Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 23, Issue 14, pp 3561–3586 | Cite as

REDD+-related activities in Kenya: actors’ views on biodiversity and monitoring in a broader policy context

  • Steffen Karl Entenmann
  • Christine Brigitte Schmitt
  • Werner Konold
Original Paper


Activities related to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) bear potential benefits for, and also pose risks to, the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES). Next to ecological, socioeconomic and technical factors, the priorities of key actors in REDD+ implementation shape the integration of biodiversity concerns. This study aimed to identify the views of key actors in the REDD+ implementation process in Kenya with regard to biodiversity conservation and monitoring in order to evaluate the degree to which biodiversity is likely to be considered in the (sub-) national REDD+ context. In Kenya, avoided deforestation in dry forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in different forest types are major REDD+ activities. Interviews with 34 (sub-) national and project level actors showed that the solving of socioeconomic issues was paramount for REDD+ implementation in general and for achieving additional conservation benefits. In REDD+ initiatives in dry forests, conservation objectives were primarily related to wildlife; actors stressed the importance of specific management measures to minimize human-wildlife conflicts. In initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks, the sustained provision of timber, fuel wood and hydrological ES was regarded as a conservation priority and a prerequisite for project viability. The biodiversity indicators and monitoring schemes considered to be available by the actors were mostly related to particular species. In conclusion, integration of biodiversity concerns into REDD+ depends heavily on the resolution of socioeconomic and political issues. Increased collaboration between Kenyan actors can contribute to the development of monitoring schemes for detecting REDD+ impacts on biodiversity and ES on a landscape scale.


Biodiversity Ecosystem services Enhancement of forest carbon stocks REDD+ Wildlife management Dry forests 



The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Gerald Kapp, as well as all individuals and organizations that supported this research by providing information during data collection in Kenya. This study was carried out within the research project “The Protection of Forests under Global Biodiversity and Climate Policy,” hosted by the Chair for Landscape Management and the Chair of Forest and Environmental Policy at Freiburg University, Germany. The project received financial support from the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation with funds from the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. The paper reflects solely the opinion of the authors and not necessarily that of the supporting organizations.

Supplementary material

10531_2014_821_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (416 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 416 kb)


  1. Alexander S, Nelson CR, Aronson J, Lamb D, Cliquet A, Erwin KL, Finlayson CM, de Groot RS, Harris JA, Higgs ES, Hobbs RJ, Robin Lewis RR, Martinez D, Murcia C (2011) Opportunities and challenges for ecological restoration within REDD+. Restor Ecol 19(6):683–689. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2011.00822.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atela JO, Quinn CH, Minang PA (2014) Are REDD projects pro-poor in their spatial targeting? Evidence from Kenya. Appl Geogr 52:14–24. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AWF (2011a) Mbirikani carbon, community and biodiversity project. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and protecting a critical landscape for Kenya’s wildlife and communities. African Wildlife Foundation (AWF), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  4. AWF (2011b) Planet Action progress report: carbon and conservation in Imbirikani Group Ranch, Kenya. African Wildlife Foundation (AWF), Planet Action, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagine R, Gikungu M, Muhangani JM, Ruthiiri JM (1992a) Kakamega forest invertebrate survey. National Museums of Kenya, KIFCON, NairbobiGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagine R, Gikungu M, Muhangani JM, Ruthiiri JM (1992b) Mau Forest invertebrate survey. National Museums of Kenya, KIFCON, NairbobiGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrow E, Mogaka H (2007) Kenya’s drylands—wastelands or an undervalued national economic resource?. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennun L, Waiyaki E (1992) Mau forest complex ornithological survey. National Museums of Kenya, KIFCON, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernard F, Minang PA, Adkins B, Freud J (2014) REDD+ projects and national-level Readiness processes: a case study from Kenya. Clim Policy. doi: 10.1080/14693062.2014.905440 Google Scholar
  10. Beymer-Farris BA, Bassett TJ (2012) The REDD menace: resurgent protectionism in Tanzania’s mangrove forests. Glob Environ Change 22(2):332–341. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. BIOTA (2012) BIOTA East Africa. Accessed 2012.12.18
  12. Bullock JM, Aronson J, Newton AC, Pywell RF, Rey-Benayas JM (2011) Restoration of ecosystem services and biodiversity: conflicts and opportunities. Trends Ecol Evol 26(10):541–549. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2011.06.011 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bulte EH, Boone RB, Stringer R, Thornton PK (2008) Elephants or onions? Paying for nature in Amboseli, Kenya. Environ Dev Econ 13(3):395–414. doi: 10.1017/S1355770X08004312 Google Scholar
  14. Burgess ND, Mwakalila S, Munishi P, Pfeifer M, Willcock S, Shirima D, Hamidu S, Bulenga GB, Rubens J, Machano H, Marchant R (2013) REDD herrings or REDD menace: response to Beymer-Farris and Bassett. Glob Environ Change 23(5):1349–1354. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.05.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. CAAC (2011) Monitoring report for TIST Programme in Kenya (P-DD for VCS-001). Clean Air Action Corporation (CAAC), TulsaGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell DJ, Gichohi H, Mwangi A, Chege L (2000) Land use conflict in Kajiado District, Kenya. Land Use Policy 17(4):337–348. doi: 10.1016/S0264-8377(00)00038-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caplow S, Jagger P, Lawlor K, Sills E (2011) Evaluating land use and livelihood impacts of early forest carbon projects: lessons for learning about REDD+. Environ Sci Policy 14(2):152–167. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2010.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carrere R (2010) A critical vision of REDD. In: Cabello J, Gilbertson T (eds) No REDD! REDD Monitor, Global Justice Ecology Project, Diego Alejandro Cardona, Tatiana Roa Avendaño, Honduran Garifuna Organization, World Rainforest Movement, Carbon Trade Watch, Brihannala organ, ETC Group, Indigenous Environmental Network, no city, pp 50–55Google Scholar
  19. CCBA (2013) Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards, 3rd edn. Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA), ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  20. CCBA (2014) The Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance: CCBA projects. Accessed 2014.01.21
  21. Chhatre A, Lakhanpal S, Larson AM, Nelson F, Ojha H, Rao J (2012) Social safeguards and co-benefits in REDD+: a review of the adjacent possible. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 4(6):654–660. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2012.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Díaz D, Hamilton K, Johnson E (2011) State of the forest carbon markets 2011: from canopy to currency. Forest Trends, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  23. Dickson B, Kapos V (2012) Biodiversity monitoring for REDD+. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 4(6):717–725. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2012.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dinerstein E, Varma K, Wikramanayake E, Lumpkin S, Seidensticker J, Shrestha RK, Powell G, Poor E, Lovejoy T, Kushlin A, Kiess J (2010) Wildlife Premium Market + REDD: creating a financial incentive for conservation and recovery of endangered species and habitats. WWF, no cityGoogle Scholar
  25. Dinerstein E, Varma K, Wikramanayake E, Powell G, Lumpkin S, Naidoo R, Korchinsky M, Del Valle C, Lohani S, Seidensticker J, Joldersma D, Lovejoy T, Kushlin A (2013) Enhancing conservation, ecosystem services, and local livelihoods through a wildlife premium mechanism. Conserv Biol 27(1):14–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01959.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eco2 (2010) Forest again. Kakamega forest (P-DD for CCBS). Eco2librium, IdahoGoogle Scholar
  27. Edwards DP, Fisher B, Boyd E (2010) Protecting degraded rainforests: enhancement of forest carbon stocks under REDD+. Conserv Lett 3(5):313–316. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00143.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elmqvist T, Maltby E, Barker T, Mortimer M, Perrings C, Aronson J, de Groot R, Fitter A, Mace G, Norberg J, Sousa Pinto I, Ring I (2010) Biodiversity, ecosystems and ecosystem services. In: Kumar P (ed) The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity. Ecological and economic foundations. Earthscan, London, pp 41–111Google Scholar
  29. Emerton L (1991) A report on livestock entry into Kakamega forest reserve. KIFCON, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  30. Emerton L (1994) Summary of the current value of use of Kakamega forest. Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Programme, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  31. Entenmann S, Schmitt CB (2013) Actors’ perceptions of forest biodiversity values and policy issues related to REDD+ implementation in Peru. Biodivers Conserv 22(5):1229–1254. doi: 10.1007/s10531-013-0477-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Entenmann SK, Kaphegyi TA, Schmitt CB (2014) Forest biodiversity monitoring for REDD+: a case study of actors’ views in Peru. Environ Manag 53(2):300–317. doi: 10.1007/s00267-013-0191-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. ES (2012) Verified Carbon Standard Project Verification Report TIST Program in Kenya VCS-001-006. Environmental Services, INC. (ES), JacksonvilleGoogle Scholar
  34. FAO (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment. FAO forestry paper No 163. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), RomeGoogle Scholar
  35. FCPF (2011) FAQs: common approach to environmental and social safeguards for multiple delivery partners. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF), WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  36. FCPF (2013) REDD readiness progress fact sheet of Kenya, October 2013. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF), WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  37. FONAFIFO, CONAFOR, Ministry of Environment (2012) Lessons learned for REDD+ from PES and conservation incentive programs. Examples from Costa Rica, Mexico, and Ecuador. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  38. Forsyth T (2009) Multilevel, multiactor governance in REDD+: participation, integration and coordination. In: Angelsen A (ed) Realising REDD+: national strategy and policy options. CIFOR, Bogor, pp 113–124Google Scholar
  39. Gardner T (2010) Monitoring forest biodiversity. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Gardner TA, Burgess ND, Aguilar-Amuchastegui N, Barlow J, Berenguer E, Clements T, Danielsen F, Ferreira J, Foden W, Kapos V, Khan SM, Lees AC, Parry L, Roman-Cuesta RM, Schmitt CB, Strange N, Theilade I, Vieira ICG (2012) A framework for integrating biodiversity concerns into national REDD+ programmes. Biol Conserv 154:61–71. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.11.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Githinji P (2011) Let your fingers do the walking, and plant trees. The Standard, Nairobi, 2011.06.02Google Scholar
  42. GoK (2005) Arid and semi arid lands (ASAL) national vision and strategy 2005–2015. Government of Kenya (GoK), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  43. GoK (2007) Kenya Vision 2030. Government of Kenya (GoK), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  44. GoK (2009) Rehabilitation of the Mau forest ecosystem. Interim Coordinating Secretariat, Government of Kenya (GoK), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  45. GoK (2010a) National climate change response strategy. Government of Kenya (GoK), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  46. GoK (2010b) REDD readiness preparation proposal: Kenya. Annexes to R-PP. Version June 2010. Government of Kenya (GoK), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  47. GoK (2010c) REDD readiness preparation proposal: Kenya. Version August 2010. Government of Kenya (GoK), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  48. GoK (2012a) Adaptation Technical Report 7. Civil society organisation activities in climate change. Government of Kenya (GoK), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  49. GoK (2012b) National climate change action plan for 2013–2017. Government of Kenya (GoK), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  50. Grussu G, Attorre F, Mollicone D, Dargusch P, Guillet A, Marchetti M (2014) Implementing REDD+ in Papua New Guinea: can biodiversity indicators be effectively integrated in PNG’s National Forest Inventory? Plant Biosyst 148(3):519–528. doi: 10.1080/11263504.2014.900131 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harrison ME, Boonman A, Cheyne SM, Husson SJ, Marchant NC, Struebig MJ (2012) Biodiversity monitoring protocols for REDD+: can a one-size-fits-all approach really work? Trop Conserv Sci 5(1):1–11Google Scholar
  52. Harvey CA, Dickson B, Kormos C (2009) Opportunities for achieving biodiversity conservation through REDD. Conserv Lett 3(1):53–61. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2009.00086.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hein L, van der Meer PJ (2012) REDD+ in the context of ecosystem management. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 4(6):604–611. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2012.09.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. IISD (2013) Summary of the Warsaw Climate Change Conference: 11–23 November 2013. Earth Negot Bull 12(594):1–32Google Scholar
  55. Jagger P, Lawlor K, Brockhaus M, Gebara MF, Sonwa DJ, Pradnja IA (2012) REDD+ safeguards in national policy discourse and pilot projects. In: Angelsen A, Brockhaus M, Sunderlin WD, Verchot L (eds) Analysing REDD+: challenges and choices. CIFOR, Bogor, pp 301–316Google Scholar
  56. Jagger P, Brockhaus M, Duchelle A, Gebara MF, Lawlor K, Pradnja IA, Sunderlin WD (2014) Multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions: challenges and opportunities for national REDD+ safeguards measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV). Forests 5(9):2136–2162. doi: 10.3390/f5092136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kanowski PJ, McDermott CL, Cashore BW (2011) Implementing REDD+: lessons from analysis of forest governance. Environ Sci Policy 14(2):111–117. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2010.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kapos V, Kurz WA, Gardner T, Ferreira J, Guariguata MR, Koh LP, Mansourian S, Parrotta A, Sasaki H, Schmitt CB (2012) Impacts of forest and land management on biodiversity and carbon. In: Parrotta A, Wildburger C, Mansourian S (eds) Understanding relationships between biodiversity, carbon, forests and people: the key to achieving REDD+ objectives. IUFRO World Series Vol. 31. IUFRO, Vienna, pp 53–73Google Scholar
  59. Keenan RJ, Van Dijk AIJM (2010) Planted forests and water. In: Bauhus J, Van der Meer PJ, Kanninen M (eds) Ecosystem goods and services from plantation forests, 1st edn. Earthscan, London, pp 77–95Google Scholar
  60. KIFCON (1993a) KIFCON: past, present and future. What future for Kenya’s forests?. Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Programme (KIFCON), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  61. KIFCON (1993b) The role of natural forests in the Kenyan national economy. Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Programme (KIFCON), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  62. KIFCON (1994) Management guidelines for natural forests. Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Programme (KIFCON), NairobiGoogle Scholar
  63. Kinyanjui MJ, Latva-Käyra P, Bhuwneshwar PS, Kariuki P, Gichu A, Wamwiche K (2014a) An inventory of the above ground biomass in the Mau Forest ecosystem, Kenya. Open J Ecol 4:619–627. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.410052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kinyanjui MJ, Shisanya CA, Nyabuti OK, Waqo WP, Ojwala MA (2014b) Assessing tree species dominance along an agro ecological gradient in the Mau Forest Complex, Kenya. Open J Ecol 4:662–670. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.411056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Korchinsky M, Freund J, Cowan L, Dodson R (2011) The Kasigau Corridor REDD Project Phase II. The community Ranches (P-DD for CCBS). Wildife Works, Rukinga Ranching Co Ltd, no cityGoogle Scholar
  66. Korhonen-Kurki K, Brockhaus M, Duchelle AE, Atmadja S, Thuy PT (2012) Multiple levels and multiple challenges for REDD+. In: Angelsen A, Brockhaus M, Sunderlin WD, Verchot L (eds) Analysing REDD+: challenges and choices. CIFOR, Bogor, pp 91–110Google Scholar
  67. Kremen C, Merenlender AM, Murphy DD (1994) Ecological monitoring - a vital need for integrated conservation and development programs in the Tropics. Conserv Biol 8(2):388–397. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1994.08020388.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Krhoda GO (1992) The impact of deforestation on the hydrology of watersheds in Kenya. KIFCON, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  69. Lambrechts C, Woodley B, Church C, Gachanja M (2003) Aerial survey of the destruction of the Aberdare Range Forests. UNEP, KWS, Rhino Ark, KFWG, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  70. Lambrechts C, Woodley D, Litoroh M, Kamwara P (2007) Aerial monitoring of forest boundaries. UNEP, KWS, KFWG, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  71. Larson A, Brockhaus M, Sunderlin WD (2012) Tenure matters in REDD+. Lessons from the field. In: Angelsen A, Brockhaus M, Sunderlin WD, Verchot L (eds) Analysing REDD+: challenges and choices. CIFOR, Bogor, pp 153–175Google Scholar
  72. Lazdinis M, Angelstam P, Lazdinis I (2007) Maintenance of forest biodiversity in a post-Soviet governance model: perceptions by local actors in Lithuania. Environ Manag 40(1):20–33. doi: 10.1007/s00267-005-0387-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lin L, Sills E, Cheshire H (2014) Targeting areas for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) projects in Tanzania. Glob Environ Change 24(2014):277–286. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.12.003
  74. Lindenmayer DB, Gibbons P, Bourke MAX, Burgman M, Dickman CR, Ferrier S, Fitzsimons J, Freudenberger D, Garnett ST, Groves C, Hobbs RJ, Kingsford RT, Krebs C, Legge S, Lowe AJ, McLean ROB, Montambault J, Possingham H, Radford JIM, Robinson D, Smallbone L, Thomas D, Varcoe T, Vardon M, Wardle G, Woinarski J, Zerger A (2012) Improving biodiversity monitoring. Austral Ecol 37(3):285–294. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2011.02314.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lyster R (2011) REDD+, transparency, participation and resource rights: the role of law. Environ Sci Policy 14(2):118–126. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2010.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Marshall K, White R, Fischer A (2007) Conflicts between humans over wildlife management: on the diversity of stakeholder attitudes and implications for conflict management. Biodivers Conserv 16(11):3129–3146. doi: 10.1007/s10531-007-9167-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mayring P (2007) Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse (Qualitative content analysis), 9th edn. Beltz, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  78. McDermott CL, Coad L, Helfgott A, Schroeder H (2012) Operationalizing social safeguards in REDD+: actors, interests and ideas. Environ Sci Policy 21:63–72. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2012.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. MEA (2005) Ecosystem and human well being: biodiversity synthesis. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA). WRI, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  80. Miles L, Dickson B (2010) REDD-plus and biodiversity: opportunities and challenges. Unasylva 236(61):56–63Google Scholar
  81. Mugo F, Ong C (2010) Lessons from eastern Africa’s unsustainable charcoal trade. Working paper No 20. World Agroforestry Centre, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  82. Mwinami T, Basara F, Ngari A, Matiku P, Ng’weno F, Musina J, Mwang’ombe J, Kanga E (2010) Kenya’s important bird areas: status and trends 2009. Nature Kenya, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  83. Nhamo G (2011) REDD+ and the global climate policy negotiating regimes: challenges and opportunities for Africa. S Afr J Int Aff 18(3):385–406. doi: 10.1080/10220461.2011.622954 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Okello MM (2012) The contraction of wildlife dispersal areas by human structures and activities in Mbirikani Group Ranch in the Amboseli Ecosystem, Kenya. Int J Biodivers Conserv 4(6):243–259. doi: 10.5897/IJBC11.153 Google Scholar
  85. Olander LP, Galik CS, Kissinger GA (2012) Operationalizing REDD+: scope of reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 4(6):661–669. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2012.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Olang L, Kundu P (2011) Land degradation of the Mau forest complex in Eastern Africa. In: Ekundayo E (ed) Environmental monitoring, 1st edn. InTech, Rijeka, pp 245–262Google Scholar
  87. Peltorinne P (2004) The forest types of Kenya. Expedition reports of the Department of Geography, University of Helsinki 40:8–13Google Scholar
  88. Peters-Stanley M, Yin D (2013) Maneuvering the mosaic. State of the voluntary carbon markets 2013. Ecosystem Marketplace, Bloomberg New Energy Finance, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  89. Peters-Stanley M, Hamilton K, Yin D (2012) Leveraging the landscape. State of the forest carbon markets 2012. Ecosystem Marketplace, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  90. Phelps J, Friess DA, Webb EL (2012a) Win–win REDD+ approaches belie carbon–biodiversity trade-offs. Biol Conserv 154(2012):53–60. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.12.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Phelps J, Webb EL, Adams WM (2012b) Biodiversity co-benefits of policies to reduce forest-carbon emissions. Nat Clim Change 2(7):497–503. doi: 10.1038/Nclimate1462 Google Scholar
  92. Potts MD, Kelley LC, Doll HM (2013) Maximizing biodiversity co-benefits under REDD+: a decoupled approach. Environ Res Lett 8(2):024019. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/024019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Putz FE, Romero C (2012) Helping curb tropical forest degradation by linking REDD+ with other conservation interventions: a view from the forest. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 4(6):670–677. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2012.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Reed MS, Graves A, Dandy N, Posthumus H, Hubacek K, Morris J, Prell C, Quinn CH, Stringer LC (2009) Who’s in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management. J Environ Manag 90(5):1933–1949. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schmitt CB (2011) A tough choice: approaches towards the setting of global conservation priorities. In: Zachos FE, Habel JC (eds) Biodiversity Hotspots. Springer, Berlin, pp 23–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schmitt CB (2013) Global tropical forest types as support for the consideration of biodiversity under REDD+. Carbon Manag 4(5):501–517. doi: 10.4155/cmt.13.51 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schüttler E, Rozzi R, Jax K (2011) Towards a societal discourse on invasive species management: a case study of public perceptions of mink and beavers in Cape Horn. J Nat Conserv 19(3):175–184. doi: 10.1016/j.jnc.2010.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sharife K (2011) Colonizing Africa’s atmospheric commons. Cap Nat Social 22(4):74–92. doi: 10.1080/10455752.2011.619317 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sills E, Myers Madeira E, Sunderlin WD, Wertz-Kanounnikoff S (2009) The evolving landscape of REDD+ projects. In: Angelsen A (ed) Realising REDD+: national strategy and policy options. CIFOR, Bogor, pp 265–279Google Scholar
  100. Skutsch MM, Ba L (2010) Crediting carbon in dry forests: the potential for community forest management in West Africa. For Policy Econ 12(4):264–270. doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2009.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Skutsch M, McCall MK, Lovett JC (2009) Carbon emissions: dry forests may be easier to manage. Nature 462(7273):567. doi: 10.1038/462567b PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Standing A, Gachanja M (2014) The political economy of REDD+ in Kenya: Identifying and responding to corruption challenges. U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, BergenGoogle Scholar
  103. Strassburg BBN, Vira B, Mahanty S, Mansourian S, Martin A (2012) Social and economic considerations relevant to REDD+. In: Parrotta A, Wildburger C, Mansourian S (eds) Understanding relationships between biodiversity, carbon, forests and people: the key to achieving REDD+ objectives. IUFRO World Series Vol. 31. IUFRO, Vienna, pp 115–138Google Scholar
  104. Straton A (2006) A complex systems approach to the value of ecological resources. Ecol Econ 56(3):402–411. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stringer LC, Dougill AJ, Thomas AD, Spracklen DV, Chesterman S, Speranza CI, Rueff H, Riddell M, Williams M, Beedy T, Abson DJ, Klintenberg P, Syampungani S, Powell P, Palmer AR, Seely MK, Mkwambisi DD, Falcao M, Sitoe A, Ross S, Kopolo G (2012) Challenges and opportunities in linking carbon sequestration, livelihoods and ecosystem service provision in drylands. Environ Sci Policy 19–20(2012):121–135. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2012.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sunderlin WD, Larson AM, Duchelle AE, Resosudarmo IAP, Huynh TB, Awono A, Dokken T (2013) How are REDD+ proponents addressing tenure problems? Evidence from Brazil, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia, and Vietnam. World Dev. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.01.013 Google Scholar
  107. Thompson MC, Baruah M, Carr ER (2011) Seeing REDD+ as a project of environmental governance. Environ Sci Policy 14(2):100–110. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2010.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thompson I, Okabe K, Parrotta J, Brockerhoff E, Jactel H, Forrester D, Taki H (2014) Biodiversity and ecosystem services: lessons from nature to improve management of planted forests for REDD-plus. Biodivers Conserv 23(10):2613–2635. doi: 10.1007/s10531-014-0736-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. TIST (2010) TIST program in Kenya (P-DD for CCBS). The International Small Group and Tree Planting Program (TIST), TulsaGoogle Scholar
  110. UNEP (2009) Kenya. Atlas of our changing environment. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Division of Early Warning and Assessment, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  111. UNFCCC (2014) Warsaw Framework for REDD-plus. Accessed 2014.09.22
  112. UN-REDD (2011) UN-REDD programme social & environmental principles and criteria. UN-REDD Programme, AsunciónGoogle Scholar
  113. Unruh JD (2008) Carbon sequestration in Africa: the land tenure problem. Glob Environ Change 18(4):700–707. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. VCS (2013) The VCS project database. Accessed 2013.01.25
  115. Venter O (2014) REDD+ policy: corridors of carbon and biodiversity. Nature Clim Change 4(2):91–92. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Venter O, Laurance WF, Iwamura T, Wilson KA, Fuller RA, Possingham HP (2009) Harnessing carbon payments to protect biodiversity. Science 326(5958):1368. doi: 10.1126/science.1180289 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Verbist B, Muys B (2010) Dryland areas, forgotten by REDD? KLIMOS Policy brief 2:1–4Google Scholar
  118. Veronesi M, Schloendorn T, Zabel A, Engel S (2012) Designing REDD+ schemes to address permanence concerns: empirical evidence from Kenya. Working Paper Series No 15. University of Verona, Department of Economics, VeronaGoogle Scholar
  119. Wass P (1995) Kenya’s indigenous forests. Status, management and conservation. IUCN Forest Conservation Programe. IUCN, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  120. Western D, Russell S, Cuthill I (2009) The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya. PLoS One 4(7):e6140. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006140 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wilder M, Chapman S, Maguire R, Gichu A, Doshi M, Dooley E, Engbring G, Kago CW, Kamunde-Aquino, Nelly KL, Idun YNA (2014) Creating an enabling legal framework for REDD+ investments in Kenya. Ministry of the Environment Sweden, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  122. World Bank (2011) Restructuring paper on a proposed project restructuring of the natural resource management project approved on March 27, 2007 to the Republic of Kenya. Report No 62490-KE. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  123. WRI (2007) Nature’s benefits in Kenya: an atlas of ecosystems and human well-being. GIS data. Accessed 2013.06.04
  124. WRI, DRSRS, MENR, CBS, MPND, ILRI (2007) Nature’s benefits in Kenya. An atlas of ecosystems and human well-being. World Resources Institute (WRI), WashingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steffen Karl Entenmann
    • 1
  • Christine Brigitte Schmitt
    • 1
  • Werner Konold
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair for Landscape Management, Institute of Earth and Environmental SciencesAlbert-Ludwigs-University FreiburgFreiburg im BreisgauGermany

Personalised recommendations