Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 2469–2503 | Cite as

Which are, what is their status and what can we expect from ecosystem services provided by Spanish rivers and riparian areas?

  • M. Rosario Vidal-Abarca GutiérrezEmail author
  • M. Luisa Suárez Alonso
Original Paper

Abstract

By applying the framework proposed by Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, we analysed the current state and trends of 20 ecosystem services provided by Spanish rivers and riparian areas using 139 indicators. We compared the obtained results with the Europe and UK assessment. It is the first document that attempts to analyse the importance of services provided by Spanish rivers and riparian areas, and it forms part of the evaluation carried out for the Spanish Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Among the provisioning services, freshwater, hydropower energy and genetic resources were classified as high importance, and water regulation and self-purification capacity, and natural hazard mitigation are among the regulating services, with landscape-aesthetic values and recreation and ecotourism featuring among the cultural services. About 61 % of the assessed ecosystem services are currently declining or degrading, but are higher than the percentage calculated for Europe (45 %) or for the UK (53 %). All regulating services are degrading, especially water regulation, natural hazard mitigation, soil formation and fertility and biological control, and the cultural services related to rural populations. Likewise, the biodiversity of Spanish aquatic ecosystems is decreasing rapidly. Land use changes and overexploitation of biological and mineral raw materials have been the main direct drivers of change in Spanish rivers and riparian zones, and relate directly to increase urbanised areas and irrigated agriculture. Finally, we draw some considerations on alternative models for aquatic ecosystems management which maintain aquatic ecosystem services and their biodiversity.

Keywords

Ecosystem services Rivers Spain Trends Biodiversity Direct drivers 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study has been financed by the Biodiversity Foundation of the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment. Francisca Carreño and Javier Martinez-López are also acknowledged for their help in the databases search. Special thanks to Helen Warburton for her assistance in the English corrections. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.

Supplementary material

10531_2013_532_MOESM1_ESM.doc (324 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 324 kb)

References

  1. Abell R (2002) Conservation biology for the biodiversity crisis: a freshwater follow-up. Conserv Biol 16(5):1435–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcamo J, Vörösmarty C, Naiman RJ, Lettenmaier D, Pahl-Wostl C (2008) A grand challenge for freshwater research: understanding the global water system. Environ Res Lett 3:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldaya M, Llamas MR (2013) Towards an integrated water resource management (IWRM). In: De Stefano L, Llamas MR (eds) Water, agriculture and the environment in Spain: can we square the circle?. CRC Press, Balkema, pp 65–71Google Scholar
  4. Allan JD, Castillo MM (2007) Stream ecology structure and function of running waters, 2nd edn. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Almodóvar A, Nicola GG, Ayllón D, Elvira B (2011) Global warming threatens the persistence of Mediterranean brown trout. Global Change Biol 18:1549–1560. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02608.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvarez-Cobelas M, Catalan J, García-Jalón D (2005) Impacts on inland water ecosystems. In: Moreno JM (ed) A preliminary general assessment of the impacts in Spain due to the effects of climate change. Spanish Ministry of Environment, Madrid, pp 113–146Google Scholar
  7. Andreu E, Andreu O, Morant M, Sánchez M, Viñals MJ (2001) Patrimonio cultural asociado a los humedales españoles: elementos clave para su valorización. Humedales mediterráneos 1:163–170Google Scholar
  8. ANEFA (Asociación Nacional de Empresarios Fabricantes de Áridos) (2013) Plan estratégico 2012–2025 del sector de los áridos. http://www.aridos.org/pagina.php?ver=33. Accessed 10 Feb 2013
  9. Arenillas M, Cobos G, Navarro J (2008) Datos sobre la nieve y los glaciares en las codilleras españolas. El Programa ERHIN (1984–2008). Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Medio Rural y MarinoGoogle Scholar
  10. Aufdenkampe AK, Mayorga E, Raymond PA, Melack JM, Doney SC, Alin SR, Aalto RE, Yoo K (2011) Riverine coupling of biogeochemical cycles between land, oceans, and atmosphere. Front Ecol Environ 9(1):53–60. doi: 10.1890/100014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Avendaño C, Cobo R (1997). Metodología para estimar la erosión de cuencas fluviales a partir de batimetría de embalses. In: Ibáñez JJ, Valero BL, Machado C (eds) El paisaje mediterráneo a través del espacio y del tiempo. Implicaciones en la desertificación. Geoforma Ed. Logroño, pp 239–258Google Scholar
  12. Barriendos M, Rodrigo FS (2006) Study of historical flood events on Spanish rivers using documentary data. Hydrolog Sci J 51(5):765–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bautista J (1989) Las avenidas en la Cuenca del Segura y los planes de defensa. In: Reunión Científica Internacional sobre Avenidas Fluviales e inundaciones en la Cuenca del Mediterráneo, pp 469–482Google Scholar
  14. Benítez G, González-Tejero MR, Molero-Mesa J (2010) Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the western part of Granada province (southern Spain): Ethnopharmacological synthesis. J Ethnopharmacol 129:87–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benítez-Gilabert M, Alvarez-Cobelas M, Angeler DG (2010) Effects of climatic change on stream water quality in Spain. Clim Change 103:339–352. doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9778-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Benito G, Corominas J, Moreno JM (2005) Impacts on natural hazards of climatic origin. In: Moreno JM (coord). A preliminary assessment of the impacts in Spain due to the effects of climate change. Final Report. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid, pp 505–592Google Scholar
  17. Bernhardt E, Bunn SE, Hart DD, Malmqvist B, Muotka T, Naiman RJ, Pringle C, Reuss M, van Wilgen B (2006) The challenge of ecologically sustainable water management. Water Policy 8:475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bernot MJ, Dodds WK (2005) Nitrogen retention, removal and saturation in lotic ecosystems. Ecosystems 8:442–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bodoque JM, Pedraza J, Martín-Duque JF, Sanz MA, Carrasco RM, Díez A, Mattera M (2001) Evaluación de la degradación específica en la cuenca vertiente al embalse de Puente Alta (Segovia) mediante métodos de estimación directos e indirectos. Cuaternario y Geomorfologia 15:21–36Google Scholar
  20. Bouraoui F, Grizzetti B (2011) Long term change of nutrient concentrations of rivers discharging in European seas. Sci Total Environ 409:4899–4916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Camarero F et al (2011) La huella hídrica española en el contexto del cambio ambiental. Fundación Mapfre, MadridGoogle Scholar
  22. Canfield DE, Glazer AN, Falkowski PG (2010) The evolution and future of earth’s nitrogen cycle. Science 330:192–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cardinale B (2012) Impacts of biodiversity loss. Science 336:552–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cobo F, Vieira-Lanero R, Rego E, Servia MJ (2010) Temporal trends in non-indigenous freshwater species records during the 20th century: a case study in the Iberian Peninsula. Biodivers Conserv 19:3471–3487. doi: 10.1007/s10531-010-9908-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cole JJ, Prairie YT, Caraco NF, McDowell WH, Tranvik LJ, Striegl RG, Duarte CM, Kortelainen P, Downing JA, Middelburg JJ, Melack J (2007) Plumbing the global carbon cycle: integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems 10:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cubero JJ (2002) Recursos fitogenéticos y mejora vegetal. In: Pineda FD, de Miguel JM, Casado MA, Montalvo J (eds) La diversidad biológica en España. Pearson Educación, S.A. Madrid, pp 359–372Google Scholar
  27. Custodio E, Llamas R, Hernández-Mora N, Martínez L, Martínez-Santos P (2009) Chapter 14 Issues related to intensive groundwater use. In: Garrido A, Llamas MR (eds) Water policy in Spain. CRC Press, Leiden, pp 143–162Google Scholar
  28. De Antonio R, Almorox J, Saa A, Rueda JP (1995) Erosión y aterramiento de embalses. Agricultura 751:151–154Google Scholar
  29. De Groot RS, Alkemade R, Braat L, Hein L, Willemen L (2010) Challenges in integrating the concept of ecosystem services and values in landscape planning, management and decision making. Ecol Complex 6:453–462Google Scholar
  30. Díaz S, Fargione J, Chapin III FS, Tilman D (2006) Biodiversity loss threatens human well-being. PLoS Biol 4, e277. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040277
  31. Díaz-Hernández JL, Barahona E, Linares J (2003) Organic and inorganic carbon in soils of semiarid regions: a case study from the Guadix-Baza basin (southeast Spain). Geoderma 114:65–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Doadrio I (2001) Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Peces Continentales de España. Dirección General de Conservación de la Naturaleza-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, MadridGoogle Scholar
  33. Doadrio I, Aldeguer M (coord) (2007) La invasión de especies exóticas en los ríos. Estrategia Nacional de restauración de ríos. Ministerio Medio Ambiente, MadridGoogle Scholar
  34. Dodds WK (2002) Freshwater ecology. Concepts and environmental applications. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  35. EEA (European Environment Agency) (2012) Towards efficient use of water resources in Europe. EEA Report/No 1/2012Google Scholar
  36. Egea JM, Egea JM (2006) Lugares de interés agroecológico como espacio potencial para la producción ecológica. Agroecología 1:99–104Google Scholar
  37. Elvira B, Almodóvar A (2001) Freshwater fish introductions in Spain: facts and figures at the beginning of the 21st century. J Fish Biol 59:323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. EME (Evaluación de los ecosistemas del Milenio de España) (2011) La evaluación de los ecosistemas del Milenio de España. Síntesis de resultados. Fundación Biodiversidad. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid. http://www.ecomilenio.es/informe-sintesis-eme/2321. Accessed 7 April 2013
  39. Erisman JW, Sutton MA, Galloway J, Klimont Z, Winiwarter W (2008) 100 years of ammonia synthesis: how a single patent changed the world. Nat Geosci 1:636–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Erol A, Randhir TO (2012) Climatic change impacts on the ecohydrology of Mediterranean watersheds. Clim Change 114:319–341. doi: 10.1007/s10584-012-0406-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Espejo C (2001) Las aguas de consumo envasadas en España. Trasvases muy rentables y nada cuestionados. Papeles de Geografía 34:125–142Google Scholar
  42. Espinosa MI, Vidal-Abarca MR, Suárez ML (2001) Comparative study of water physico-chemical quality of the rivers and streams of the Segura River Basin (SE. of Spain). In: Symposium for European Freshwater Science, ToulouseGoogle Scholar
  43. European Commission (2000) (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament of the Council of 23rd October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Off J Eur Commun 327:1–72Google Scholar
  44. Fatta-Kassinos D, Meric S, Nikolaou A (2011) Pharmaceutical residues in environmental waters and water: current state and knowledge and future research. Anal Bioanal Chem 399:251–275. doi: 10.1007/s00216-010-4300-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Floridi M, Pagni S, Falorni S, Luzzati T (2011) An exercise in composite indicators construction: assessing the sustainability of Italian regions. Ecol Econ 70:1440–1447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fundación Observatorio Español de Acuicultura (2010) Indicadores de acuicultura 2010. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid Google Scholar
  47. García de Jalón D, Sánchez R, Serrano J (Coords) (2007) Alteraciones de los regímenes de caudales de los ríos. Estrategia nacional de Restauración de ríos. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, MadridGoogle Scholar
  48. García Ruíz JM, López Bermúdez F (2009) La erosión del suelo en España. Sociedad Española de Geomorfología, ZaragozaGoogle Scholar
  49. García-Lorente M, Martín-López B, Nunes PALD, González JA, Alcorlo P, Montes C (2011) Analyzing the social factors that influence willingness to pay for the management of invasive alien species under two different strategies: eradication and prevention. Environ Manage 48:418–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Geiger W, Alcorlo P, Baltanás A, Montes C (2005) Impact of an introduced Crustacean on the trophic webs of Mediterranean wetlands. Biol Invasions 7:49–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Glaser M, Krause G, Ratter B, Welp M (2008) Human/nature interaction in the anthropocene. Potential of social-ecological systems analysis. Gaia 17:77–80. http://www.dg-humanoekologie.de/pdf/DGH-Mitteilungen/GAIA200801_77_80.pdf Google Scholar
  52. Gómez R, Hurtado I, Suárez ML, Vidal-Abarca MR (2005) Ramblas in Southeast Spain: threatened and valuable ecosystems. Aquat Conserv 15:387–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. González del Tánago M, García de Jalón D, Lara F, Garilleti R (2007) Restauración de ríos. Guía metodológica para la elaboración de proyectos. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, MadridGoogle Scholar
  54. González S, Valcárcel Y, Montero JC, Catalá M (2012) Nicotine occurrence in bottled mineral water: analysis of 10 brands of water in Spain. Sci Total Environ 416:527–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. González-Hidalgo JC, Brunetti M, de Luis M (2010) Precipitation trends in Spanish hydrological divisions, 1946–2005. Clim Res 43:215–228. doi: 10.3354/cr00937 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grantham TE, Figueroa R, Prat N (2012) Water management in mediterranean river basins: a comparison of management frameworks, physical impacts, and ecological responses. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-012-1289-4 Google Scholar
  57. Gregory SV, Swanson FJ, Mckee WA, Cummins KW (1991) An ecosystem perspective of riparian zones. Bioscience 41:540–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gutiérrez-Yurrita PJ, Martínez JM, Ilhéu M, Bravo-Utrera MA, Bernardo JM, Montes C (1997) Estatus de las poblaciones de cangrejos en la Península Ibérica. Geoticies. http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/Cabin/9849/cangrejo. Accessed 10 Sep 2010
  59. Harrison PA, Vandewalle M, Sykes MT, Berry PM, Bugter R, de Bello F, Feld CK, Grandin U, Harrington R, Haslett JR, Jongman RHG, Luck GW, da Martins Silva P, Moora M, Settele J, Sousa JP, Zobel M (2010) Identifying and prioritising services in European terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Biodivers Conserv 19:2791–2821. doi: 10.1007/s10531-010-9789-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Haslett JR, Berry PM, Jongman RHG, Bela G, Samways M, Zobel M, Scholten L, Pataki G (2010) Changing conservation strategies in Europe: a framework integrating ecosystem services and dynamics. Biodivers Conserv 19(10):2963–2977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hoekstra AY, Mekonnen MM (2012) The water footprint of humanity. P Natl Acad Sci USA 109(9):3232–3237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Holland RA, Eigenbrod F, Armsworth PR, Anderson BJ, Thomas CD, Heinemeyer A, GIillings S, Roy DB, Gaston KJ (2011) Spatial covariation between freshwater and terrestrial ecosystem services. Ecol Appl 21(6):2034–2048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hueso Kortekaas K, Carrasco JF (2008) Iniciativas de recuperación de salinas de interior en España. In: The articulation of portuguese salt with worldwide routes. Past and new consumption trends. Instituto de Historia Moderna/Universidade do Porto, Porto, pp 321–328Google Scholar
  64. IFN3 (Tercer Inventario Forestal Nacional) (1997–2007) http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/servicios/banco-datos-naturaleza/informacion-disponible/ifn3.aspx. Accessed 7 Feb 2013
  65. IGME (2010) Sal Común. http://www.igme.es/internet/PanoramaMinero/actual/SAL2010.pdf. Accessed 30 Jan 2013
  66. INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística) (2010) Estadísticas sobre medio ambiente. http://www.ine.es/
  67. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_wg1_report_the_physical_science_basis.htm. Accessed 5 April 2013
  68. Jones JB, Mulholland PJ (eds) (2000) Streams and ground waters. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  69. Junk WJ, Bailey PB, Sparks RE (1989) The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 106:110–127Google Scholar
  70. Jurado A, Vàzquez-Suñé E, Carrera J, de López Alda M, Pujades E, Barceló D (2012) Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater in Spain: a review of sources, recent occurrence and fate in a European context. Sci Total Environ 440:82–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Keys P, Barron J, Lannerstad M (2012) Releasing the pressure: water resource efficiencies and gains for ecosystem services. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Stockholm Environment Institute, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  72. Klugman J (2011) Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano 2011. Sostenibilidad y equidad: Un mejor futuro para todos Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD). Ediciones Mundi-Prensa, MadridGoogle Scholar
  73. Kravcík M, Pokorný J, Kohutiar J, Kovác M, Tóth E (2009) Water for the recovery of the climate—a new water paradigm. http://www.waterparadigm.org/. Accessed 5 April 2013
  74. Layke C, Mapendembeb A, Brown C, Walpoleb M, Winnb J (2012) Indicators from the global and sub-global Millennium ecosystem assessments: an analysis and next steps. Ecol Indic 17:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Leunda PM (2010) Impacts of non-native fishes on Iberian freshwater ichthyofauna: current knowledge and gaps. Aquat Invasion 5(3):239–262. doi: 10.339/ai.2010.5.3.03 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lorenzo-Cruz J, Vicente-Serrano SM, López-Moreno JL, Morán-Tejera E, Zabalza J (2012) Recent trends in Iberian streamflows (1945–2005). J Hydrol 414–415:463–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lowrance R, Altier LS, Newbold JD, Schnabel RR, Groffman PM, Denver JM, Correll DL, Gilliam JW, Robinson JL, Brinsfield RB, Lucas W, Todd AH (1997) Water quality functions of riparian forest buffers in Chesapeake Bay watersheds. Environ Manage 21(5):687–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. MA (Millennium Assessment) (2005a) Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  79. MA (Millennium Assessment) (2005b) Ecosystem and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  80. MA (Millennium Assessment) (2005c) Ecosystem and human well-being: drivers of ecosystem change: summary chapter. World Resources Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  81. MAGRAMA (Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente) (2011a) Inventario de Presas y Embalses. http://sig.marm.es/snczi/visor.html?herramienta=stadisticasPresas. Accessed 10 Feb 2013
  82. MAGRAMA (Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente) (2011b) Perfil Ambiental de España 2010. Informe basado en indicadores. Gobierno de España. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/calidad-y-evaluacion-ambiental/temas/informacion-ambiental-indicadores-ambientales/indicadores-ambientales-perfil-ambiental-de-espana/. Accessed 5 April 2013
  83. MAGRAMA (Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente) (2012a) Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente en España. 2011. Gobierno de España. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/ministerio/servicios/publicaciones/memoria2011_cap.aspx. Accessed 5 April 2013
  84. MAGRAMA (Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente) (2012b) Registro Nacional de Lodos. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/calidad-y-evaluacion-ambiental/temas/prevencion-y-gestion-residuos/flujos/lodos-depuradora/. Accessed 10 February 2013)
  85. Martín J, Camacho-Muñoz MAD, Santos JL, Aparicio I, Alonso E (2012) Distribution and temporal evolution of pharmaceutically active compounds alongside sewage sludge treatment. Risk assessment of sludge application onto soils. J Environ Manage 102:18–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Martínez Fernández J, Esteve Selma MA (coord) (2009) Sostenibilidad Ambiental en la Región de Murcia. Editum, MurciaGoogle Scholar
  87. Martín-López B, Gómez-Baggethun E, Montes C (2009) Un marco conceptual para la gestión de las interacciones naturaleza-sociedad en un mundo cambiante. Cuaderno Interdisciplinar de Desarrollo Sostenible (CUIDES) 9:229–258Google Scholar
  88. MMA (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente) (1998) Libro Blanco del Agua en España. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/agua/temas/planificacion-hidrologica/libro-blanco-del-agua/default.aspx. Accessed 5 April 2013
  89. MMA (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente) (2007a) Ficha Técnica. Austropotamobius pallipes. Catálogo Nacional de Especies Amenazadas. (R.D. 439/1990)Google Scholar
  90. MMA (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente) (2007b) Inventario de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero de España. Años 1990–2005. Comunicación a la Comisión Europea. Decisiones 280/2004/CE y 2005/166/CE. Secretaría General para la Prevención de la Contaminación y del Cambio Climático. Dirección General de Calidad y Evaluación Ambiental. Subdirección General de Calidad del Aire y Prevención de Riesgos, MadridGoogle Scholar
  91. MMARM (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Medio Rural y Marino) (2008) La gestión de la sequía de los años 2004 a 2007. ISBN:13: 978-84-8320-419-1. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/agua/temas/observatorio-nacional-de-la-sequia/sequiapub2004-2007_tcm7-197604.pdf. Accessed 5 April 2013
  92. MMARM (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Medio Rural y Marino) (2010a) El Medio Ambiente y el Medio Rural y Marino en España. 2009. Gobierno de España, Madrid. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/ministerio/servicios/publicaciones/memoria2010_cap.aspx. Accessed 5 April 2013
  93. MMARM (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Medio Rural y Marino) (2010b) Inventario de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero de España. Edición 2010 (Serie 1990–2008). Sumario de resultados. Secretaría de Estado de Cambio Climático. Dirección General de Calidad y Evaluación Ambiental. Unidad de Información Ambiental Estratégica, MadridGoogle Scholar
  94. Montes C (2007) Hacia una Hidrosolidaridad entre humanos y ecosistemas. Compluteca 53:99–107Google Scholar
  95. Montes C, Martín-López B (2011) Los sistemas socioecológicos: entendiendo las relaciones entre la biodiversidad y el bienestar humano. In: Observatorio de la Sostenibilidad en España (OSE). Biodiversidad en España. Bases para la sostenibilidad ante el cambio global. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. Fundación Biodiversidad. Fundación General de la Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid, pp 445–465Google Scholar
  96. Morales J, Lizana M (2011) El estado de la biodiversidad de los vertebrados españoles. Causa de la riqueza de especies y actualización taxonómica. Memorias R Soc Esp Hist Nat 9:285–342Google Scholar
  97. Mount DC, Bielak AT (2011) Deep words, shallow words: An initial analysis of water discourse in four decades of UN declarations. UNU-INWEH, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  98. Naeem S, Duffy JE, Zavaleta E (2012) The functions of biological diversity in an age of extinction. Science 336:1401. doi: 10.1126/science.1215855 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nagler PL, Scott RL, Westenburg C, Cleverly JR, Glenn EP, Huete AR (2005) Evapotranspiration on western U.S. rivers estimated using the Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS and data from eddy covariance and Bowen ratio flux towers. Remote Sens Environ 97:337–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Naiman RJ, Décamps H, McClain ME (2005) Riparia Ecology, conservation, and management of streamside communities. Elsevier Academic Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  101. Naiman RJ, Dudgeon D (2011) Global alteration of freshwaters: influences on human and environmental well-being. Ecol Res 26:865–873Google Scholar
  102. Nel JL, Turak E, Limke S, Brown C (2011) Integration of environmental flow assessment and freshwater conservation planning: a new era in catchment management. Mar Freshw Res 62:290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nilsson C, Reidy CA, Dynesius M, Revenga C (2005) Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world’s large river systems. Science 308:405–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. OSE (Observatorio de Sostenibilidad de España) (2011) Sostenibilidad en España-2011. Capítulo especial: bosques en España. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Fundación Biodiversidad, Fundación General de la Universidad de Alcalá, MadridGoogle Scholar
  105. OSE (Observatorio de Sostenibilidad de España) (2012) Sostenibilidad en España-2012. Capítulo especial: energía sostenible para todos. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Fundación Biodiversidad, Fundación General de la Universidad de Alcalá, MadridGoogle Scholar
  106. Palau A (2004) La sedimentación en embalses. Medidas preventivas y correctoras. I Congreso de Ingeniería Civil, Territorio y Medio Ambiente, MadridGoogle Scholar
  107. Palmer M, Covich AP, Finlay BJ, Gibert J, Hyde KD, Johnson RK, Kairesalo T, Lake S, Lovell CR, Naiman RJ, Ricci C, Sabater F, Strayer D (1997) Biodiversity and ecosystem processes in freshwater sediments. Ambio 26(8):571–577Google Scholar
  108. Palomi JL Gisbert J, Blanco JC (eds) (2007) Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Mamíferos Terrestres de España. Dirección General para la Biodiversidad. SECEM-SECEMU, MadridGoogle Scholar
  109. Pereira HM, Domingos T, Vicente L, Proença V (2009) Ecossistemas e Bem-estar Humano. Avaliação para Portugal do Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Escolae Editora, LisboamGoogle Scholar
  110. Pinay G, Fabre A, Vervier P, Gazelle F (1992) Control of C, N, and P distribution in soils of riparian forest. Landscape Ecol 6:121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pleguezuelos JM, Márquez R, Lizana M (eds) (2002) Atlas y Libro rojo de los anfibios y reptiles de España. Organismo Autónomo de Parques Nacionales. Madrid. http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/inventarios-nacionales/inventario-especies-terrestres/inventario-nacional-de-biodiversidad/indice.aspx. Accessed 2 Feb 2013
  112. Prentice IC, Farquhar GD, Fasham MJR, Goulden ML, Heimann M, Jaramillo VJ, Kheshgi HS, Le Que′re′ C, Scholes RJ, Wallace DWR (2001) The carbon cycle and atmospheric carbon dioxide. In: Houghton JT et al. (eds) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 183–237Google Scholar
  113. Rands MRW, Adams WM, Bennun L, Butchart SHM, Clements A, Coomes D, Entwistle A, Hodge I, Kapos V, Scharlemann JPW, Sutherland WJ, Vira B (2010) Biodiversity conservation: challenges beyond 2010. Science 239:1298–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Regueiro M (2007) La extracción de áridos en la Unión Europea en el marco de la estrategia del uso sostenible de los recursos naturales. http://www.estrucplan.com.ar/articulos/verarticulo.asp?IDArticulo=1466. Accessed 11 Feb 2013
  115. Ribera I (2000) Biogeography and conservation of Iberian water beetles. Biol Conserv 92:131–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rivas-Martínez S (1987) Memoria del mapa de series de vegetación de España. ICONA, MadridGoogle Scholar
  117. Rodríguez Casado R, Garrido A, Llamas MR, Varela-Ortega C (2008) La huella hídrica de la agricultura española. Papeles de Agua virtual. Fundación Marcelino Botín, MadridGoogle Scholar
  118. Rovira A, Ibañez C (2007) Sediment management options for the lower Ebro River and its Delta. J Soils Sediment 7(5):285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sabater S, Barcelo D (2010) Water scarcity in the Mediterranean: perspectives under global changes, vol. 8: handbook of environmental chemistry. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  120. Sanz Montero ME (2002) Aportes de sedimentos a embalses y tasas de erosión en distintos sectores de la cuenca del Ebro. Geogaceta 32:223–226Google Scholar
  121. Sanz Montero ME, Avendaño C, Cobo R, Gómez JL (1998) Determinación de la erosión en la Cuenca del Segura a partir de los sedimentos acumulados en sus embalses. Geogaceta 23:135–138Google Scholar
  122. Sawyer AH, Cardenas MB, Bomar A, Mackey M (2009) Impact of dam operations on hyporheic exchange in the riparian zone of a regulated river. Hydrol Process Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). doi: 10.1002/hyp.7324
  123. SCDB (Secretaría del Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica) (2010) Perspectiva Mundial sobre la Diversidad Biológica 3, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  124. Schinegger R, Trautwein C, Melcher A, Schmutz S (2011) Multiple human pressures and their spatial patterns in European running waters. Water Environ J. doi: 10.1111/J.1747-6593.2011.00285.x Google Scholar
  125. Segura R, Sánchez Cabezas F (2008) Situación actual de las balsas y los pequeños embalses en España. II Congreso Internacional de Impermeabilización sobrer proyecto, construcción e impermeabilización de Balsas. Palma de Mallorca, 23–25 de abril de 2008Google Scholar
  126. Strayer D, Dudgeon D (2010) Freshwater biodiversity conservation: recent progress and future challenges. J N Am Benthol Soc 29(1):344–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Suarez ML, Vidal-Abarca MR (2012) Ecosistemas de ríos y riberas: conocer más para gestionar mejor. Ambienta 98:1–5Google Scholar
  128. The Royal Society (2012) People and the planet. The Royal Society Science Policy Centre report 01/12, LondonGoogle Scholar
  129. UICN (2009) The UICN red list of threatened species 2009 update. Freshw Fish Facts. http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/more_facts_on_freshwater_fish.pdf. Accessed 5 April 2013
  130. UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011) The UK national ecosystem assessment: synthesis of the key. Findings. UNEP-WCMC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  131. Verdú JR, Galante E (eds) (2009) Atlas de los Invertebrados Amenazados de España (Especies En Peligro Crítico y En Peligro). Dirección General para la Biodiversidad, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, MadridGoogle Scholar
  132. Vidal-Abarca MR, Gómez R, Suárez ML (2004) Los ríos de las regiones semiáridas. Ecosistemas, 204/1. http://www.revistaecosistemas.net/index.php/ecosistemas/article/view/219. Accessed 5 April 2013
  133. Vilá M, Valladares F, Traveset A, Santamaria L, Castro P (2008) Invasiones Biológicas. CSIC, MadridGoogle Scholar
  134. Vitousek PM, Aber JD, Howarth RW, Likens GE, Matson PA, Schindler DW, Schlesinger WH, Tilman DG (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol Appl 7:737–750Google Scholar
  135. Wantzen KM, Couto EG, Mund EE, Amorim RSS, Siqueira A, Seifan KM (2012) Soil carbon stocks in stream-valley-ecosystems in the Brazilian Cerrado agroscape. Agr Ecosyst Environ 151:70–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ward JV, Wiens JA (2001) Ecotones of riverine ecosystems: role and typology, spatio-temporal dynamics, and river regulation. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol 1:25–36Google Scholar
  137. Winn J, Tierney M (2011) The drivers of change in UK ecosystems and ecosystem services. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment. Findings. UNEP-WCMC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  138. WWAP (World Water Assessment Programme) (2009) The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Paris, UNESCO and London, EarthscanGoogle Scholar
  139. WWAP (World Water Assessment Programme) (2012) The United Nations world water development Report 4: managing water under uncertainty and risk. Paris, UNESCOGoogle Scholar
  140. WWF (World Wildlife Fund) (2001) La situación del salmón salvaje del atlántico: Una evaluación por ríos, MadridGoogle Scholar
  141. WWF (World Wildlife Fund) (2007) Pipedreams?. Interbasin water transfers and water shortages. Global Freshwater Programme, WashingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Rosario Vidal-Abarca Gutiérrez
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Luisa Suárez Alonso
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and HydrologyUniversity of MurciaMurciaSpain

Personalised recommendations