, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 153–226 | Cite as

Nitrogen Cycles: Past, Present, and Future

  • J. N. Galloway
  • F. J. Dentener
  • D. G. Capone
  • E. W. Boyer
  • R. W. Howarth
  • S. P. Seitzinger
  • G. P. Asner
  • C. C. Cleveland
  • P. A. Green
  • E. A. Holland
  • D. M. Karl
  • A. F. Michaels
  • J. H. Porter
  • A. R. Townsend
  • C. J. Vöosmarty


This paper contrasts the natural and anthropogenic controls on the conversion of unreactive N2 to more reactive forms of nitrogen (Nr). A variety of data sets are used to construct global N budgets for 1860 and the early 1990s and to make projections for the global N budget in 2050. Regional N budgets for Asia, North America, and other major regions for the early 1990s, as well as the marine N budget, are presented to Highlight the dominant fluxes of nitrogen in each region. Important findings are that human activities increasingly dominate the N budget at the global and at most regional scales, the terrestrial and open ocean N budgets are essentially disconnected, and the fixed forms of N are accumulating in most environmental reservoirs. The largest uncertainties in our understanding of the N budget at most scales are the rates of natural biological nitrogen fixation, the amount of Nr storage in most environmental reservoirs, and the production rates of N2 by denitrification.

nitrogen Haber-Bosch fertilizer fossil fuel combustion denitrification nitrogen fixation 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. N. Galloway
    • 1
  • F. J. Dentener
    • 2
  • D. G. Capone
    • 3
  • E. W. Boyer
    • 4
  • R. W. Howarth
    • 5
  • S. P. Seitzinger
    • 6
  • G. P. Asner
    • 7
  • C. C. Cleveland
    • 8
  • P. A. Green
    • 9
  • E. A. Holland
    • 10
  • D. M. Karl
    • 11
  • A. F. Michaels
    • 11
    • 2
  • J. H. Porter
    • 11
    • 3
  • A. R. Townsend
    • 11
    • 4
  • C. J. Vöosmarty
    • 11
    • 5
  1. 1.Environmental Sciences DepartmentUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Joint Research CentreInstitute for Environment and Sustainability Climate Change UnitIspraItaly
  3. 3.Wrigley Institute for Environmental StudiesUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.College of Environmental Science and ForestryState University of New YorkSyracuseUSA
  5. 5.Department of Ecology & Evolutionary BiologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  6. 6.Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, RutgersThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA
  7. 7.Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie InstitutionStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  8. 8.Institute of Arctic and Alpine ResearchUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  9. 9.Complex Systems Research Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and SpaceUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  10. 10.Atmospheric Chemistry DivisionNational Center for Atmospheric ResearchBoulderUSA
  11. 11.Environmental Sciences DepartmentUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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