Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 2035–2053 | Cite as

Diversity and status of carnivorous plants in Uganda: towards identification of sites most critical for their conservation

  • James Kalema
  • Mary Namaganda
  • Godfrey Bbosa
  • Jasper Ogwal-Okeng
Original Paper

Abstract

Available records show that carnivorous plants in Uganda have been collected since 1941. Places that harbor them are either damp or open water bodies. They are autotrophic plants that trap and ingest small animals, especially insects, as a means of supplementing their nutrient supply (Givnish in PNAS 112:10–11, 2015). This insect capture habit has been investigated in Uganda to assess their potential to control malaria by reducing mosquito populations. But this investigation requires good and current knowledge about the availability of the carnivorous plants, their status and distribution. In this study we assess the range of their geographical distribution and diversity and identify the most important areas for their occurrence in Uganda. A total of 23 species of carnivorous plants distributed in two families are known from Uganda. The Lake Nabugabo area and north western shores of Lake Victoria display the highest species richness in Uganda whilst Lake Nabugabo and Mabamba are the most diverse. Six of the species are ‘extremely rare’, occurring in only one ‘location’ (in the sense of International Union for Conservation of Nature—IUCN). ‘Reserve selection’ analysis clearly points out Lake Nabugabo area as the most important for carnivorous plants. This is only a Ramsar Site with no higher conservation status. Only two species occur in well protected areas, but these are widespread.

Keywords

Biodiversity Carnivorous plants Distribution Diversity Uganda 

References

  1. Adamec L (2000) Rootless aquatic plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa: physiological polarity, mineral nutrition and importance of carnivory. Biol Plant 43:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert VA, Jobson RW, Michael TP, Taylor DJ (2010) The carnivorous bladderwort (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae): a system inflates. J Exp Bot 61(1):5–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Balirwa JS, Chapman CA, Chapman LJ, Cowx IG, Geheb K, Kaufman L, Lowe-McConnell L, Seehausen O, Wanink JH, Welcomme RL, Witte F (2003) Biodiversity and fishery sustainability in the Lake Victoria Basin: an unexpected marriage? Bioscience 53(8):703–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett KF, Ellison AM (2009) Nectar, not colour, may lure insects to their death. Biol Lett 5:469–472CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Byaruhanga A, Kasoma P, Pomeroy D (2001) Important bird areas in Uganda. East African Natural History Society, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman LJ, Chapman CA, Schofield PJ, Olowo JP, Kaufman L, Seehausen O, Ogutu-Ohwayo R (2003) Fish faunal resurgence in Lake Nabugabo, East Africa. Conserv Biol 17(2):500–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Economic Development Policy and Research Department (2012) Poverty status report. Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  8. Eilenberg H, Pnini-Cohen S, Rahamim Y, Sionov E, Segal E, Carmeli S, Zilberstein A (2010) Induced production of anti-fungal naphthoquinones in the pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes khasiana. J Exp Bot 61(3):911–922CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ellison AM, Gotelli NJ (2008) Energetics and evolution of carnivorous plants—Darwin’s “most wonderful plants of the world”. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellison AM, Gotelli NJ (2009) Energetics and the evolution of carnivorous plants: Darwin’s ‘most wonderful plants in the world’. J Exp Bot 60:19–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Givnish TJ (2015) New evidence on the origin of carnivorous plants. PNAS 112(1):10–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Government of Uganda (2010) National development Plan 2010/11-2014/15. Government of Uganda, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  13. IUCN (2001) IUCN red list categories and criteria: version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. IUCN (2012) Guidelines for application of IUCN red list criteria at regional and national levels: version 4.0. Gland, IUCN, Switzerland and CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  15. Jennings DE, Rohr JR (2011) A review of the conservation threats to carnivorous plants. Biol Conserv 144:1356–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jennings DE, Krupa JJ, Raffel TR, Rohr JR (2010) Evidence for competition between carnivorous plants and spiders. Proc R Soc B 277:3001–3008CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Joosten H, Clarke D (2002) Wise use of mires and peatlands: background and principles including a framework for decision-making. International Mire Conservation Group and International Peat SocietyGoogle Scholar
  18. Kalema J (2005) Diversity and distribution of vascular plants in wetland and savanna Important Bird Areas of Uganda. PhD thesis, Makerere University, Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  19. Kalema J (2008) The use of herbarium plant databases in identifying areas of biodiversity concentration: the case of family Acanthaceae in Uganda. Afr J Ecol 56(Suppl. 1):1–2Google Scholar
  20. Kalema J, Beentje HJ (2012) Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  21. Kalema J, Bukenya-Ziraba R (2005) Patterns of plant diversity in Uganda. Biol Skr 55:331–341Google Scholar
  22. Kamal S, Grodzinska-Jurczak M (2014) Should conservation of biodiversity involve private land? A Q methodological study in Poland to assess stakeholders’ attitude. Biodivers Conserv 23:2689–2704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karagatzides JD, Ellison AM (2009) Construction costs, payback times, and the leaf economics of carnivorous plants. Am J Bot 96(9):1612–1619CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Knox EB, Berghe VE, Orwa C, Ipulet P (1995) The list of East African plants: an electronic database. Centre for Biodiversity Research Reports: Biodiversity Database Technical Report no. 3. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  25. Kondo K, Kokubugata G, Varghese SB, Itoyama M, Breckpot C, Kromer K, Kamiński R (1997) Conservation of endangered Aldrovanda vesiculosa by tissue culture. Carnivorous Plant Newslett 26:89–92Google Scholar
  26. Król E, Płachno BJ, Adamec L, Stolarz M, Dziubińska H, Trębacz K (2012) Quite a few reasons for calling carnivores “the most wonderful plants in the world”. Ann Bot 109:47–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Laundon JR (1959) Droseraceae. In: Hubbard CE, Milne-Redhead E (eds) Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Lye KA, Namaganda M (2005) Rare wetland plants of the Lake Nabugabo area. In: Busulwa H, Mafabi PG, Ndawula LM (Eds) A compilation of scientific information on Nabugabo Ramsar Site, Uganda. Proceedings of the scientific conference held at Nabugabo in January 2001. JOSU Links (U) Ltd., Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  29. Lye KA, Namaganda M, Phillips S (2000) The collections of red listed Ugandan grasses. Lidia 4(6):153–184Google Scholar
  30. Mafabi P, Barugahare V, Byaruhanga A, Iyango L, Mugisha A, Muhwezi A, Namakula R, Ogwal JJ, Odull MO, Namakambo N, Kyambadde R, Kiwazi F, Omite P, Nakangu B (2008) Implementing the Ramsar Convention in Uganda: a guide to the management of Ramsar Sites in Uganda. Wetlands Management Department, NatureUganda, Uganda Wildlife Society and IUCN. Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  31. Muhumuza M, Balkwill K (2013) Factors affecting the success of conserving biodiversity in National Parks: a review of case studies from Africa. Int J Biodivers 2013:20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Müller K, Borsch T, Legendre L, Porembski S, Theisen I, Barthlott W (2004) Evolution of Lentibulariaceae and the Lamiales. Plant Biol 6:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Müller KF, Borsch T, Legendre L, Porembski S, Barthlott W (2006) Recent progress in understanding the evolution of carnivorous Lentibulariaceae (Lamiales). Plant Biol 8:748–757CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Namaganda M (2005) Carnivorous plants of the Nabugabo region. In: Busulwa H, Mafabi PG, Ndawula LMA (eds) Compilation of scientific information on Nabugabo Ramsar Site, Uganda. Proceedings of the scientific conference held at Nabugabo in January 2001. Wetlands Inspection Division, Kampala, pp 103–108Google Scholar
  35. NEMA (2002) National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  36. NEMA (2006) Third National Biodiversity Report. National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  37. NEMA (2010) State of environment report for Uganda 2010. National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  38. Ogwal-Okeng J, Kalema J, Namaganda M, Lubega A, Zziwa M, Bbosa G (2011) Larvicidal activity of aquatic carnivorous plants on Anopheles mosquito larval stages. Res J Biol Sci 6(9):436–439Google Scholar
  39. Ogwal-Okeng J, Namaganda M, Bbosa GS, Kalema J (2013) Using carnivorous plants to control malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Malaria World J 4(8):1–3Google Scholar
  40. Pavlovič A, Demko V, Hudák J (2010) Trap closure and prey retention in Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) temporarily reduces photosynthesis and stimulates respiration. Ann Bot 105:37–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Pereira CG, Almenara DP, Winter CE, Fritsch PW, Lambers H, Oliveira RS (2012) Underground leaves of Philcoxia trap and digest nematodes. PNAS 109(4):1154–1158CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Polhill D (1988) Flora of Tropical East Africa Index of collecting localities. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  43. Quentin L, Beentje H (in press) African floras: coverage and usesGoogle Scholar
  44. Raj G, Kurup R, Hussain AA, Baby S (2011) Distribution of naphthoquinones, plumbagin, droserone, and 5-O-methyl droserone in chitin-induced and uninduced Nepenthes khasiana: molecular events in prey capture. J Exp Bot 62(15):5429–5436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Rice B (2002) Carnivorous plants—classic perspectives and new research. Biologist 49(6):1–5Google Scholar
  46. Taylor P (1973) Lentibulariaceae. In: Polhill RM (ed) Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Overseas Governments and Administrations, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Uganda Bureau of Statistics (2010) Statistical summary. Kampala, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  48. van Geest A, Coesel P (2012) Desmids from Lake Nabugabo (Uganda) and adjacent peat bogs. Fottea 12(1):95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. WDPA Consortium (2010) World Database on Protected Areas 2010 (with shapefiles and other GIS data). World Conservation Union (IUCN) & UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), various locationsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Kalema
    • 1
  • Mary Namaganda
    • 1
  • Godfrey Bbosa
    • 2
  • Jasper Ogwal-Okeng
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural SciencesMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health SciencesMakerere UniversityKampalaUganda

Personalised recommendations