Advertisement

Biodegradation

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 693–701 | Cite as

Modeling bio-protection and the gradient-resistance mechanism

  • Alex O. Schwarz
  • Bruce E. Rittmann
Original Paper

Abstract

We expand the biogeochemical program CCBATCH to describe transport processes in 1-D ground-water systems. We use the expanded CCBATCH with our biogeochemical framework for metal detoxification in sulfidic systems to study complex bio-protection scenarios. In particular, in our numerical experiments we expose a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria and fermenting bacteria to a toxic concentration of Zn2+ in a 1-D system with precipitation of zinc-sulfide solids turned off or on. Our results confirm the key role of sulfide precipitation in detoxification when coupled effects of transport and biological processes are considered. The potential of sulfide as a detoxifying agent in bio-protection is explained by its high mobility, its high affinity for metals, and its high rate of production in sulfidic systems. Thus, our numerical results offer important evidence for the gradient-resistance mechanism and validate that a metal-resistance criterion developed from an analytical solution is accurate for defining when bio-protection should succeed.

Keywords

Biogeochemical model Bio-protection Metal speciation Metal detoxification Sulfidic systems Toxic metals 

References

  1. Benner SG, Blowes DW, Gould WD et al (1999) Geochemistry of a permeable reactive barrier for metals and acid mine drainage. Environ Sci Technol 33(16):2793–2799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benner SG, Blowes DW, Ptacek CJ, Mayer KU (2002) Rates of sulfate reduction and metal sulfide precipitation in a permeable reactive barrier. Appl Geochem 17:301–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blowes DW, Ptacek CJ, Benner SG et al (2000) Treatment of inorganic contaminants using permeable reactive barriers. Contam Hydrol 45:123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Campbell PGC (1995) Interactions between trace metals and organisms: critique of the free-ion activity model. In: Tessier A, Turner D (eds) Metal speciation and bioavailability in aquatic systems. Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  5. Campbell PGC, Errecalde O, Fortin C, Hiriart-Baer VP, Vigneault B (2002) Metal bioavailability to phytoplankton – applicability of the biotic ligand model. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C 133:189–206Google Scholar
  6. Kirkner DJ, Reeves H (1988) Multicomponent mass transport with homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions: effect of the chemistry on the choice of numerical algorithm, 1. Theory. Water Resour Res 24(10):1719–1729 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Paquin PR, Gorsuch JW, Apte S et al (2002) The biotic ligand model: a historical overview. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C 133:3–35Google Scholar
  8. Rittmann BE, McCarty PL (2001) Environmental biotechnology: principles and applications. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Schwarz AO, Rittmann BE (2007) A biogeochemical framework for metal detoxification in sulfidic systems. Biodegradation (in press). doi:  10.1007/s10532-007-9101-2
  10. Schwarz AO, Rittmann BE (2006) Analytical-modeling analysis of how pore-water gradients of toxic metals confer community resistance. Adv Water Res (in press). doi:  10.1016/j.advwatres.2006.05.015
  11. Steefel CI, Lasaga AC (1994) A coupled model for transport of multiple chemical species and kinetic precipitation/dissolution reactions with application to reactive flow in single phase hydrothermal systems. Am J Sci 294:529–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1996) Aquatic chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Tebes-Stevens C, Valocchi AJ, Van Briesen JM, Rittmann BE (1998) Multicomponent transport with coupled geochemical and microbiological reactions: model description and example simulations. J Hydrol 209:8–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Waybrant KR, Ptacek CJ, Blowes DW (2002) Treatment of mine drainage using permeable reactive barriers: column experiments. Environ Sci Technol 36:1349–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of ConcepciónConcepciónChile
  2. 2.Center for Environmental BiotechnologyBiodesign Institute at Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

Personalised recommendations