, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 967–978 | Cite as

Isolation and characterization of alkalotolerant bacteria and optimization of process parameters for decolorization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent by Taguchi approach

  • Monika MishraEmail author
  • Indu Shekhar Thakur
Original Paper


Four different bacterial strains were isolated from pulp and paper mill sludge in which one alkalotolerant isolate (LP1) having higher capability to remove color and lignin, was identified as Bacillus sp. by 16S RNA sequencing. Optimization of process parameters for decolorization was initially performed to select growth factors which were further substantiated by Taguchi approach in which seven factors, % carbon, % black liquor, duration, pH, temperature, stirring and inoculum size, at two levels, applying L-8 orthogonal array were taken. Maximum color was removed at pH 8, temperature 35°C, stirring 200 rpm, sucrose (2.5%), 48 h, 5% (w/v) inoculum size and 10% black liquor. After optimization 2-fold increase in color and lignin removal from 25–69% and 28–53%, respectively, indicated significance of Taguchi approach in decolorization and delignification of lignin in pulp and paper mill effluent. Enzymes involved in the process of decolorization of effluent were found to be xylanase (54 U/ml) and manganese peroxidase (28 U/ml). Treated effluent was also evaluated for toxicity by Comet assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism, which indicated 58% reduction after treatment by bacterium.


Bacillus sp Decolorization Detoxification Black liquor Taguchi approach Comet assay 



This paper was supported by the research grants of Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, and New Delhi, India. The author (MM) thanks Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India, New Delhi, India, for providing Research Fellowship. We also thank Century pulp and paper mill, Uttarakhand, India for providing effluent and sludge during the course of investigation and R. K. Roy for providing Qualitek-4 software.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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