Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 1309–1326 | Cite as

Non-crop habitats modulate alpha and beta diversity of flower flies (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Brazilian agricultural landscapes

  • Hugo Reis Medeiros
  • Adriano Thibes Hoshino
  • Milton Cezar Ribeiro
  • Mírian Nunes Morales
  • Felipe Martello
  • Osvaldo Coelho Pereira Neto
  • Daniel Wisbech Carstensen
  • Ayres de Oliveira Menezes Junior
Original Paper

Abstract

Non-crop habitats play a key role in maintaining functional diversity and ecosystem services in farmland. However, the interplay between beneficial insects and landscape variables has rarely been investigated in Neotropical agroecosystems. We used flower flies as a model group to investigate the effects of landscape attributes on beneficial insects in agroecosystems across a gradient of landscape complexity. We specifically ask: (i) Do the abundance and species richness of flower flies in cereal crops increase with increasing landscape complexity? (ii) Do the effects of landscape variables on local flower fly communities differ between spatial scales? (iii) How do landscape complexity and local factors (crop size, altitude and insecticide applications) affect beta diversity? We sampled flower flies in 54 edges within 18 wheat crops in Paraná State, southern Brazil. The percentage of non-crop habitats, landscape diversity and edge density were the explanatory variables, which were calculated at multiple spatial scales for each landscape. We collected 8340 flower flies, distributed in 12 genera and 52 species. Species richness was positively associated with the percentage of non-crop habitats, but total abundance presented non-clear pattern. However, abundance without the dominant species was also positively associated with the percentage non-crop habitats. Similarly, beta diversity was related to non-crop habitats, suggesting that the reduction in non-crop habitats implies in species loss. We have provided the first insights into the importance of non-crop habitats on the conservation of beneficial insects within Neotropical farmlands. To guarantee high levels of biodiversity within agroecosystems we need to promote the conservation and restoration of non-crop habitats in the surrounding landscapes.

Keywords

Agroecosystems Beneficial insects Biodiversity conservation Natural habitats 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the owners of private lands where the sampled wheat crops are located. We thank Luciane Marinoni for permission to study the Syrphidae collection of DZUP, Gil F. G. Miranda for helping with Ocyptamus sensu lato identifications and the two anonymous reviewers who helped us to substantially improve the manuscript. HRM and AHT received a research grant from the Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). MíNM was supported by CAPES (PNPD process 20131282). DWC was funded by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP—process 2014/01594-4). Brazilian Government Research Council (CNPq) provided a research Grant for MCR (312045/2013-1; 312292/2016-3), who also thanks the financial support by FAPESP (process 2013/50421-2). We thank Pavel Dodonov for the proofreading of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10531_2017_1495_MOESM1_ESM.docx (33 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 32 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugo Reis Medeiros
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adriano Thibes Hoshino
    • 2
  • Milton Cezar Ribeiro
    • 1
  • Mírian Nunes Morales
    • 3
  • Felipe Martello
    • 4
  • Osvaldo Coelho Pereira Neto
    • 5
  • Daniel Wisbech Carstensen
    • 6
  • Ayres de Oliveira Menezes Junior
    • 2
  1. 1.Bioscience Institute, Department of Ecology, Spatial Ecology and Conservation Lab (LEEC)UNESP - Universidade Estadual PaulistaRio ClaroBrazil
  2. 2.Graduate Program in AgronomyUEL - Universidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  3. 3.Graduate Program in EntomologyUFLA - Universidade Federal de LavrasLavrasBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Environmental SciencesUFSCAR - Universidade Federal de São CarlosSão CarlosBrazil
  5. 5.Department of GeosciencesUEL - Universidade Estadual de LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  6. 6.Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, Natural History Museum of DenmarkUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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