Advertisement

Biogeochemistry

, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 183–207 | Cite as

Spatial–temporal variation in soil respiration in an oak–grass savanna ecosystem in California and its partitioning into autotrophic and heterotrophic components

  • Jianwu TangEmail author
  • Dennis D. Baldocchi
Article

Abstract.

The spatial upscaling of soil respiration from field measurements to ecosystem levels will be biased without studying its spatial variation. We took advantage of the unique spatial gradients of an oak–grass savanna ecosystem in California, with widely spaced oak trees overlying a grass layer, to study the spatial variation in soil respiration and to use these natural gradients to partition soil respiration according to its autotrophic and heterotrophic components. We measured soil respiration along a 42.5 m transect between two oak trees in 2001 and 2002, and found that soil respiration under tree canopies decreased with distance from its base. In the open area, tree roots have no influence on soil respiration. Seasonally, soil respiration increased in spring until late April, and decreased in summer following the decrease in soil moisture content, despite the further increase in soil temperature. Soil respiration significantly increased following the rain events in autumn. During the grass growing season between November and mid-May, the average of CO2 efflux under trees was 2.29 μmol m−2 s−1, while CO2 efflux from the open area was 1.40 μmol m−2 s−1. We deduced that oak root respiration averaged as 0.89 μmol m−2 s−1, accounting for 39% of total soil respiration (oak root + grass root + microbes). During the dry season between mid-May and October, the average of CO2 efflux under trees was 0.87 μmol m−2 s−1, while CO2 efflux from the open areas was 0.51 μmol m−2 s−1. Oak root respiration was 0.36 μmol m−2 s−1, accounting for 41% of total soil respiration (oak root + microbes). The seasonal pattern of soil CO2 efflux under trees and in open areas was simulated by a bi-variable model driven by soil temperature and moisture. The diurnal pattern was influenced by tree physiology as well. Based on the spatial gradient of soil respiration, spatial analysis of crown closure and the simulation model, we spatially and temporally upscaled chamber measurements to the ecosystem scale. We estimated that the cumulative soil respiration in 2002 was 394 gC m−2 year−1 in the open area and 616 gC m−2 year−1 under trees with a site-average of 488 gC m−2 year−1.

Keywords

CO2 efflux Root respiration Savanna Soil respiration Spatial and temporal variation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baldocchi, D.D., Meyers, T.P. 1991Trace gas-exchange above the floor of a deciduous forest. 1. Evaporation and CO2 effluxJ. Geophys. Res.-Atmos9672717285Google Scholar
  2. Birch, H.F. 1958The effect of soil drying on humus decomposition and nitrogen availabilityPlant Soil10931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowling, D.R., McDowell, N.G., Bond, B.J., Law, B.E., Ehleringer, J.R. 2002C-13 content of ecosystem respiration is linked to precipitation and vapor pressure deficitOecologia131113124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowling, D.R., Pataki, D.E., Ehleringer, J.R. 2003Critical evaluation of micrometeorological methods for measuring ecosystem-atmosphere isotopic exchange of CO2Agric. Forest Meteorol116159179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Craine, J.M., Wedin, D.A., Chapin, F.S. 1999Predominance of ecophysiological controls on soil CO2 flux in a Minnesota grasslandPlant Soil2077786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davidson, E.A., Belk, E., Boone, R.D. 1998Soil water content and temperature as independent or confounded factors controlling soil respiration in a temperate mixed hardwood forestGlobal Change Biol4217227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drewitt, G.B., Black, T.A., Nesic, Z.,  et al. 2002Measuring forest floor CO2 fluxes in a Douglas-fir forestAgric. Forest Meteorol110299317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Edwards, N.T., Rosstodd, B.M. 1983Soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous forest following clear-cutting with and without residue removalSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J4710141021Google Scholar
  9. Epron, D., Farque, L., Lucot, E., Badot, P.M. 1999Soil CO2 efflux in a beech forest: dependence on soil temperature and soil water contentAnn. Forest Sci56221226Google Scholar
  10. Goulden, M.L., Crill, P.M. 1997Automated measurements of CO2 exchange at the moss surface of a black spruce forestTree Physiol17537542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Goulden, M.L., Munger, J.W., Fan, S.M., Daube, B.C., Wofsy, S.C. 1996Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracyGlobal Change Biol2169182Google Scholar
  12. Hanson, P.J., Edwards, N.T., Garten, C.T., Andrews, J.A. 2000Separating root and soil microbial contributions to soil respiration: a review of methods and observationsBiogeochemistry48115146Google Scholar
  13. Hanson, P.J., Wullschleger, S.D., Bohlman, S.A., Todd, D.E. 1993Seasonal and topographic patterns of forest floor CO2 efflux from an upland oak forestTree Physiol13115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hirano T., Kim H. and Tanaka Y. 2003. Long-term half-hourly measurement of soil CO2 concentration and soil respiration in a temperate deciduous forest. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 108(D20): Art. No. 4631.Google Scholar
  15. Högberg, P., Nordgren, A., Buchmann, N.,  et al. 2001Large-scale forest girdling shows that current photosynthesis drives soil respirationNature411789792Google Scholar
  16. IPCC2001Climate Change 2001: The Scientific BasisCambridge University PressCambridgeUKGoogle Scholar
  17. Irvine, J., Law, B.E. 2002Contrasting soil respiration in young and old-growth ponderosa pine forestsGlobal Change Biol811831194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jackson, L.E., Strauss, R.B., Firestone, M.K., Bartolome, J.W. 1990Influence of tree canopies on grassland productivity and nitrogen dynamics in deciduous oak savannaAgric. Ecosyst. Environ3289105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Janssens, I.A., Lankreijer, H., Matteucci, G.,  et al. 2001Productivity overshadows temperature in determining soil and ecosystem respiration across European forestsGlobal Change Biol7269278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kelting, D.L., Burger, J.A., Edwards, G.S. 1998Estimating root respiration, microbial respiration in the rhizosphereand root-free soil respiration in forest soilsSoil Biol. Biochem30961968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kiang, N. 2002Stomatal control under drought: a function of landscape optimizationUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyPh.D. dissertationGoogle Scholar
  22. King, J.A., Harrison, R. 2002Measuring soil respiration in the field: an automated closed chamber system compared with portable IRGA and alkali absorption methodsCommun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal33403423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kirschbaum, M.U.F. 1995The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic C storageSoil Biol. Biochem27753760Google Scholar
  24. Kuzyakov, Y., Cheng, W. 2001Photosynthesis controls of rhizosphere respiration and organic matter decompositionSoil Biol. Biochem3319151925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Law, B.E., Baldocchi, D.D., Anthoni, P.M. 1999aBelow-canopy and soil CO2 fluxes in a ponderosa pine forestAgric. Forest Meteorol94171188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Law, B.E., Kelliher, F.M., Baldocchi, D.D., Anthoni, P.M., Irvine, J., Moore, D., Van Tuyl, S. 2001Spatial and temporal variation in respiration in a young ponderosa pine forests during a summer droughtAgric. Forest Meteorol1102743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Law, B.E., Ryan, M.G., Anthoni, P.M. 1999bSeasonal and annual respiration of a ponderosa pine ecosystemGlobal Change Biol5169182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lin, G., Ehleringer, J.R., Rygiewicz, P.T., Johnson, M.G., Tingey, D.T. 1999Elevated CO2temperature impacts on different components of soil CO2 efflux in Douglas-fir terracosmsGlobal Change Biol5157168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lloyd, J., Taylor, J.A. 1994On the temperature-dependence of soil respirationFunct. Ecol8315323Google Scholar
  30. Millikin, C.S., Bledsoe, C.S. 1999Biomass and distribution of fine and coarse roots from blue oak (Quercus douglasii) trees in the northern Sierra Nevada foothills of CaliforniaPlant Soil2142738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Raich, J.W., Potter, C.S. 1995Global patterns of carbon-dioxide emissions from soilsGlobal Biogeochem. Cycles92336Google Scholar
  32. Raich, J.W., Potter, C.S., Bhagawati, D. 2002Interannual variability in global soil respiration, 1980–94Global Change Biol8800812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Raich, J.W., Schlesinger, W.H. 1992The global carbon-dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climateTellus Ser. B-Chem. Phys. Meteorol448199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rayment, M.B., Jarvis, P.G. 2000Temporal and spatial variation of soil CO2 efflux in a Canadian boreal forestSoil Biol. Biochem323545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Russell, C.A., Voroney, R.P., Black, T.A., Blanken, P.D., Yang, P.C. 1998Carbon dioxide efflux from the floor of a boreal aspen forest. II. Evaluation of methods-verification by infra-red analysis of a dynamic closed chamberCan. J. Soil Sci78311316Google Scholar
  36. Ryan, M.G. 1991Effects of climate change on plant respirationEcol. Appl1157167Google Scholar
  37. Ryan, M.G., Hubbard, R.M., Pongracic, S., Raison, R.J., McMurtrie, R.E. 1996Foliagefine-rootwoody-tissue and stand respiration in Pinus radiata in relation to nitrogen statusTree Physiol16333343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Scott, A., Crichton, I., Ball, B.C. 1999Long-term monitoring of soil gas fluxes with closed chambers using automated and manual systemsJ. Environ. Qual2816371643Google Scholar
  39. Scott-Denton, L.E., Sparks, K.L., Monson, R.K. 2003Spatial and temporal controls of soil respiration rate in a high-elevation, subalpine forestSoil Biol. Biochem35525534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shibistova, O., Lloyd, J., Evgrafova, S.,  et al. 2002Seasonal and spatial variability in soil CO2 efflux rates for a central Siberian Pinus sylvestris forestTellus Ser. B-Chem. Phys. Meteorol54552567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Singh, J.S., Gupta, S.R. 1977Plant decomposition and soil respiration in terrestrial ecosystemsBotan. Rev43449528Google Scholar
  42. Tang, J., Baldocchi, D.D., Qi, Y., Xu, L. 2003Assessing soil CO2 efflux using continuous measurements of CO2 profiles in soils with small solid-state sensorsAgric. Forest Meteorol118207220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Thierron, V., Laudelout, H. 1996Contribution of root respiration to total CO2 efflux from the soil of a deciduous forestCan. J. Forest Res2611421148Google Scholar
  44. Treonis, A.M., Wall, D.H., Virginia, R.A. 2002Field and microcosm studies of decomposition and soil biota in a cold desert soilEcosystems5159170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xu, L.K., Baldocchi, D.D. 2004Seasonal variation in carbon dioxide exchange over a Mediterranean annual grassland in CaliforniaAgric. Forest Meteorol1237996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Xu L., Baldocchi D.D. and Tang J. 2004. How soil moisture, rain pulses, and growth alter the response of ecosystem respiration to temperature. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18(4): Art. No.4002.Google Scholar
  47. Xu, M., Qi, Y. 2001Soil-surface CO2 efflux and its spatial and temporal variations in a young ponderosa pine plantation in northern CaliforniaGlobal Change Biol7667677CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and ManagementUniversity of California at BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA

Personalised recommendations