Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 28, Issue 6, pp 1611–1628 | Cite as

Post-burn and long-term fire effects on plants and birds in floodplain wetlands of the Russian Far East

  • Ramona J. HeimEmail author
  • Norbert Hölzel
  • Thilo Heinken
  • Johannes Kamp
  • Alexander Thomas
  • Galina F. Darman
  • Sergei M. Smirenski
  • Wieland Heim
Original Paper

Abstract

Wildfires affect biodiversity at multiple levels. While vegetation is directly changed by fire events, animals are often indirectly affected through changes in habitat and food availability. Globally, fire frequency and the extent of fires are predicted to increase in the future. The impact of fire on the biodiversity of temperate wetlands has gained little attention so far. We compared species richness and abundance of plants and birds in burnt and unburnt areas in the Amur floodplain/Russian Far East in the year of fire and 1 year after. We also analysed vegetation recovery in relation to time since fire over a period of 18 years. Plant species richness was higher in burnt compared to unburnt plots in the year of the fire, but not in the year after. This suggests that fire has a positive short-term effect on plant diversity. Bird species richness and abundance were lower on burnt compared to unburnt plots in the year of the fire, but not in the year after. Over a period of 18 years, high fire frequency led to an increase in herb cover and a decrease in grass cover. We show that the effects on biodiversity are taxon- and species-specific. Fire management strategies in temperate wetlands should consider fire frequency as a key driving force of vegetation structure, with carry-over effects on higher trophic levels. Designing fire “refuges”, i.e., areas that do not burn annually, might locally be necessary to maintain high species richness.

Keywords

Disturbance Bird species richness Vegetation structure Fire frequency Amur River 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the German Ornithologists´ Society (DO-G) and the Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund (Project No. 150511869). R.H. was funded by a Johann Christian Wiegleb scholarship (ENEDAS e.V.). The authors want to thank the staff of Muraviovka Park for hosting us during the fieldwork. We also thank Arend Heim for GIS layers of the study area, Isabelle Berner and Tim Korschefsky for their help during the field work, and Anna Lampei-Bucharova and Christian Lampei for statistical advice. Comments by Valentin H. Klaus and two anonymous reviewers improved an earlier version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10531_2019_1746_MOESM1_ESM.docx (4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 4053 kb)

References

  1. Abella SR, Fornwalt PJ (2015) Ten years of vegetation assembly after a North American mega fire. Glob Change Biol 21:789–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JT, Davis CA (eds) (2013) Wetland Techniques, vol 3. Applications and management. Springer, Dordrecht.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6931-1
  3. Archibald S, Lehmann CER, Gómez-dans JL, Bradstock RA (2013) Defining pyromes and global syndromes of fire regimes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:6445–6447.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1211466110/-/DCSupplementa CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin JE (2018) Threats to cranes related to agriculture. Cranes and agriculture: a global guide for sharing the landscape baraboo. International Crane Foundation, Wisconsin, pp 83–116Google Scholar
  5. Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Softw 67:1–48.  https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. http://www.birdlife.org. Accessed 18 November 2018
  7. Bond WJ, Keeley JE (2005) Fire as a global ‘herbivore’: the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends Ecol Evol 20:387–394.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2005.04.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boughton EH, Quintana-Ascencio PF, Bohlen PJ, Fauth JE, Jenkins DG (2015) Interactive effects of pasture management intensity, release from grazing and prescribed fire on forty subtropical wetland plant assemblages. J Appl Ecol 53:159–170.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12536 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowman WD (2017) Inputs and storage of nitrogen in winter snowpack in an alpine ecosystem. Arct Alp Res 24:211–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowman DM, Balch JK, Artaxo P, Bond WJ, Carlson JM, Cochrane MA, D’Antonio CM, DeFries RS, Doyle JC, Harrison SP (2009) Fire in the earth system. Science 324:481–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowman DM, Perry GL, Higgins SI, Johnson CN, Fuhlendorf SD, Murphy BP (2016) Pyrodiversity is the coupling of biodiversity and fire regimes in food webs. Phil Trans R Soc B 371:20150169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Byers C, Olsson U, Curson J (1995) Buntings and sparrows: a guide to the buntings and North American sparrows. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  13. Chalmandrier L, Midgley GF, Barnard P, Sirami C (2013) Effects of time since fire on birds in a plant diversity hotspot. Acta Oecol 49:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark JS (1990) Fire and climate change during the last 750 year in north western Minnesota. Ecol Monogr 60:135–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark DL, Wilson MV (2001) Fire, mowing, and hand-removal of woody species in restoring a native wetland prairie in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Wetlands 21:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clarke PJ, Lawes M, Midgley J, Lamont B, Ojeda F, Burrows G, Enright N, Knox K (2013) Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire. New Phytol 197:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coppedge BR, Fuhlendorf SD, Harrell WC, Engle DM (2008) Avian community response to vegetation and structural features in grasslands managed with fire and grazing. Biol Conserv 141:1196–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deák B, Valkó O, Török P, Végvári Z, Hartel T, Schmotzer A, Kapocsi I, Tóthmérész B (2014) Grassland fires in Hungary—experiences of nature conservationists on the effects of fire on biodiversity. Appl Ecol Environ Res 12:267–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeBano LF, Neary DG (2005) Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on soils and water, vol 4. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort CollinsGoogle Scholar
  21. DeBano LF, Neary DG, Ffolliott PF (1998) Fire effects on ecosystems. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Dement’ev GP, Gladkov NA (1954) Birds of the Soviet Union. Sovetsykaya Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  23. Dufrene M, Legendre P (1997) Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecol Monogr 67:345–366Google Scholar
  24. Dwire KA, Kauffman JB (2003) Fire and riparian ecosystems in landscapes of the western USA. For Ecol Manage 178:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Flores C, Bounds DL, Ruby DE (2011) Does prescribed fire benefit wetland vegetation? Wetlands 31:35–44.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-010-0131-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fuhlendorf SD, Harrell WC, Engle DM, Hamilton RG, Davis CA, Leslie DM (2006) Should heterogeneity be the basis for conservation? Grassland bird response to fire and grazing. Ecol Appl 16:1706–1716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gabrey SW, Afton AD, Wilson BC (1999) Effects of winter burning and structural marsh management on vegetation and winter bird abundance in the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA. Wetlands 19:594–606.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03161697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gill AM, McKenna DJ, Wouters MA (2014) Landscape fire, biodiversity decline and a rapidly changing milieu: a microcosm of global issues in an Australian biodiversity hotspot. Land 3:1091–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Glitzenstein JS, Streng DR, Wade DD (2003) Fire frequency effects on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Miller) vegetation in South Carolina and northeast Florida, USA. Nat Areas J 23:22–37Google Scholar
  30. Grant TA, Madden EM, Shaffer TL, Dockens JS (2010) Effects of prescribed fire on vegetation and passerine birds in northern mixed-grass prairie. J Wildl Manag 74:1841–1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grime JP (1973) Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nat 242:344–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heim W, Smirenski S (2017) The importance of Muraviovka Park/Far East Russia for endangered bird species on regional, national and international scale based on observations from 2011–2016. Forktail 33:77–83Google Scholar
  33. Heim W, Trense D, Heim A, Kamp J, Smirenski SM, Wink M, Wulf T (2018) Discovery of a new breeding population of the Vulnerable Swinhoe’s Rail Coturnicops exquisitus confirmed by genetic analysis. Bird Conserv Int.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270918000138 Google Scholar
  34. Heinl M, Sliva J, Tacheba B, Murray-Hudson M (2007) The relevance of fire frequency for the floodplain vegetation of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Afr J Ecol 46:350–358.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00847.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hochkirch A, Adorf F (2007) Effects of prescribed burning and wildfires on Orthoptera in Central European peat bogs. Environ Conserv 34:225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hulbert LC (1988) Causes of fire effects in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 69:46–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huston MA (1994) Biological diversity: the coexistence of species. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. Ignatenko EV, Ignatenko SY (2010) Effects of low vegetation fire on bees (Hymenoptera: Apidea) in the Khinganskii Nature Reserve, Amur Region. Amur Zool J 2:341–347 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  39. Jones JW, Hall AE, Foster AM, Smith TJ (2013) Wetland fire scar monitoring and analysis using archival landsat data for the everglades. Fire Ecol 9:133–150.  https://doi.org/10.4996/fireecology.0901133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kelly L, Brotons L (2017) Using fire to promote biodiversity. Science 355:1264–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kodandapani N, Cochrane MA, Sukumar R (2004) Conservation threat of increasing fire frequencies in the Western Ghats, India. Conserv Biol 18:1553–1561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Köhler B, Gigon A, Edwards PJ, Krüsi B, Langenauer R, Lüscher A, Ryser P (2005) Changes in the species composition and conservation value of limestone grasslands in Northern Switzerland after 22 years of contrasting managements. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 7:51–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Korner-Nievergelt F, Roth T, Felten SV, Guelat J, Almasi B, Korner-Nievergelt P (2015) Bayesian data analysis in ecology using linear models with R, BUGS and Stan. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Kurdiukov AB, Volkovskaya-Kurdiukova EA (2016) Influence of grass fires on the population of birds in the open landscapes of Southern Primorye. Russ Ornithol J 25:5143–5147Google Scholar
  45. Laubhan MK (1995) Effects of prescribed fire on moist-soil vegetation and soil macronutrients. Wetlands 15:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Le Stradic S, Hernandez P, Fernandes GW, Buisson E (2016) Regeneration after fire in campo rupestre: short-and long-term vegetation dynamics. Flora 238:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lee MAB, Snyder KL, Valentine-Darby P, Miller SJ, Ponzio KJ (2005) Dormant season prescribed fire as a management tool for the control of Salix caroliniana Michx. in a floodplain marsh. Wetlands Ecol Manag 13:479–487.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-004-2211-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lefcheck JS (2016) piecewiseSEM: piecewise structural equation modelling in r for ecology, evolution, and systematics. Methods Ecol Evol 7:573–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lenth RV (2016) Least-squares means: the R package {lsmeans}. J Stat Softw 69:1–33.  https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v069.i01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Malykhina OA (2009) Fire impact in the Middle Amur Lowland shrub meadows. Proc Samara Sci Cent Russ Acad Sci 11:505–510 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  51. Marozas V, Racinskas J, Bartkevicius E (2007) Dynamics of ground vegetation after surface fires in hemiboreal Pinus sylvestris forests. For Ecol Manage 250:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McKenzie D, Miller C, Falk D (2011) The landscape ecology of fire. Springer, Dordrecht.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0301-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mérő TO, Lontay L, Lengyel S (2015) Habitat management varying in space and time: the effects of grazing and fire management on marshland birds. J Ornithol 156:579–590.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-015-1202-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Middleton B (1999) Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Montenegro G, Gómez M, Díaz F, Ginocchio R (2003) Regeneration potential of Chilean matorral after fire: an updated view. Fire and climatic change in temperate ecosystems of the Western Americas. Springer, London, pp 381–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mühr B (2007) Klimadiagramme—Blagoveshchensk. http://www.klimadiagramme.de/Asien/blagovescensk.html. Accessed 25 Oct 2018
  57. Newman EA, Potts JB, Tingley MW, Vaughn C, Stephens SL (2018) Chaparral bird community responses to prescribed fire and shrub removal in three management seasons. J Appl Ecol 55:1615–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Norton DA, De Lange PJ (2003) Fire and vegetation in a temperate peat bog: implications for the management of threatened species. Conserv Biol 17:138–148.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.01131.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Novorotskii P (2007) Climate changes in the Amur River basin in the last 115 years. Russ Meteorol Hydrol 32:102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Oksanen JF, Blanchet G, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Szoecs E, Wagner H (2017) vegan: community ecology package. R package version 2.4-2. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/index.html. Accessed 7 Nov 2018
  61. Osborne TZ, Kobziar LN, Inglett PW (2013) Fire and water: new perspectives on fire’s role in shaping wetland ecosystems. Fire Ecol 8:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.4996/fireecology.0901001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pavleychik V (2016) Long-term dynamics of natural fires in the steppe regions (on the example of the Orenburg region) (in Russian). Bull Orenburg State Univ 6:74–80Google Scholar
  63. Pendergrass K, Miller P, Kauffman J (1998) Prescribed fire and the response of woody species in Willamette Valley wetland prairies. Restor Ecol 6:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Potapov R, Flint V (1987) The birds of the USSR: galliformes. Gruiformes, NaukaGoogle Scholar
  65. Powell AF (2008) Responses of breeding birds in tallgrass prairie to fire and cattle grazing. J Field Ornithol 79:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. R Core Team (2017) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. https://www.R-project.org/
  67. Racine CH, Johnson LA, Viereck LA (1987) Patterns of vegetation recovery after tundra fires in northwestern Alaska, USA. Arct Alp Res 19:461–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ratajczak Z, Nippert JB, Collins SL (2012) Woody encroachment decreases diversity across North American grasslands and savannas. Ecology 93:697–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Red Data Book of the Amur Region (2009) Rare and endangered species of animals, plants and mushrooms: official edition. Blagoveshchensk (in Russian) Google Scholar
  70. Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (2008) Plants and fungi. KMK Scientific Press Ltd., Moscov (in Russian) Google Scholar
  71. Reinking D (2005) Fire regimes and avian responses in the central tallgrass prairie. Stud Avian Biol 30:116–126Google Scholar
  72. Roberts DW (2016) labdsv: ordination and multivariate analysis for ecology. R package version 1.8-0. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/labdsv/labdsv.pdf. Accessed 7 Nov 2018
  73. Romme W (1980) Fire history terminology: report of the ad hoc committee. Proceedings of the fire history workshop, Citeseer, pp 20–24Google Scholar
  74. Roy D, Lewis P, Justice C (2002) Burned area mapping using multi-temporal moderate spatial resolution data: a bi-directional reflectance model-based expectation approach. Remote Sens Environ 83:263–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Roy D, Jin Y, Lewis P, Justice C (2005) Prototyping a global algorithm for systematic fire-affected area mapping using MODIS time series data. Remote Sens Environ 97:137–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Roy DP, Boschetti L, Justice CO, Ju J (2008) The collection 5 MODIS burned area product—Global evaluation by comparison with the MODIS active fire product. Remote Sens Environ 112:3690–3707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sankaran M, Hanan NP, Scholes RJ, Ratnam J, Augustine DJ, Cade BS, Gignoux J, Higgins SI, Le Roux X, Ludwig F, Ardo J, Banyikwa F, Bronn A, Bucini G, Caylor KK, Coughenour MB, Diouf A, Ekaya W, Feral CJ, February EC, Frost PGH, Hiernaux P, Hrabar H, Metzger KL, Prins HHT, Ringrose S, Sea W, Tews J, Worden J, Zambatis N (2005) Determinants of woody cover in African savannas. Nature 438:846–849.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sankaran M, Ratnam J, Hanan N (2008) Woody cover in African savannas: the role of resources, fire and herbivory. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 17:236–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sasin AA, Senchik AV (2011) The Oriental Stork (Ciconia boyciana) at Muraviovsky and Amurksy zakazniks, Amur Oblast: population trend, limiting factors and protection measures. Bull Altai State Agrarian Univ 85:58–63Google Scholar
  80. Schmalzer P, CR Hinkle, JL Mailander (1984) Changes in community composition and biomass in J. roemerianus Scheele and S. bakeri Merr/marshes 1-year after a fireGoogle Scholar
  81. Scott AC, Bowman DM, Bond WJ, Pyne SJ, Alexander ME (2013) Fire on earth: an introduction. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Shin CJ, Nam JM, Kim JG (2015) Floating mat as a habitat of Cicuta virosa, a vulnerable hydrophyte. Landsc Ecol Eng 11:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shvidenko A, Schepaschenko D (2013) Climate change and wildfires in Russia. Contemp Probl Ecol 6:683–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Simonov EA, Dahmer TD (2008) Amur-Heilong river basin reader. Ecosystems Hongkong, Hong-KongGoogle Scholar
  85. Smirenski SM, Smirenski EM (2007) Drought and current status of cranes of the Amur Region. Abstracts 2007 Suncheon International Crane Symposium, pp 36–39Google Scholar
  86. Smirenski SM, Smirenski EM (2009) Protection status of the red-crowned crane in the Amur Region of Russia: practical measures to offset the threats. Kushiro Initiative for the Conservation of the Red-crowned Crane the workshop for establishment of a feasible international project for protection of the red-crowned crane Grus japonensis, pp 21–31Google Scholar
  87. Smirenski SM, Danner G, Harris JT (2018) Cranes and agriculture: a global guide for sharing the landscape. Case study: Agriculture program of Muraviovka Park: integrating wetland conservation with farming. International Crane Foundation, Baraboo, pp 243–258Google Scholar
  88. Sokolova GV (2015) Analyzing the Amur River water regimefor the period preceding the catastrophic flood in 2013. Russ Meteorol Hydrol 40:477–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stocks BJ, Stocks BJ, Ma Fosberg, Ma Fosberg, Lynham TJ, Lynham TJ, Mearns L, Mearns L, Wotton BM, Wotton BM, Yang Q, Yang Q, Jin J-Z, Jin J-Z, Lawrence K, Lawrence K, Hartley GR, Hartley GR, Ja Mason, Ja Mason, McKENNEY DW, McKENNEY DW (1998) Climate change and forest fire potential in russian and canadian boreal forests. Clim Chang 38:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005306001055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Taylor RS, Watson SJ, Nimmo DG, Kelly LT, Bennett AF, Clarke MF (2012) Landscape-scale effects of fire on birdassemblages: does pyrodiversity beget biodiversity? Divers Distrib 18:519–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tessler N, Wittenberg L, Greenbaum N (2016) Vegetation cover and species richness after recurrent forest fires in the Eastern Mediterranean ecosystem of Mount Carmel, Israel. Sci Total Environ 572:1395–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. The Plant List (2013) Version 1.1. Published on the Internet. http://www.theplantlist.org/. Accessed 7 Nov 2018
  93. Thomas A, Heim W (2016) Die Weidenammer verschwindet: Welche Gefahren drohen im Brutgebiet? Vogelwarte 54:350–351Google Scholar
  94. Timmins SM (1992) Wetland vegetation recovery after fire: eweburn Bog, Te Anau, New Zealand. N Z J Bot 30:383–399.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.1992.10412918 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Valentine LE, Schwarzkopf L, Johnson CN (2012) Effects of a short fire-return interval on resources and assemblage structure of birds in a tropical savanna. Austral Ecol 37:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Valkó O, Deák B, Magura T, Török P, Kelemen A, Tóth K, Horváth R, Nagy DD, Debnár Z, Zsigrai G (2016) Supporting biodiversity by prescribed burning in grasslands: a multi-taxa approach. Sci Total Environ 572:1377–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Végvári Z, Valkó O, Deák B, Török P, Konyhás S, Tóthmérész B (2016) Effects of land use and wildfires on the habitat selection of Great Bustard (Otis tarda L.): implications for species conservation. Land Degrad Dev 27:910–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vignieri S (2014) Vanishing fauna. Science 345:392–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wickham H (2009) ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wilke CO (2016) cowplot: streamlined plot theme and plot annotations for ‘ggplot2’. R package version 0.7.0. https://www.CRANR-projectorg/package=cowplot. Accessed 18 Oct 2018
  101. Winter M, Johnson DH, Shaffer JA (2005) Variability in vegetation effects on density and nesting success of grassland birds. J Wildl Manag 69:185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wu Z, Raven P, Hong D (2014) Flora of China, vol. 1–25. Science Press, St. Louis. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing. http://www.efloras.org. Accessed 18 Oct 2018
  103. Yu S-H, Zheng Z, Kershaw P, Skrypnikova M, Huang K-Y (2017) A late Holocene record of vegetation and fire from the Amur Basin, far-eastern Russia. Quat Int 432:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramona J. Heim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Norbert Hölzel
    • 1
  • Thilo Heinken
    • 2
  • Johannes Kamp
    • 1
  • Alexander Thomas
    • 1
  • Galina F. Darman
    • 3
  • Sergei M. Smirenski
    • 4
  • Wieland Heim
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Landscape EcologyUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Biochemistry and BiologyPotsdam UniversityPotsdamGermany
  3. 3.Amur Branch of the Botanical Garden-Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesBlagoveshchenskRussian Federation
  4. 4.Muraviovka Park for Sustainable Land UseBlagoveshchenskRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations