Biodegradation

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 253–265

Enhanced degradation of phenol by Pseudomonas sp. CP4 entrapped in agar and calcium alginate beads in batch and continuous processes

Original Paper

Abstract

Phenol is one of the major toxic pollutants in the wastes generated by a number of industries and needs to be eliminated before their discharge. Although microbial degradation is a preferred method of waste treatment for phenol removal, the general inability of the degrading strains to tolerate higher substrate concentrations has been a bottleneck. Immobilization of the microorganism in suitable matrices has been shown to circumvent this problem to some extent. In this study, cells of Pseudomonas sp. CP4, a laboratory isolate that degrades phenol, cresols, and other aromatics, were immobilized by entrapment in Ca-alginate and agar gel beads, separately and their performance in a fluidized bed bioreactor was compared. In batch runs, with an aeration rate of 1 vol−1 vol−1 min−1, at 30°C and pH 7.0 ± 0.2, agar-encapsulated cells degraded up to 3000 mg l−1 of phenol as compared to 1500 mg l−1 by Ca-alginate-entrapped cells whereas free cells could tolerate only 1000 mg l−1. In a continuous process with Ca-alginate entrapped cells a degradation rate of 200 mg phenol l−1 h−1 was obtained while agar-entrapped cells were far superior and could withstand and degrade up to 4000 mg phenol l−1 in the feed with a maximum degradation rate of 400 mg phenol l−1 h−1. The results indicate a clear possibility of development of an efficient treatment technology for phenol containing waste waters with the agar-entrapped bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp. CP4.

Keywords

Phenol Pseudomonas sp. CP4 Immobilization Ca-alginate Agar gel Degradation rate 

References

  1. Abd-El-Haleem D, Beshay U, Abdelhamid AO, Moawad H, Zaki S (2003) Effects of mixed nitrogen sources on biodegradation of phenol by immobilized Acinetobacter sp. strain W-17. Afr J Biotechnol 2:8–12Google Scholar
  2. Agarry SE, Durojaiye AO, Solomon BO (2008) Microbial degradation of phenols: a review. Int J Environ Pollut 32:12–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahamad PYA, Kunhi AAM (1996) Degradation of phenol through ortho-cleavage pathway by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain SPC-2. Lett Appl Microbiol 22:26–29. doi:10.1111lj.1472-765X.1996.tbOl101.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahamad PYA, Kunhi AAM (1999) Degradation of high concentrations of cresols by Pseudomonas sp. CP4. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 15:28–283. doi:10.1023/A:1008821120432 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahamad PYA, Varadaraj MC, Kunhi AAM (1996) Isolation and characterisation of phenol and cresol degrading pseudomonads. In: Kahlon RS (ed) Perspectives in microbiology. National Agricultural Technology Information Centre, Ludhiana, pp 35–41Google Scholar
  6. Ahamad PYA, Kunhi AAM, Divakar S (2001) New metabolic pathway for o-cresol degradation by Pseudomonas sp. CP4 as evidenced by H NMR spectroscopic studies. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 17:371–377. doi:10.10231A:1016611702882 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amor L, Eiroa M, Kennes C, Veiga MC (2005) Phenol biodegradation and its effect on the nitrification process. Water Res 39:2915–2920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anselmo AM, Cabral JMS, Novais JM (1989) The adsorption of Fusarium flocciferum spores on celite particles and their use in the degradation of phenol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 31:200–203. doi:10.1007/BF00262463 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Babu KS, Ajith-Kumar PV, Kunhi AAM (1995a) Simultaneous degradation of 3-chlorobenzoate and phenolic compounds by a defined mixed culture of Pseudomonas spp. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 11:148–152. doi:l0.l007/BF00704636 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Babu KS, Ajith-Kumar PV, Kunhi AAM (1995b) Mineralisation of phenol and its derivatives by Pseudomnas sp. strain CP4. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 11:661–664. doi:l0.l007/BF00361012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bajaj M, Gallert C, Winter J (2008) Biodegradation of high phenol containing synthetic wastewater by an aerobic fixed bed reactor. Bioresour Technol 99:8376–8381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandhyopadhyay K, Das D, Maiti BR (1999) Solid matrix characterization of immobilized Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194 used for phenol degradation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 51:891–895. doi:10.1007/s002530051479 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bettmann H, Rehm HJ (1984) Degradation of phenol by polymer entrapped microorganisms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 20:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bettmann H, Rehm HJ (1985) Continuous degradation of phenol(s) by Pseudomonas putida P8 entrapped in polyacrylamide-hydrazide. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 22:389–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brar SK, Verma M, Surampalli RY, Misra S, Tyagi RD, Meunier N, et Blais J-F (2006) Bioremediation of hazardous wastes—a review. Pract Period Hazard Toxicol Radioact Waste Manag 10:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen KC, Lin YH, Chen WH, Liu YC (2002) Degradation of phenol by PAA-immobilized Candida tropicalis. Enzyme Microb Technol 31:490–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chung T-P, Tseng H-Y, Juang R-S (2003) Mass transfer effect and intermediate detection for phenol degradation in immobilized Pseudomonas putida systems. Process Biochem 38:1497–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CMR (2005) Phenol: chemical profile. Chemical Market Reporter, pp 34–35Google Scholar
  19. Dainty AL, Goulding KH, Robinson PK, Simpkins I, Trevan MD (1985) Stability of alginate-immobilized algal cells. Biotechnol Bioeng 28:210–216. doi:10.1002/bit.260280210 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dursun AY, Tepe O (2005) Internal mass transfer effect on biodegradation of phenol by Ca-alginate immobilized Ralstonia eutropha. J Hazard Mater 126:105–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. El-Sayed WS, Ibrahim MK, Abu-Shady M, El-Beih F, Ohmura N, Saiki H, Ando A (2003) Isolation and characterization of phenol-catabolizing bacteria from a coking plant. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:2026–2029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feitkenhauer H, Schnicke S, Muller R, Markl H (2003) Kinetic parameters of continuous cultures of Bacillus thermoleovorans sp. A2 degrading phenol at 65°C. J Biotechnol 103:29–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fialova A, Boschke E, Bley T (2004) Rapid monitoring of the biodegradation of phenol-like compounds by the yeast Candida maltosa using BOD measurements. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 54:69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hannaford AM, Kuek C (1999) Aerobic batch degradation of phenol using immobilized Pseudomonas putida. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 22:121–126. doi:10.1038/sj.jim.2900617 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Juárez-Ramírez C, Ruiz-Ordaz N, Cristiani-Urbina E, Galíndez-Mayer J (2001) Degradation kinetics of phenol by immobilized cells of Candida tropicalis in a fluidized bed reactor. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 17:697–705. doi:10.1023/A:1012979100827 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kapoor A, Kumar R, Kumar A, Sharma A, Prasad S (1998) Application of immobilized mixed bacterial culture for the degradation of phenol present in oil refinery effluent. J Environ Sci Health A 33:1009–1021. doi:10.1080/10934529809376773 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Karigar C, Mahesh A, Nagenahalli M, Yun DJ (2006) Phenol degradation by immobilized cells of Arthrobacter citreus. Biodegradation 17:47–55. doi:10.1007/s10532-005-3048-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keweloh H, Heipieper HJ, Rehm HJ (1989) Protection of bacteria against toxicity of phenol by immobilization in calcium alginate. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 31:383–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kumar A, Kumar S, Kumar S (2005) Biodegradation kinetics of phenol and catechol using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Biochem Eng J 22:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lacoste RJ, Venable SH, Stone JC (1959) Modified 4-aminoantipyrene colorimetric method for phenols. Applications to an acrylic monomer. Anal Chem 31:1246–1249. doi:10.1021/ac60151a007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lakhwala FS, Goldberg BS, Sofer SS (1992) A comparative study of gel entrapped and membrane attached microbial reactors for biodegrading phenol. Bioprocess Eng 8:9–18. doi:10.1007/BF00369258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu YJ, Zhang AN, Wang XC (2009) Biodegradation of phenol by using free and immobilized cells of Acinetobacter sp. XA05 and Sphingomonas sp. FG03. Biochem Eng J 44:187–192. doi:10.1016/j.bej.2008.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Loh KC, Chung TS, Ang WF (2000) Immobilized-cell membrane bioreactor for high-strength phenol wastewater. J Environ Eng 126:75–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ma H, Li G, Fang P, Zhang Y, Xu D (2010) Identification of phenol-degrading Nocardia sp. strain C-14-1 and characterization of its ring-cleavage 2,3-dioxygenase. Int J Biol 2:79–83Google Scholar
  36. Mailin M, Firdausi R (2007) The kinetics of phenol degradation by immobilized Pseudomonas sp. in a repeated-batch process. Malays Appl Biol 36:73–78Google Scholar
  37. Marrot B, Barrios-Martinez A, Moulin P, Roche N (2008) Biodegradation of high phenol concentration in a membrane bioreactor. Int J Chem React Eng 6:1–12Google Scholar
  38. Mordocco A, Kuek C, Jenkins R (1999) Continuous degradation of phenol at low concentration using immobilized Pseudomonas putida. Enzyme Microb Technol 25:530–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ogbonna JC, Matsumura M, Kataoka H (1991) Effective oxygenation of immobilized cells through the reduction in bead diameters: a review. Process Biochem 26:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Prieto M, Hidalgo A, Serra JL, Llama MJ (2002) Degradation of phenol by Rhodococcus erythropolis UPV-1 immobilized on Biolite in a packed-bed reactor. J Biotechnol 97:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rittmann BE, McCarty PL (2001) Environmental biotechnology: principles and applications. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Santos VL, Heilbuth NM, Braga DT, Monteiro AS, Linardi VR (2003) Phenol degradation by a Graphium sp. FIB4 isolated from industrial effluents. J Basic Microbiol 43:238–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shetty KV, Ramanjaneyulu R, Srinikethan G (2007) Biological phenol removal using immobilized cells in a pulsed plate bioreactor: effect of dilution rate and influent phenol concentration. J Hazard Mater 149:452–459. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.04.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tay J-H, Jiang H-L, Tay ST-L (2004) High-rate biodegradation of phenol by aerobically grown microbial granules. J Environ Eng 130:1415–1423. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(2004)130:12(1415) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tziotzios G, Economoua ChN, Lyberatos G, Vayenas DV (2007) Effect of the specific surface area and operating mode on biological phenol removal using packed bed reactors. Desalination 211:128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Watanabe K, Miyashita M, Harayama S (2000) Starvation improves survival of bacteria introduced into activated sludge. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:3905–3910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yan J, Jianping W, Hongmei L, Suliang Y, Zongding H (2005) The biodegradation of phenol at high initial concentration by the yeast Candida tropicalis. Biochem Eng J 24:243–247. doi:10.1016/j.bej.2005.02.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yordanova G, Ivanova D, Godjevargova T, Krastanov A (2009) Biodegradation of phenol by immobilized Aspergillus awamori NRRL 3112 on modified polyacrylonitrile membrane. Biodegradation 20:717–726. doi:10.1007/s10532-009-9259-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food MicrobiologyCentral Food Technological Research InstituteMysoreIndia
  2. 2.Central Food LaboratorySupreme Council of HealthDohaQatar

Personalised recommendations