Advertisement

What form of human-wildlife coexistence is mandated by legislation? A comparative analysis of international and national instruments

  • Benjamin CretoisEmail author
  • John. D. C. Linnell
  • Bjørn P. Kaltenborn
  • Arie Trouwborst
Original Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biodiversity legal instruments and regulations

Abstract

There are currently many controversies over the process of wildlife conservation, mainly focused on determining which forms of human-wildlife relationship should be endorsed by society. These differences often lead to legal discussions between lawmakers and stakeholders as result of misinterpretation of law. In this study, we examine the dominant conservation ideologies underpinning institutionalized wildlife conservation by exploring the moral basis underlying a broad range of national and international legislation. We used a teleological interpretative approach to explore the implicit and explicit intentions of legislative instruments. We found that a shift from a human-nature dualism to an integration paradigm occurred in the legal frameworks during the last 20-30 years. A desire to improve the status of threatened species or ecosystems was clearly expressed in all legislation. However, the widespread mention of consumptive values seems to indicate no principled opposition between the notions of conservation and of sustainable use. We identified three different groups of legislation: (1) a small group containing largely protectionist instruments, (2) a group based on the main European nature conservation texts and, (3) a cluster incorporating almost all the post-Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) legislation from around the world. The CBD was found to have had a major impact on the shaping of the modern legal instruments, reconciling the eco- and anthropocentric values at the heart of modern legal thinking. Overall, the dominant legal ideology seems to aim for a compromise between the interests of society and wildlife, allowing its sustainable use and steering for shared space.

Keywords

Biodiversity Coexistence Conservation Convention on biological diversity (CBD) Values Wildlife 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. The involvement of JDCL and BPK was funded by the Research Council of Norway (Grant 251112); AT was funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (Grant 452-13-014).

References

  1. Batavia C, Nelson MP (2017) For goodness sake! What is intrinsic value and why should we care? Biol Conserv 209:366–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowman M, Davies P, Redgwell C (2010) Lyster’s international wildlife law. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carter NH, Linnell JDC (2016) Co-adaptation is key to coexisting with large carnivores. Trends Ecol Evol 31:575–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan KM et al (2016) Opinion: why protect nature? Rethinking values and the environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:1462–1465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chandra A, Idrisova A (2011) Convention on biological diversity: a review of national challenges and opportunities for implementation. Biodiv Conserv 20:3295–3316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapron G, Epstein Y, Trouwborst A, López-Bao JV (2017) Bolster legal boundaries to stay within planetary boundaries. Nat Ecol Evol 1(3):86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dickson P, Adams WM (2009) Science and uncertainty in South Africa’s elephant culling debate. Environ Plan C 27:110–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellis J (2011) General principles and comparative law. Eur J Int Law 22:949–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fennelly N (1996) Legal interpretation at the European Court of Justice. Fordham Int Law J 20:656Google Scholar
  10. Gagnon-Légaré A, Prestre PL (2014) Explaining variations in the subnational implementation of global agreements: the case of Ecuador and the convention on biological diversity. J Environ Develop 23:220–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hiedanpää J, Bromley DW (2011) The harmonization game: reasons and rules in European biodiversity policy. Environ Policy Gov 21:99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jantz SM et al (2015) Future habitat loss and extinctions driven by land-use change in biodiversity hotspots under four scenarios of climate-change mitigation. Conserv Biol 29:1122–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kaufmann D, Kraay A, Mastruzzi M (2011) The worldwide governance indicators: methodology and analytical issues. Hague J Rule Law 3:220–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lenaerts L, Gutiérrez-Fons JA (2013) To say what the law of the EU is: methods of interpretation and the European Court of Justice Colum J Eur L 20:3Google Scholar
  15. Linnell JDC et al (2015) Framing the relationship between people and nature in the context of European conservation. Conserv Biol 29:978–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lute ML et al (2018) Conservation professionals agree on challenges to coexisting with large carnivores but not on solution. Biol Conserv 218:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Macdonald DW, Jacobsen KS, Burnham D, Johnson PJ, Loveridge AJ (2016a) Cecil: a moment or a movement? Analysis of media coverage of the death of a lion, Panthera leo. Animals 6:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Macdonald DW, Johnson PJ, Loveridge AJ, Burnham D, Dickman AJ (2016b) Conservation or the moral high ground: siding with Bentham or Kant. Conserv Lett 9:307–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mace GM (2014) Whose conservation? Science 345:1558–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mathews F (2016) From biodiversity-based conservation to an ethic of bio-proportionality. Biol Conserv 200:140–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Minnis DL (1998) Wildlife policy-making by the electorate: an overview of citizen-sponsored ballot measures on hunting and trapping. Wildl Soc Bull 1973–2006(26):75–83Google Scholar
  22. Mitchell SM, Ring JJ, Spellan MK (2013) Domestic legal traditions and states’ human rights practices. J Peace Res. 50:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Morishita J (2006) Multiple analysis of the whaling issue: understanding the dispute by a matrix. Marine Policy 30:802–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nelson MP, Vucetich JA, Chapron G (2016) Emotions and the ethics of consequence in conservation decisions: lessons from Cecil the Lion. Conserv Lett 9:302–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Newbold T et al (2015) Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity. Nature 520:45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Olson ER et al (2015) Pendulum swings in wolf management led to conflict, illegal kills, and a legislated wolf hunt. Conserv Lett 8:351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pimm SL et al (2014) The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science 344:1246752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Redpath SM et al (2013) Understanding and managing conservation conflicts. Trends Ecol Evol 28:100–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Redpath SM et al (2017) Don’t forget to look down–collaborative approaches to predator conservation. Biol Rev 92:2157–2163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schroeder D, Pisupati B (2010) Ethics, justice and the convention on biological diversity. University of Central Lancashire, PrestonGoogle Scholar
  31. Seddon PJ, Griffiths CJ, Soorae PS, Armstrong DP (2014) Reversing defaunation: restoring species in a changing world. Science 345:406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Singleton BE (2016) Clumsiness and elegance in environmental management: applying cultural theory to the history of whaling. Environ Politics 25:414–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Suggit AJ et al (2018) Extinction risk from climate change is reduced by microclimatic buffering. Nat Clim Change 8(8):713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Trouwborst A, Redpath S, Gutiérrez R, Wood K, Young J (2015) Law and conservation conflicts conflicts in conservation: navigating towards solutions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 108–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Trouwborst A et al (2017a) International wildlife law: understanding and enhancing its role in conservation. Bioscience 67:784–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Trouwborst A, Boitani L, Linnell JD (2017b) Interpreting ‘favourable conservation status’ for large carnivores in Europe: how many are needed and how many are wanted? Biodiv and Conserv 26:37–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Urban MC (2015) Accelerating extinction risk from climate change. Science 348:571–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Veríssimo D, Campbell B (2015) Understanding stakeholder conflict between conservation and hunting in Malta. Biol Conserv 191:812–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vucetich JA, Bruskotter JT, Nelson MP, Peterson RO, Bump JK (2017) Evaluating the principles of wildlife conservation: a case study of wolf (Canis lupus) hunting in Michigan, United States. J Mammal 98:53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Willett P (1988) Recent trends in hierarchic document clustering: a critical review. Inf Process Manag 24:577–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Cretois
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • John. D. C. Linnell
    • 2
  • Bjørn P. Kaltenborn
    • 2
  • Arie Trouwborst
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Institute for Nature ResearchTrondheimNorway
  3. 3.Department of European and International Public Law, Tilburg Law SchoolTilburg UniversityTilburgThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations