, N.W. 2004Chronic nitrate additions dramatically increase the export of carbon and nitrogen from northern hardwood ecosystemsBiogeochemistry68179197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saiya-Cork, K.R., Sinsabaugh, R.L., Zak, D.R. 2002The effects of long term nitrogen deposition on extracellular enzyme activity in an Acer saccharum forest soilSoil Biol. Biochem3413091315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schimel, J.P., Weintraub, M.N. 2003The implications of exoenzyme activity on microbial carbon and nitrogen limitation in soil: a theoretical modelSoil Biol. Biochem.35549563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sinsabaugh, R.L., Carreiro, M.M., Repert, D.A. 2002Allocation of extracellular enzymatic activity in relation to litter composition, N deposition, and mass lossBiogeochemistry60124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sinsabaugh, R.L., Zak, D.R., Gallo, M.E., Lauber, C., Amonette, R. 2004Nitrogen deposition and dissolved organic matter production in northern temperate forestsSoil Biol. Biochem.3615091515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sinsabaugh, R.L., Saiya-Cork, K., Long, T., Osgood, M.P., Neher, D.A., Zak, D.R., Norby, R.J. 2003Soil microbial activity in a Liquidambar plantation unresponsive to CO2-driven increases in primary productionAppl. Soil Ecol.24263271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Treseder, K.K. 2004A meta-analysis of mycorrhizal responses to nitrogen, phosphorus and atmospheric CO2 in field studiesNew Phytol.164347355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Turner, B.L., Baxter, R., Whitton, B.A. 2002Seasonal phosphatase activity in three characteristic soils of the English uplands polluted by long-term atmospheric nitrogen depositionEnviron. Pollut.120313317CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Waldrop, M.P., Zak, D.R., Sinsabaugh, R.L., Gallo, M.E., Lauber, C. 2004aNitrogen Deposition Modifies Soil Carbon Storage through changes in microbial enzyme activityEcol. Appl.1411721177Google Scholar
  40. Waldrop, M.P., Zak, D.R., Sinsabaugh, R.L. 2004bMicrobial community response to nitrogen deposition in northern forest ecosystemsSoil Biol. Biochem.3614431451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zak, D.R., Host, G.E., Pregitzer, K.S. 1989Regional variability in nitrogen, nitrification, and overstory biomass in northern Lower MichiganCan. J. Forest Res.1915211526Google Scholar
  42. Zak, D.R., Pregitzer, K.S. 1990Spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen cycling in northern lower MichiganForest Sci.36367380Google Scholar
  43. Zak, D.R., Pregitzer, K.S., Host, G.E. 1986Landscape variation in nitrogen mineralization and nitrificationCan. J. Forest Res.1612581263Google Scholar
  44. Zavaleta, E.S., Chiariello, N.R., Shaw, M.R. 2003Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversityProc. Natl. Acad. Sci.10076507654CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Sinsabaugh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marcy E. Gallo
    • 1
  • Christian Lauber
    • 1
  • Mark P. Waldrop
    • 2
  • Donald R. Zak
    • 2
  1. 1.Biology DepartmentUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.School of Natural ResourcesUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations