Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 1319–1348 | Cite as

Status, trends and drivers of kelp forests in Europe: an expert assessment

  • R. M. Araújo
  • J. Assis
  • R. Aguillar
  • L. Airoldi
  • I. Bárbara
  • I. Bartsch
  • T. Bekkby
  • H. Christie
  • D. Davoult
  • S. Derrien-Courtel
  • C. Fernandez
  • S. Fredriksen
  • F. Gevaert
  • H. Gundersen
  • A. Le Gal
  • L. Lévêque
  • N. Mieszkowska
  • K. M. Norderhaug
  • P. Oliveira
  • A. Puente
  • J. M. Rico
  • E. Rinde
  • H. Schubert
  • E. M. Strain
  • M. Valero
  • F. Viard
  • I. Sousa-Pinto
Original Paper

Abstract

A comprehensive expert consultation was conducted in order to assess the status, trends and the most important drivers of change in the abundance and geographical distribution of kelp forests in European waters. This consultation included an on-line questionnaire, results from a workshop and data provided by a selected group of experts working on kelp forest mapping and eco-evolutionary research. Differences in status and trends according to geographical areas, species identity and small-scale variations within the same habitat where shown by assembling and mapping kelp distribution and trend data. Significant data gaps for some geographical regions, like the Mediterranean and the southern Iberian Peninsula, were also identified. The data used for this study confirmed a general trend with decreasing abundance of some native kelp species at their southern distributional range limits and increasing abundance in other parts of their distribution (Saccharina latissima and Saccorhiza polyschides). The expansion of the introduced species Undaria pinnatifida was also registered. Drivers of observed changes in kelp forests distribution and abundance were assessed using experts’ opinions. Multiple possible drivers were identified, including global warming, sea urchin grazing, harvesting, pollution and fishing pressure, and their impact varied between geographical areas. Overall, the results highlight major threats for these ecosystems but also opportunities for conservation. Major requirements to ensure adequate protection of coastal kelp ecosystems along European coastlines are discussed, based on the local to regional gaps detected in the study.

Keywords

Kelp forests Expert consultation Status and temporal trends Long-term changes Europe 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. M. Araújo
    • 1
  • J. Assis
    • 2
  • R. Aguillar
    • 3
  • L. Airoldi
    • 4
  • I. Bárbara
    • 5
  • I. Bartsch
    • 6
  • T. Bekkby
    • 7
  • H. Christie
    • 7
  • D. Davoult
    • 8
    • 9
  • S. Derrien-Courtel
    • 10
  • C. Fernandez
    • 11
  • S. Fredriksen
    • 12
  • F. Gevaert
    • 13
    • 14
  • H. Gundersen
    • 7
  • A. Le Gal
    • 10
  • L. Lévêque
    • 9
    • 15
  • N. Mieszkowska
    • 16
  • K. M. Norderhaug
    • 7
    • 12
  • P. Oliveira
    • 1
  • A. Puente
    • 17
  • J. M. Rico
    • 11
  • E. Rinde
    • 7
  • H. Schubert
    • 18
  • E. M. Strain
    • 19
  • M. Valero
    • 9
    • 20
  • F. Viard
    • 8
    • 9
  • I. Sousa-Pinto
    • 1
    • 21
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, (CIIMAR/CIMAR)University of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Centre of Marine SciencesUniversity of Algarve (CIMAR-Algarve)FaroPortugal
  3. 3.OceanaMadridSpain
  4. 4.Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche ed Ambientali, (BIGEA) & Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per le Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA)University of Bologna, UO CoNISMaRavennaItaly
  5. 5.Grupo BioCost, Departamento de Bioloxía Animal, Bioloxía Vexetal e Ecoloxía, Facultade de CienciasUniversidade da CoruñaA CoruñaSpain
  6. 6.Alfred-Wegener InstituteHelmholtz-Center for Polar and Marine ResearchBremerhavenGermany
  7. 7.Norwegian Institute for Water ResearchOsloNorway
  8. 8.CNRSUMR 7144 AD2 M, StationRoscoffFrance
  9. 9.UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Station BiologiqueSorbonne UniversitésRoscoffFrance
  10. 10.Station MarineMuséum National d’Histoire NaturelleConcarneauFrance
  11. 11.Dpto. B.O.S. (Ecología)University of OviedoOviedoSpain
  12. 12.Department of BiosciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  13. 13.UMR 8187 LOGUniv Lille Nord de FranceWimereuxFrance
  14. 14.UMR 8187 LOGCNRSWimereuxFrance
  15. 15.FR2424CNRSRoscoffFrance
  16. 16.The Marine Biological Association of the UKPlymouthUK
  17. 17.Environmental Hydraulics Institute (IH Cantabria), Universidad de CantabriaSantanderSpain
  18. 18.University Rostock, BiosciencesRostockGermany
  19. 19.Sydney Institute of Marine ScienceMosmanAustralia
  20. 20.UMI 3614 EBEA, UC, UACHCNRSRoscoffFrance
  21. 21.Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

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