Biodegradation of bisphenol A and its halogenated analogues by Cunninghamella elegans ATCC36112
- 384 Downloads
Bisphenol A and its halogenated analogues are commonly used industrial chemicals with strong toxicological effects over many organisms. In this study, metabolic fate of bisphenol A and its halogenated analogues were evaluated with Cunninghamella elegans ATCC36112. Bisphenol A and related analogues were rapidly transformed into several metabolites by C. elegans within 2–4 days. Detailed analysis of metabolites reveals that both phase I and II metabolism occurred in C. elegans. Cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylation was observed in BPA. However, major reaction with bisphenol A and analogues with 1-2 halogen atoms were the formation of glucose-conjugate, not being inhibited by cytochrome P450 inhibitor. Overall metabolic rates decreased with increasing number of substitution at 2- and 6-position of BPA structures, which may be consequences of limited bioavailability or steric hindrance to conjugate-forming reaction. Information from the current study will provide detailed insights over the fungal metabolism of BPA and analogues.
KeywordsCunninghamella elegans Bisphenol A Analogue Glycoside
- Domoradzki JY, Thornton CM, Pottenger LH, Hansen SC, Card TL, Markham DA, Dryzga MD, Shiotsuka RN, Waechter JM Jr (2004) Age and dose dependency of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bisphenol A in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration. Toxicol Sci 77:230–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakajima N, Ohshima Y, Serizawa S, Kouda T, Edmonds JS, Shiraishi F, Aono M, Kubo A, Tamaoki M, Saji H, Morita M (2002) Processing of bisphenol A by plant tissues: glucosylation by cultured BY-2 cells and glucosylation/translocation by plants of Nicotiana tabacum. Plant Cell Physiol 43:1036–1042CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar