, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 71–81 | Cite as

Kinetic analysis of the inhibitory effect of trichloroethylene (TCE) on nitrification in cometabolic degradation

  • Bilge Alpaslan Kocamemi
  • Ferhan Çeçen


In this study, the inhibitory effect of TCE on nitrification process was investigated with an enriched nitrifier culture. TCE was found to be a competitive inhibitor of ammonia oxidation and the inhibition constant (K I ) was determined as 666–802 μg/l. The TCE affinity for the AMO enzyme was significantly higher than ammonium. The effect of TCE on ammonium utilization was evaluated with linearized plots of Monod equation (e.g., Lineweaver–Burk, Hanes–Woolf and Eadie–Hofstee plots) and non-linear least square regression (NLSR). No significant differences were found among these data evaluation methods in terms of kinetic parameters obtained.


cometabolism kinetics modelling nitrification trichloroethylene 



inhibitory (non-growth) substrate concentration, μg non-growth substrate/l


inhibition constant of inhibitory (non-growth) substrate, μg non-growth substrate/l


dissociation constant of enzyme-substrate-inhibitory substance (ESI) complex, μg non-growth substrate/l

\(K_{\rm S}^{\rm app}\):

apparent half-saturation constant for growth substrate, mg substrate/l


half-saturation constant for growth substrate, mg growth substrate/l


specific substrate utilization rate, mg substrate/g VSS h

\(q_{{\rm NH}_{4}\hbox {-}{\rm N}}\):

specific ammonium utilization rate, mg NH4-N/g VSS h


maximum specific substrate utilization rate, mg substrate/g VSS h

\(q_{{\rm max, NH}_{4}\hbox {-}{\rm N}}\):

maximum specific ammonium utilization rate, mg NH4-N/g VSS h

\(q_{{\rm max, NH}_{4}\hbox {-}{\rm N}}^{\rm app}\):

apparent maximum specific ammonium utilization rate, mg NH4-N/g VSS h


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The financial supports of this study by TUBITAK (Project No: IÇTAG A038) and Research Fund of Bogazici University (Project No: B.A.P. 02Y101D) are gratefully acknowledged. We thank Bulent Mertoglu and Nuray Guler for FISH and DGGE analyses of sludge samples.


  1. Alpaslan Kocamemi B, Çeçen F, (2005) Cometabolic degradation of TCE in enriched nitrifying batch systems J. Hazard. Mater. B125: 260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alpaslan Kocamemi B, (2005) Cometabolic Degradation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in Nitrification Systems. PhD Dissertation Bogazici University Istanbul, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez Cohen L, McCarty PL, (1991) Product toxicity and cometabolic competitive inhibition modelling of chloroform and trichloroethylene transformation by methanotrophic resting cells Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 1031–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson JE, McCarty PL, (1997) Transformation yields of chlorinated ethenes by a methanotrophic mixed culture expressing particulate methane monooxygenase Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(2): 687–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. APHA, AWWA, WEF (1998) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th edn, American Public Heath Association, Washington DC, USA Google Scholar
  6. Arciero D, Vannelli T, Logan M, Hooper AB, (1989) Degradation of trichloroethylene by the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas Europaea Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 159(2): 640–643CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (1997) Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene, Atlanta, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey JE, Ollis DF, (1986) Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals McGraw Hill SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang HL, Alvarez-Cohen L, (1995a) Model for the cometabolic biodegradation of chlorinated organics Environ. Sci. Technol. 29: 2357–2367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chang HL, Alvarez-Cohen L, (1995b) Transformation capacities of chlorinated organics by mixed cultures enriched on methane, propane, toluene, or phenol Biotechnol. Bioeng. 45: 440–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chu KH, Alvarez-Cohen L, (1999) Evaluation of toxic effects of aeration and trichloroethylene oxidation on Methanotrophic bacteria grown with different nitrogen sources Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65(2): 766–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chu KH, Alvarez-Cohen L, (2000) Treatment of chlorinated solvents by nitrogen-fixing and nitrate-supplied methane oxidizers in columns packed with unsaturated porous media Environ. Sci. Technol. 34(9): 1784–1793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cornish-Bowden A, (1995) Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics Portand Press Ltd LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Duba AG, Jackson KJ, Jovanovich MC, Knapp RB, Taylor T, (1996) TCE remediation using in situ, resting-state bioaugmentation Environ. Sci. Technol. 30:1982–1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eguchi M, Kitagawa M, Suzuki Y, Nakamuara M, Kawai T, Okamura K, Sasaki S, Miyake Y, (2001) A field evaluation of in situ biodegradation of trichloroethylene through methane injection Wat. Res. 35(9): 2145–2152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ely RL, Hyman MR, Arp DJ, Guenther RB, Williamson KJ, (1995) A cometabolic kinetics model incorporating enzyme inhibition, inactivation, and recovery: II Trichloroethylene degradation experiments Biotechnol. Bioeng. 46(3): 232–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ely RL, Williamson KJ, Hyman MR, Arp DJ, (1997) Cometabolism of chlorinated solvents by nitrifying bacteria: kinetics, substrate interactions, toxicity effects, and bacterial response Biotechnol. Bioeng. 54(6): 520–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. EPA (1992) TCE removal from contaminated soil and groundwater. EPA/540/S-92/002, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, US EPA, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  19. Fries MR, Forney LJ, Tiedje JM, (1997) Phenol-and toluene-degrading microbial populations from an aquifer in which successful trichloroethene cometabolism occurred Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63(4): 1523–1530Google Scholar
  20. Guo GL, Tseng DH, Huang SL, (2001) Co-metabolic degradation of trichloroethylene by Pseudomonas Putida in a fibrous bed bioreactor Biotechnol. Lett. 23: 1653–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hyman MR, Russell SA, Ely RL, Williamson KJ, Arp DJ, (1995) Inhibition, inactivation, and recovery of ammonia-oxidizing activity in cometabolism of trichloroethylene by Nitrosomonas Europaea Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(4): 1480–1487Google Scholar
  22. Kang J, Lee EY, Park S, (2001) Co-metabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene by Methylosinus Trichosporium is stimulated by low concentrations methane or methanol Biotechnol. Lett. 23: 1877–1882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Knightes CD, Peters CA, (2000) Statistical analysis of nonlinear parameter estimation for monod biodegradation kinetics using bivariate data Biotechnol. Bioeng. 69(2): 160–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mertoglu B, Calli B, Girgin E, Inanc B & Ozturk I , (2005) Comparative analysis of nitrifying bacteria in fullscale oxidation ditch and aerated nitrification biofilter by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A. 40: 937-948Google Scholar
  25. Mobarry BK, Wagner M, Urbain V, Rittmann BE, Stahl DA , (1996) Phylogenetic probes for analyzing abundance and spatial organization of nitrifying bacteria Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 2156-2162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Nakano Y, Nishijima W, Soto E, Okado M, (1999) Relationship between growth rate of phenol utilizing bacteria and the toxic effects of metabolic intermediates of trichloroethylene (TCE) Wat. Res. 33(4): 1085–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nicolaisen MH, Ramsing NB, (2002) Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches to study the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria J. Microbiol. Methods. 50: 189-203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Racsche ME, Hyman MR, Arp DJ, (1991) Factors limiting aliphatic chlorocarbon degradation by Nitrosomonas Europaea: cometabolic inactivation of ammonia monooxygenase and substrate specificity Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57(10): 2986–2994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Shuler ML & Kargi F (2001) Bioprocess Engineering Basic Concepts. Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith LH, Kitanidis PK, McCarty PL (1997) Numerical modeling and uncertainities in rate coefficients for methane utilization and TCE cometabolism by a methane-oxidizing mixed culture Biotechnol. Bioeng. 53(3): 320–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Speitel GE, Segar RL, (1995) Cometabolism in biofilm reactors Wat. Sci. Tech. 31(1): 215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sun AK, Hong J, Wood TK, (1997) Trichloroethylene mineralization in a fixed-film bioreactor using a pure culture expressing constitutively toluene ortho-monooxygenase Biotechnol. Bioeng. 55(4): 674–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yang L, Chang YF, Chou MS, (1999) Feasibility of bioremediation of trichloroethylene contaminated sites by nitrifying bacteria through cometabolism with ammonia J. Hazard. Mater. B69: 111–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringUniversity of MarmaraIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental SciencesUniversity of BogaziciIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations