, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 399–412 | Cite as

Treatment of landfill leachate using UASB-MBR-SHARON–Anammox configuration

  • Deniz Akgul
  • Cigdem Kalkan Aktan
  • Kozet Yapsakli
  • Bulent Mertoglu
Original Paper


Leachate treatment is a challenging issue due to its high pollutant loads. There are several studies on feasible treatment methods of leachate. In the scope of this study, high organic content of young leachate was eliminated using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in sequence and effluent of the system was given to single reactor for high activity ammonia removal over nitrite (SHARON) and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) reactors to remove nitrogen content. All reactors were set up at lab scale in order to evaluate the usage of these processes in sequencing order for leachate treatment. COD and TKN removal efficiencies were over 90 % in the combined processes which were operated during the study. The biodegradable portion of organic matter was removed with an efficiency of 99 %. BOD5 concentration decreased to 50 mg/L by UASB and MBR in sequence even the influent BOD5 concentration was over 8,000 mg/L. Although high nitrogen concentrations were observed in raw leachate, successful removal of nitrogen was accomplished by consecutive operations of SHARON and Anammox reactors. The results of this study demonstrated that with an efficient pretreatment of leachate, the combination of SHARON–Anammox processes is an effective method for the treatment of high nitrogen content in leachate.


SHARON Anammox MBR UASB Leachate 



The authors thank Marmara University Scientific Research Committee (Project No. BAPKO FEN-C-DRP-060510-0145) and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Project No: 108Y269 for funding this study.


  1. Abma WR, Schultz CE, Mulder JW, van der Star WRL, Strous M, Tokutomi T, van Loosdrecht MCM (2007) Full-scale granular sludge Anammox process. Water Sci Technol 55(8–9):27–33. doi: 10.2166/Wst.2007.238 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed FN, Lan CQ (2012) Treatment of landfill leachate using membrane bioreactors: a review. Desalination 287:41–54. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2011.12.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahn W, Kang M, Yim S, Choi K (2002) Advanced landfill leachate treatment using an integrated membrane process. Desalination 149(1–3):109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akgul D, Mertoglu B, Yuzer B (2011) Characterization of landfill leachates in Turkey. Fresenius Environ Bull 20(10):2638–2642Google Scholar
  5. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), Water Environment Federation (WEF) (1999) Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th EdnGoogle Scholar
  6. An YY, Yang FL, Chua HC, Wong FS, Wu B (2008) The integration of methanogenesis with shortcut nitrification and denitrification in a combined UASB with MBR. Bioresour Technol 99(9):3714–3720. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.07.020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Appels L, Lauwers J, Degreve J, Helsen L, Lievens B, Willems K, Van Impe J, Dewil R (2011) Anaerobic digestion in global bio-energy production: potential and research challenges. Renew Sust Energy Rev 15(9):4295–4301. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bilgili MS, Demir A, Akkaya E, Ozkaya B (2008) COD fractions of leachate from aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors. J Hazard Mater 158(1):157–163. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.055 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bohziewicz J, Neczaj E, Kwarciak A (2008) Landfill leachate treatment by means of anaerobic membrane bioreactor. Desalination 221:559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boonyaroj V, Chiemchaisri C, Chiemchaisri W, Theepharaksapan S, Yamamoto K (2012) Toxic organic micro-pollutants removal mechanisms in long-term operated membrane bioreactor treating municipal solid waste leachate. Bioresource Technol 113(2012):174–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borzacconi L, Lopez I, Ohanian M, Vinas M (1999) Anaerobic–aerobic treatment of municipal solid waste leachate. Environ Technol 20(2):211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brouwer M, Van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen JJ (1996) One reactor system for ammonium removal via nitrite. Paper presented at the STOWA Report, 96-01. STOWA, Utrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  13. Calli B, Mertoglu B, Inanc B (2005a) Landfill leachate management in Istanbul: applications and alternatives. Chemosphere 59(6):819–829. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.10.064 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calli B, Mertoglu B, Inanc B, Yenigun O (2005b) Effects of high free ammonia concentrations on the performances of anaerobic bioreactors. Process Biochem 40(3–4):1285–1292. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calli B, Mertoglu B, Roest K, Inanc B (2006) Comparison of long-term performances and final microbial compositions of anaerobic reactors treating landfill leachate. Bioresour Technol 97(4):641–647. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2005.03.021 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Egli K, Fanger U, Alvarez PJJ, Siegrist H, van der Meer JR, Zehnder AJB (2001) Enrichment and characterization of an anammox bacterium from a rotating biological contactor treating ammonium-rich leachate. Arch Microbiol 175(3):198–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ganigue R, Lopez H, Balaguer MD, Colprim J (2007) Partial ammonium oxidation to nitrite of high ammonium content urban land fill leachates. Water Res 41(15):3317–3326. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.04.027 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hasar H, Unsal SA, Ipek U, Karatas S, Cınar O, Yaman C, Kınacı C (2009) Stripping/flocculation/membrane bioreactor/reverse osmosis treatment of municipal landfill leachate. J Hazard Mater 171:309–317. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hellinga C, van Loosdrecht MCM., Heijnen JJ (1997) Model based design of a novel process for ammonia removal from concentrated flows. Proceedings of 2nd Mathmod Symposium 865 (70)Google Scholar
  20. Hellinga C, Schellen AAJC, Mulder JW, van Loosdrecht MCM, Heijnen JJ (1998) The SHARON process: an innovative method for nitrogen removal from ammonium-rich waste water. Water Sci Technol 37(9):135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Inanc B, Calli B, Saatci A (2000) Characterization and anaerobic treatment of the sanitary landfill leachate in Istanbul. Water Sci Technol 41(3):223–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Jakopović HK, Matošić M, Muftić M, Čurlin M, Mijatović I (2008) Treatment of landfill leachate by ozonation, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and membrane bioreactor. Fresenius Environ Bull 17:687–695Google Scholar
  23. Jetten MSM, Horn SJ, vanLoosdrecht MCM (1997) Towards a more sustainable municipal wastewater treatment system. Water Sci Technol 35(9):171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jetten MSM, Strous M, van de Pas-Schoonen KT, Schalk J, van Dongen UGJM, van de Graaf AA, Logemann S, Muyzer G, van Loosdrecht MCM, Kuenen JG (1998) The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium. FEMS Microbiol Rev 22(5):421–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jetten MSM, Wagner M, Fuerst J, van Loosdrecht M, Kuenen G, Strous M (2001) Microbiology and application of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (‘anammox’) process. Curr Opin Biotechnol 12(3):283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kennedy EJ, Lentz EM (2000) Treatment of landfill leachate using sequencing batch and continuous flow upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Water Res 34(14):3640–3656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koster IW (1986) Characteristics of the pH-influenced adaptation of methanogenic sludge to ammonium toxicity. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 36(10):445–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Le-Clech P, Chen V, Fane TAG (2006) Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment. J Membr Sci 284(1–2):17–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liang Z, Liu HX (2007) Control factors of partial nitritation for landfill leachate treatment. J Environ Sci (China) 19(5):523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liang Z, Liu JX (2008) Landfill leachate treatment with a novel process: anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) combined with soil infiltration system. J Hazard Mater 151(1):202–212. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.05.068 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu J, Zuo JE, Yang Y, Zhu SQ, Kuang SL, Wang KJ (2010) An autotrophic nitrogen removal process: short-cut nitrification combined with ANAMMOX for treating diluted effluent from an UASB reactor fed by landfill leachatee. J Environ Sci (China) 22(5):777–783. doi: 10.1016/S1001-0742(09)60176-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Park S, Bae W (2009) Modeling kinetics of ammonium oxidation and nitrite oxidation under simultaneous inhibition by free ammonia and free nitrous acid. Process Biochem 44(6):631–640. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2009.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Patsios SI, Karabelas AJ (2011) An investigation of the long-term filtration performance of a membrane bioreactor (MBR): the role of specific organic fractions. J Membr Sci 372(1–2):102–115. doi: 10.1016/j.memsci.2011.01.055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Renou S, Givaudan JG, Poulain S, Dirassouyan F, Moulin P (2008) Landfill leachate treatment: review and opportunity. J Hazard Mater 150(3):468–493. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.09.077 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Singh RP, Kumar S, Ojha CSP (1998) A critique on operational strategies for start-up of UASB reactors: effects of sludge loading rate and seed/biomass concentration. Biochem Eng J 1(2):107–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Strous M, VanGerven E, Zheng P, Kuenen JG, Jetten MSM (1997) Ammonium removal from concentrated waste streams with the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in different reactor configurations. Water Res 31(8):1955–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Timur H, Ozturk I (1999) Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor treatment of landfill leachate. Water Res 33(15):3225–3230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tsilogeorgis J, Zouboulis A, Samaras P, Zamboulis D (2008) Application of a membrane sequencing batch reactor for landfill leachate treatment. Desalination 221(1–3):483–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. van Dongen U, Jetten MSM, van Loosdrecht MCM (2001) The SHARON–Anammox process for treatment of ammonium rich wastewater. Water Sci Technol 44(1):153–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Vilar A, Eiroa M, Kennes C, Veiga MC (2010) The SHARON process in the treatment of landfill leachate. Water Sci Technol 61(1):47–52. doi: 10.2166/Wst.2010.786 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xu YP, Zhou YQ, Wang DH, Chen SH, Liu JX, Wang ZJ (2008) Occurrence and removal of organic micropollutants in the treatment of landfill leachate by combined anaerobic-membrane bioreactor technology. J Environ Sci (China) 20(11):1281–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang HG, Zhou SQ (2006) Treating leachate mixture with anaerobic ammonium oxidation technology. J Cent South Univ Technol 13(6):663–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deniz Akgul
    • 1
  • Cigdem Kalkan Aktan
    • 1
  • Kozet Yapsakli
    • 1
  • Bulent Mertoglu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of EngineeringMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations