, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1239–1245 | Cite as

Degradation of the synthetic dye amaranth by the fungus Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1: inference of the degradation pathway from an analysis of decolorized products

  • Nichina Gomi
  • Shuji Yoshida
  • Kazutsugu Matsumoto
  • Masayuki Okudomi
  • Hiroki Konno
  • Toru Hisabori
  • Yasushi Sugano
Original Paper


We examined the degradation of amaranth, a representative azo dye, by Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1. The degradation products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), visible absorbance, and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (ESI-TOF-MS). At the primary culture stage (3 days), the probable reaction intermediates were 1-aminonaphthalene-2,3,6-triol, 4-(hydroxyamino) naphthalene-1-ol, and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-sulfophenyl) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonic acid. After 10 days, the reaction products detected were 4-nitrophenol, phenol, 2-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid, 4-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid, and 3,4′-disulfonyl azo benzene, suggesting that no aromatic amines were created. Manganese-dependent peroxidase activity increased sharply after 3 days culture. Based on these results, we herein propose, for the first time, a degradation pathway for amaranth. Our results suggest that Dec 1 degrades amaranth via the combined activities of peroxidase and hydrolase and reductase action.


Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1 Amaranth Azo Degradation Peroxidase 



We thank professor Angel T. Martínez for the valuable suggestion that strain Dec 1 should be reclassified.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nichina Gomi
    • 1
  • Shuji Yoshida
    • 1
  • Kazutsugu Matsumoto
    • 2
  • Masayuki Okudomi
    • 2
  • Hiroki Konno
    • 1
  • Toru Hisabori
    • 1
  • Yasushi Sugano
    • 1
  1. 1.R1-7 Chemical Resources LaboratoryTokyo Institute of TechnologyYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, College of Science and TechnologyMeisei UniversityTokyoJapan

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