Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 1037–1052 | Cite as

Geographic patterns of species richness of diurnal raptors in Venezuela

  • Adrián Naveda-Rodríguez
  • Keith L. Bildstein
  • Félix Hernán Vargas
Original Paper

Abstract

Knowledge of a species’ geographic distribution is crucial to assessing its vulnerability. It is also important to know if protected areas provide effective protection for raptor species. Here, we examine the species richness (S) patterns, factors predicting S and the effectiveness of protected areas (EPA) in the conservation of diurnal raptors in Venezuela. We modeled geographic distributions (SDM) of 64 raptor species using ecological niche models. Nine climatic and seven landscape metrics were used as environmental predictors. SDM were stacked to examine S and predictors of S were investigated using regression models. This study evaluated S patterns in the 13 bioregions defined for Venezuela. A gap analysis was performed to evaluate the EPA in the conservation of raptor diversity. Forty species showed a continuous distribution, whereas as disjunct distributions were observed in 24 species. Species richness differed among bioregions; six pairwise compared bioregions did not show differences. Guyana Massif and the mountains of northern Venezuela had the highest species richness. Landscape features, specifically canopy height, land cover and terrain slope explained most of the species richness. Environmental heterogeneity affected the distribution of S and is therefore important in conservation planning for Neotropical raptors. Responses from environmental variables used to predict S were scale dependent; it is necessary to standardize methods/experimental design to study the biogeography of raptors. Priority-setting for the conservation of raptors in Venezuela must consider restricted range species, even if they are not threatened. A new territorial ordering is urgent to improve the protection of this group of birds.

Keywords

Neotropic Northern South America Landscape heterogeneity Cathartiformes Acciptriformes Falconiformes Strict protected areas Species richness 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was possible thanks to logistical and financial support provided by Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, The Peregrine Fund, Wild4Ever and the Rufford Small Grants Foundation (Grant No 14068-1). Authors wish to thank to Gabriela Lugo, Gary Riggs, Marcial Quiroga-Carmona, José Gustavo León, Gustavo Rodriguez, Tony Crease, Alan Highton, Christian Olaciregui, Jorge Peralta, Bayron Calles and Phillip Schwabl for helpful assistance. Thanks also to Francisco Bisbal, Alexis Araujo, Miguel Lentino, Jurahimar Gamboa, Marcos Salcedo, Carlos Rengifo and Rosana Calchi for providing information on voucher specimens in ornithological collections under their care. We appreciate the improvements in English usage made by Andrew Rothman.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10531_2016_1102_MOESM1_ESM.docx (32 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 31 kb)

References

  1. Aguilera M, Azocar A, González E (2003) Biodiversidad en Venezuela. Fundación Polar, Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología. CaracasGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez E, Ellis E, Smith D, Larue C (1996) Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela. In: Bird D, Varland D, Negro J (eds) Raptors in human landscapes. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 263–273Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez-Cordero E (1996) Biology and conservation of the harpy eagle in Venezuela and Panama. Dissertation, University of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson D (2001) Landscape heterogeneity and diurnal raptor diversity in Honduras: the role of indigenous shifting cultivation. Biotropica 33:511–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ascanio D, Miranda J, León JG, Marantz C, Crease T, Kvarnbäck J, Rodríguez G (2012) Species lists of birds for South American countries and territories: Venezuela. http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCCountryLists.html. Accessed 14 June 2012
  6. Bednarz JC (2007) Study design, data management, analysis, and presentation. In: Bird DM, Bildstein KL (eds) Raptor research and management techniques. Hanckoc House Publishers, Washington, pp 73–88Google Scholar
  7. Bellocq M, Gómez-Insausti R (2005) Raptorial birds and environmental gradients in the southern Neotropics: a test of species-richness hypotheses. Austral Ecol 30:892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benito B, Cayuela L, Alboquerque F (2013) The impact of modelling choices in the predictive performance of richness maps derived from species-distribution models: guidelines to build better diversity models. Methods Ecol Evol 4:327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bierregaard R (1998) Conservation status of birds of prey in the South American tropics. J Raptor Res 32:19–27Google Scholar
  10. Bildstein K, Scheslsky W, Zalles J, Ellis S (1998) Conservation status of tropical raptors. J Raptor Res 32:3–18Google Scholar
  11. Bini L, Diniz-Filho JA, Rangel T, Pereira R, Plaza M (2006) Challenging Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls: knowledge gradients and conservation planning in a biodiversity hotspot. Divers Distrib 12:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Böning-Gaese K (1997) Determinants of avian species richness at different spatial scales. J Biogegr 24:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brandes D, Ombalski DW (2004) Modeling raptor migration pathways using a fluid-flow analogy. J Raptor Res 38:195–207Google Scholar
  14. Carnicer J, Díaz-Delgado R (2008) Geographic differences between functional groups in patterns of bird species richness in North America. Acta Oecol 33:253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carrete M, Tella J, Blanco B, Bertellotti M (2009) Effects of habitat degradation on the abundance, richness and diversity of raptors across Neotropical biomes. Biol Conserv 142:2002–2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cueto V, Lopez de Casenave J (1999) Determinants of bird species richness: role of climate and vegetation structure at a regional scale. J Biogeogr 26:487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davies R, Orme C, Storch D, Olson V, Thomas G, Ross S, Ding T, Rasmussen P, Bennett P, Owens I, Blackburn T, Gaston K (2008) Topography, energy and the global distribution of bird species richness. Proc Roy Soc B-Biol Sci 274:1189–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diniz-Filho J, De Sant’ana C, De Souza M, Rangel T (2002) Null models and spatial patterns of species richness in South American birds of prey. Ecol Lett 5:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ellis DH, Glinski RL, Smith DG (1990) Raptor road surveys in South America. J Raptor Res 24:98–106Google Scholar
  20. ESRI (2008) ArcGIS, version 9.3. Environmental Systems Research Institute, RedlandsGoogle Scholar
  21. Fajardo L, González V, Nassar JM, Lacabana P, Portillo C, Carrasquel F, Rodríguez JP (2005) Tropical dry forest of Venezuela: characterization and current conservation status. Biotropica 37:531–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Field R, Hawkins B, Cornell H, Currie D, Diniz-Filho JA, Guégan J, Kaufman D, Kerr J, Mittelbach G, Oberdorff T, O’Brien E, Turner J (2008) Spatial species-richness gradients across scales: a meta-analysis. J Biogegr 36:132–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaston KJ, Blackburn TM (2000) Pattern and process in macroecology. Blackwell Science Ltd, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hijmans R, Cameron S, Parra J, Jones P, Jarvis A (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol 25:1965–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hilty SL (2003) Birds of Venezuela. Princeton University Press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  26. Houston M (1979) A general hypothesis of species diversity. Am Nat 113:81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huber O, Alarcón C (1988) Mapa de vegetación de Venezuela. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables, The Nature Conservancy, Fundación Bioma, CaracasGoogle Scholar
  28. IBM (2010) IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. IBM Corporation, ArmonkGoogle Scholar
  29. Jarvis A, Reuter HI, Nelson A, Guevara E (2008) Hole-filled seamless SRTM data, version 4. http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org. Accessed 03 Feb 2013
  30. Jenness J (2013) DEM Surface Tools. http://www.jennessent.com/arcgis/surface_area.htm. Accessed 22 July 2013
  31. Jensen W, Gregory M, Baldassare G, Vilella F, Bildstein KL (2005) Raptor abundance and distribution in the llanos wetlands of Venezuela. J Raptor Res 39:417–428Google Scholar
  32. Jullien M, Thiollay JM (1996) Effects of rain forest disturbance and fragmentation: comparative changes of the raptor community along natural and human-made gradients in French Guiana. J Biogeogr 23:7–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koh C, Lee P, Lin R (2006) Bird species richness patterns of northern Taiwan: primary productivity, human population density, and habitat heterogeneity. Divers Distrib 12:546–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ladle RJ, Whittaker RJ (2011) Conservation biogeography. Wiley-Blackwell, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lee P, Ding T, Hsu F, Geng S (2004) Breeding bird species richness in Taiwan: distribution on gradients of elevation, primary productivity and urbanization. J Biogeogr 31:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lees AC, Martin RW (2015) Exposing hidden endemism in a Neotropical forest raptor using citizen science. Ibis 157:103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Legendre P (1993) Spatial autocorrelation: trouble or new paradigm? Ecology 74:1659–1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Linares O (1998) Mamíferos de Venezuela. Sociedad Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela, CaracasGoogle Scholar
  39. Lomolino M (2001) Elevation gradients of species-density: historical and prospective views. Global Ecol Biogeogr 10:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. López-López P, García-Ripollés C, Aguilar JM, García López F, Verdejo J (2006) Modeling breeding habitat preferences of Bonelli’s Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) in relation to topography, disturbance, climate and land use at different spatial scales. J Ornithol 147:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mader WJ (1981) Notes on the nesting raptors in the llanos of Venezuela. Condor 8:48–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MARN (2000) Primer informe de país para la convención sobre diversidad biológica. Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales, CaracasGoogle Scholar
  43. Meier W (2011) Los bosques nublados de la cordillera de la costa en Venezuela. Biollania 10:106–121Google Scholar
  44. Meynard C, Samaniego H, Marquet P (2004) Biogeografía de aves rapaces de Chile. In: Muñoz A, Rau J, Yánez (eds.) Aves rapaces de Chile. Ediciones CEA, Valdivia, pp 129–143Google Scholar
  45. Naveda-Rodríguez A (2013) Biogeography and conservation status of diurnal raptors in Venezuela. Dissertation, Universidad Internacional Menéndez PelayoGoogle Scholar
  46. Naveda-Rodriguez A, Strahl SD (2006) Helmeted curassow (Pauxi pauxi). In: Brooks DM (ed) Conserving cracids: the most threatened family of birds in the Americas. Houston Museum of Natural Science, Houston, pp 57–59Google Scholar
  47. Naveda-Rodríguez A, Torres DA (2015) Los Búhos en Venezuela. In: Enriquez P (ed) Los Búhos neotropicales: diversidad y conservación. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristobal de las Casas, pp 578–593Google Scholar
  48. Newton I (1979) Population ecology of raptors. Poyser, BerkhamstedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ott T (2007) Landscape heterogeneity as a determinant of range size utilization by African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in mesic savannas. Dissertation, University of Pretoria, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  50. Palmer M (1994) Variation in species richness: towards unification of hypotheses. Folia Geobot Phytotx 29:511–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. PDVSA (1992) Imagen de Venezuela, una visión espacial. Petróleos de Venezuela, CaracasGoogle Scholar
  52. Peterson T (2001) Predicting species’ geographic distributions based on ecological niche modeling. Condor 103:599–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Phillips S, Anderson R, Schapire R (2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecol Model 190:231–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pickett STA, Cadenasso ML (1995) Landscape ecology: spatial heterogeneity in ecological systems. Sciences 269:331–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rahbek C (1997) The relationship among area, elevation, and regional species richness in neotropical birds. Am Nat 149:875–902CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Rahbek C (2005) The role of spatial scale and the perception of large-scale species-richness patterns. Ecol Lett 8:224–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rahbek C, Graves G (2001) Multiscale assessment of patterns of avian species richness. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 98:4534–4539CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Ramirez A, Telleria JL (2003) Efectos geográficos y ambientales sobre la distribución de las aves forestales ibéricas. Graellsia 59:219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Remsen JV, Cadena CD, Jaramillo A, Nores M, Pacheco JF, Pérez-Emán J, Robbins MB, Stiles FG, Stotz DF, Zimmer KJ (2013) A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists’ Union. http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html. Accessed 15 June 2013
  60. República Bolivariana de Venezuela (2013) Ley de Bosques Gaceta Oficial N° 40,222. Caracas 6 de agosto de 2013Google Scholar
  61. República de Venezuela (1970) Ley de Protección a la Fauna Silvestre. Gaceta Oficial N° 29,289. Caracas 11 de agosto de 1970Google Scholar
  62. Rios-Muñoz C, Navarro-Singüenza A (2012) Patterns of species richness and biogeographic regionalization of the avifaunas of the seasonally dry tropical forest in Mesoamerica. Stud Neotrop Fauna E 47:171–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rodríguez JP, Rojas-Suárez F (1998) Las áreas protegidas estrictas y la conservación de la fauna venezolana amenazada. Acta Cient Venez 49:173–178Google Scholar
  64. Rodríguez JP, Rojas-Suárez F, Sharpe C (2004) Setting priorities for the conservation of Venezuela’s threatened birds. Oryx 38:373–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rodríguez JP, Lazo R, Solórzano LA, Rojas-Suárez F (2005) Cartografía Digital Básica de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas de Venezuela: Parques Nacionales, Monumentos Naturales, Refugios de Fauna, Reservas de Fauna y Reservas de Biósfera. Centro Internacional de Ecología Tropical, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Conservación Internacional Venezuela, UNESCO y Oficina Nacional de Diversidad Biológica del Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales, CaracasGoogle Scholar
  66. Ruggiero A, Hawkins B (2008) Why do mountains support so many species of birds? Ecography 31:306–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sanz V (2007) ¿Son las áreas protegidas de la Isla de Margarita suficientes para mantener su biodiversidad? Análisis espacial del estado de conservación de sus vertebrados amenazados. Mem Soc Cienc Nat 167:111–130Google Scholar
  68. Schargel R (2011) Una reseña de la geografía física de Venezuela, con enfasis en los suelos. Biollania 10:11–26Google Scholar
  69. Scott J, Davis F, Csuti B, Noss R, Butterfield B, Groves C, Anderson H, Caicco S, D’Ericha F, Edwards T, Ullman J, Wright R (1993) Gap analysis: a geographic approach to the protection of biological diversity. Wildlife Monogr 23:1–41Google Scholar
  70. Simard M, Pinto N, Fisher J, Baccini A (2011) Mapping forest canopy height globally with spaceborne lidar. J Geophys Res 116:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sullivan BL, Wood CL, Iliff MJ, Bonney RE, Fink D, Kelling S (2009) eBird: a citizen-based bird observation network in the biological sciences. Biol Conserv 142:2282–2292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tapia LJ, Domínguez J, Rodriguez L (2004) Modeling habitat selection and distribution of Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus) and Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus) in a mountainous area in Galicia (NW-Spain). J Raptor Res 38:133–140Google Scholar
  73. Tapia L, Kennedy PL, Mannan RW (2007) Habitat sampling. In: Bird DM, Bildstein KL (eds) Raptor research and management techniques. Hanckoc House Publishers, Washinton, pp 153–170Google Scholar
  74. Thiollay JM (1989) Area requirements for the conservation of rain forest raptor and game birds in French Guiana. Conserv Biol 3:128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Thiollay JM (1993) Response of a raptor community to shrinking area and degradation of tropical rain forest in the south western Ghâts (India). Ecography 16:97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Thiollay JM (1996) Distributional patterns of raptors along altitudinal gradients in the northern Andes and effects of forest fragmentation. J Trop Ecol 12:535–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tobias J, Şekercioğlu Ç, Vargas H (2013) Bird conservation in tropical ecosystems. In: Macdonald DW, Willis KJ (eds) Key topics in conservation biology 2. John Wiley and Sons, Oxford, pp 258–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Townshend JRG, Carroll M, Dimiceli C, Sohlberg R, Hansen M, DeFries R (2011) Vegetation continuous fields MOD44B, 2010 percent tree cover, collection 5. University of Maryland, College ParkGoogle Scholar
  79. Van Auken O (1997) Species rareness and commonness along spatial and temporal gradients. Southwest Nat 42:369–374Google Scholar
  80. Whitacre DF (2012) Neotropical birds of prey: biology and ecology of a forest raptor community. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  81. Whitacre DF, Burnham WA (2012) The maya project. In: Whitacre DF (ed) Neotropical birds of prey: biology and ecology of a forest raptor community. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  82. Zhao S, Fang J (2006) Patterns of species richness for vascular plants in China’s nature reserves. Divers Distrib 12:364–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrián Naveda-Rodríguez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Keith L. Bildstein
    • 2
  • Félix Hernán Vargas
    • 1
  1. 1.The Peregrine FundBoiseUSA
  2. 2.Acopian Center for Conservation LearningHawk Mountain SanctuaryOrwigsburgUSA
  3. 3.Wildlife Conservation Society EcuadorQuitoEcuador

Personalised recommendations