Advertisement

Biodegradation

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 535–544 | Cite as

Biodegradation kinetics of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol by an acclimated mixed microbial culture under aerobic conditions

  • Christopher J.P. Snyder
  • M. Asghar
  • Jeno M. Scharer
  • Raymond L. LeggeEmail author
Article

Abstract

The objective of this study was to achieve a better quantitative understanding of the kinetics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) biodegradation by an acclimated mixed microbial culture. An aerobic mixed microbial culture, obtained from the aeration basin of the wastewater treatment plant, was acclimated in shake flasks utilizing various combinations of 2,4,6-TCP (25–100 mg l−1), phenol (300 mg l−1) and glycerol (2.5 mg l−1) as substrates. Complete primary TCP degradation and a corresponding stoichiometric release of chloride ion were observed by HPLC and IEC analytical techniques, respectively. The acclimated cultures were then used as an inoculum for bench scale experiments in a 4 l stirred-tank reactor (STR) with 2,4,6-TCP as the sole carbon/energy (C/E) source. The phenol acclimated mixed microbial culture consisted of primarily Gram positive and negative rods and was capable of degrading 2,4,6-TCP completely. None of the predicted intermediate compounds were detected by gas chromatography in the cell cytoplasm or supernatant. Based on the disappearance of 2,4,6-TCP, degradation was well modelled by zero-order kinetics which was also consistent with the observed oxygen consumption. Biodegradation rates were compared for four operating conditions including two different initial 2,4,6-TCP concentrations and two different initial biomass concentrations. While the specific rate constant was not dependent on the initial 2,4,6-TCP concentration, it did depend on the initial biomass concentration (X init). A lower biomass concentration gave a much higher zero-order specific degradation rate. This behaviour was attributed to a lower average biomass age or cell retention time (θx) for these cultures. The implications of this investigation are important for determining and predicting the potential risks associated with TCP, its degradation in the natural environment or the engineering implications for ex situ treatment of contaminated ground water or soil.

Keywords

biodegradation biomass bioremediation kinetics mixed microbial culture 2,4,6-trichlorophenol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a Strategic Grant from the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

References

  1. Ahlborg UG & Thunberg TM (1980) Chlorinated phenols: Occurrence, toxicity, metabolism, and environmental impact. In: CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Vol. 7, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander M & Scow KM (1989) Kinetics of biodegradation in soil. In: Reactions and Movement of Organic Chemicals in Soils. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp. 243–269Google Scholar
  3. Andreoni V, Baggi M, Cavalca M, Zangrossi M, Bernasconi S, (1998) Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by a specialized organism and by indigenous soil microflora:bioaugmentation and self-remediability for soil restoration Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 27: 86–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aranda C, Godoy F, Becerra J, Barra R, Martinez M, (2003) Aerobic secondary utilization of a non-growth and inhibitory substrate 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Sphingopyxis-like strain S32 Biodegradation 14:265–274CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aranda C, Godoy F, González B, Homo J, Martínez M, (1999) Effects of glucose and phenylalanine upon 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation by Pseudomonas paucimobilis S37 cells in a nogrowth state Microbios 100:73–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Armenante PM, Shu H, Huang CR, Kung C, Kafkewitz D, (1995) Kinetics of the sequential degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by an anaerobic microbial population Biotechnol. Lett. 17:663–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atuanya EI, Purohit HJ, Chakrabarti T, (2000) Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of chlorophenols using UASB and ASG bioreactors World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 16:95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bae HS, Lee JM, Lee ST, (1997) Biodegradation of a mixture of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol and phenol by a defined mixed culture J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 43:97–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beltrame P, Beltrame PL, Carniti P, Pitea D, (1982) Kinetics of biodegradation of mixtures containing 2,4-dichlorophenol in a continuous stirred reactor Water Res. 16:429–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blades-Fillmore LA (1980) The Biodegradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol in the Delaware River Water and Sediments and in Urban Runoff. MASc Thesis, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyd SA, Mikesell MD & Lee J (1989) Chlorophenols in soils. In: Reactions and Movement of Organic Chemicals in Soils. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. pp. 209–229Google Scholar
  12. Brock TD, Madigan MT, (1991) The Biology of Microorganisms. (6 Ed). Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 110Google Scholar
  13. Chakrabarty AM, (1992) Bioremediation: How does the environment modulate microbial gene evolution?. In: Ladisch MR, Bose A, (eds.) Harnessing Biotechnology for the 21st Century: Proceedings of the Ninth International Biotechnology Symposium and Exposition, August 19–21. Crystal City, VA. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 422–426Google Scholar
  14. Chang BV, Chiang CW, Yuan SY, (1999) Microbial dechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in anaerobic sewage sludge J. Environ. Sci. Health B34:491–507Google Scholar
  15. Chen Y, Zhang H, Chen H, Fu S, Zhang X, (2003) Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol J. Environ. Sci. 15:469–474Google Scholar
  16. Chudoba J, Albokova J, Lentge B, Kummel R, (1989) Biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by activated sludge microorganisms Water Res. 23:1439–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clément P, Matus V, Càrdenas L, Gonzàlez B, (1995) Degradation of trichlorophenols by Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 127:51–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crosby DG, (1981) Environmental chemistry of pentachlorophenol Pure Appl. Chem. 53:1051–1080Google Scholar
  19. Dasappa SM, Loehr RC, (1991) Toxicity reduction in contaminated soil bioremediation processes Water Res. 25:1121–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ditzelmuller G, Loidl M, Streichsbier F, (1989) Isolation and characterization of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading soil bacterium Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 31:93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dominguez VM, Correa J, Vidal G, Lopez A, Marttinez M, (2002) 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol degradation by river sediments exposed to bleached kraft mill discharge Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 69:463–470CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dorn E, Knackmuss H-J, (1978) Chemical structure and biodegradability of halogenated aromatic compounds-substituent effects on 1,2-dioxygenation of catechol Biochem. J. 174:85–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ettala M, Koskela J, Kiesila A, (1992) Removal of chlorophenols in a municipal sewage treatment plant using activated sludge Water Res. 26:797–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Exon JH, Koller LD, (1986). Toxicity of 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Water Chlorination: Environ. Impact Health Effects 5:307–330Google Scholar
  25. Fahmy M, Heinzle E, Kut OM, (1994) Treatment of bleaching effluents in aerobic/anaerobic fluidized biofilm systems Water Sci. Technol. 24:179–187Google Scholar
  26. Gardin H, Lebeault JM, Pauss A, (2001) Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) by co-immobilization of anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities in an upflow reactor under air-limited conditions Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56:524–530CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Greenberg AE, Clesceri LS, Eaton AD, (1992). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. In Greenberg AE, Clesceri LS, Eaton AD, (eds.). (18th Ed). American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 2–57Google Scholar
  28. Haggblom MM, Janke D, Middeldorp PJM, Salkinoja-Salonen MS, (1989) Hydroxylation and dechlorination of tetrachlorohydroquinone by Rhodococcus sp. strain CP-2 cell extracts Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:516–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hayat MA, (1989) Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy. (3rd Ed). MacMillan Press, Houndsmills, U.K., 79Google Scholar
  30. Kafkewitz D, Armenante PM, Lewandowski G, Kung CM, (1992) Dehalogenation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by the sequential activity of anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities Biotechnol. Lett. 14:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Karns JS, Kilbane JJ, Duttagupta S, Chakrabarty AM, (1983) Metabolism of halophenols by 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading Pseudomonas cepacia Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46:1176–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kelly MP, Hallberg KB, Tuovinen OH, (1989) Biological degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: chloride mass balance in stirred tank reactors Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 55:2717–2719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kharoune L, Kharouni M, Lebeault JM, (2002) Aerobic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by a microbial consortium - selection and characterization of microbial consortium Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 59:112–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Langwaldt JH, Männistö MK, Wichmann R, Puhakka JA, (1998) Simulation of in situ subsurface biodegradation of polychlorophenols in air-lift percolators Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 49:663–668CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu D, Pacepivicius G, (1990) A systematic study of the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of 18 chlorophenols and 3 cresols Toxicol. Assessment 5:367–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lora PO, Sjölund M, Tracol C, Morvan C, (2000) Adaptation of an inoculum to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol biodegradation in an activated-sludge bioreactor Water Sci. Technol. 42:179–183Google Scholar
  37. Maltseva O, Oriel P, (1997) Monitoring of alkaline 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degrading enrichment culture by DNA fingerprinting methods and isolation of the responsible organism, haloalkophilic Nocardioides sp. strain M6 Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:4145–4149Google Scholar
  38. Martinez M, Campos A, Garcia A, Gonzalez CL, (2000) Marine bacteria tolerant to chlorophenol degradative bacteria isolated from river receiving pulp mill discharges Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 77:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mohn WW, Kennedy KJ, (1992) Limited degradation of chlorophenols by anaerobic sludge granules Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:2131–2136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Neilson AH, 1990. The biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds J. Appl. Bacteriol. 69:445–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Nyholm N, Jacobsen BN, Pedersen BM, Poulsen O, Damborg A, Schultz B, (1992) Removal of organic micropollutants at PPB levels in laboratory activated sludge reactors under various operating conditions: biodegradation Water Res. 26:339–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Togna MT, Kafkewitz D, Armenante PM, (1995) Rapid dehalogenation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol at alkaline pH by an anaerobic enrichment culture Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 20:113–116Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher J.P. Snyder
    • 1
  • M. Asghar
    • 2
  • Jeno M. Scharer
    • 3
  • Raymond L. Legge
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Golder Associates Ltd.MississaugaCanada
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Biochemical Engineering Group, Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations