, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 637–644

Degradation of Chlorpyrifos by an alkaline phosphatase from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

  • Rutwik Ravindra Mandakini Thengodkar
  • S. Sivakami
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10532-010-9331-6

Cite this article as:
Thengodkar, R.R.M. & Sivakami, S. Biodegradation (2010) 21: 637. doi:10.1007/s10532-010-9331-6


Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped, multicellular, blue-green microalga. The two most important species are Spirulinamaxima and Spirulinaplatensis. Spirulina is considered an excellent food, lacking toxicity and having corrective properties against viral attacks, anemia, tumor growth and malnutrition. We have observed that cultures of Spirulina platensis grow in media containing up to 80 ppm of the organophosphorous pesticide, Chlorpyrifos. It was found to be due to an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity that was detected in cell free extracts of Spirulina platensis. This activity was purified from the cell free extracts using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration and shown to belong to the class of EC ALP. The purified enzyme degrades 100 ppm Chlorpyrifos to 20 ppm in 1 h transforming it into its primary metabolite 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. This is the first report of degradation of Chlorpyrifos by Spirulina platensis whose enzymic mechanism has been clearly identified. These findings have immense potential for harnessing Spirulina platensis in bioremediation of polluted ecosystems.


Alkaline phosphatase Chlorpyrifos Cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis Bioremediation 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rutwik Ravindra Mandakini Thengodkar
    • 1
  • S. Sivakami
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesUniversity of MumbaiMumbaiIndia

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