Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 21, Issue 12, pp 3107–3129 | Cite as

Sustainable management of planted landscapes: lessons from Japan

  • Yuichi YamauraEmail author
  • Hiroyasu Oka
  • Hisatomo Taki
  • Kenichi Ozaki
  • Hiroshi Tanaka
Original Paper


In Japan, 42 % of forests are planted forests, and most of them were established after World War II (1950–1980) to meet increased wood demands. Although Japanese planted forests are now reaching their planned harvest age, they have not been managed, and their restoration is now being discussed. Japanese foresters have not cut their own forests, and the country’s high wood demands have been met by imports during recent decades. The decline of young forests due to the stagnation of forestry activity is suggested to be partly responsible for the nation-wide decline in early-successional species, which is referred to as the “second crisis of biodiversity.” As a timber-importing nation, it is suggested that Japan has underused the nation’s own forests and has overused forests elsewhere. A revival of Japanese plantation forestry may contribute to the restoration of early-successional species because young planted forests are likely to provide suitable habitats. Furthermore, only 30 % of the current planted forests in Japan will be needed to meet the expected future domestic demand for lumber and plywood without imports. The remaining 70 % of the current planted forests may be restored to natural forests with or without harvesting. The history of Japanese planted forests suggests that some natural trees/forests should be retained, even in the landscapes that specialize in wood production, because part of the planted forests may be economically marginalized in the future, and their restoration to natural forests would then be needed.


Economic marginalization Forest planning Forest restoration Forest-use history Overplanted forests Planted forest expansion Retention of natural forests 



We thank H. Tojo for providing information on bird species richness, Y. Uenishi for providing wood statistics, Secretariat of the Ecological Society of Japan (ESJ) and T. Takada for allowing the use of the ESJ membership. We also thank T. Amano, T. Inoue, H. Kakizawa, J. Morimoto, F. Nakamura, M. Rubiner, S. Sato, Y. Shoji, S. Sugiura, S. Yamamoto, and M. Yui for providing valuable comments on this study. We gratefully acknowledge the two reviewers and the editors, I. Perfecto and J. Vandermeer, for providing helpful comments on an earlier draft. Y. Yamaura was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists B no. 23780153). H. Tanaka was supported by the Research and Development Projects for Application in Promoting a New Policy of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries, funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan and by Research Grant No. 201103 (G2P08) of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute.


  1. Asner GP, Rudel TK, Aide TM, DeFries R, Emerson R (2009) A contemporary assessment of change in humid tropical forests. Conserv Biol 23:1386–1395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin MP (1999) A silent clash of paradigms: some inconsistencies in community ecology. Oikos 86:170–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baum KA, Haynes KJ, Dillemuth FP, Cronin JT (2004) The matrix enhances the effectiveness of corridors and stepping stones. Ecology 85:2671–2676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Betts MG, Forbes GJ, Diamond AW (2007) Thresholds in songbird occurrence in relation to landscape structure. Conserv Biol 21:1046–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Böttcher H, Lindner M (2010) Managing forest plantations for carbon sequestration today and in the future. In: Bauhus J, van der Meer P, Kanninen K (eds) Ecosystem goods and services from plantation forests. Earthscan, London, pp 43–76Google Scholar
  6. Brockerhoff E, Jactel H, Parrotta J, Quine C, Sayer J (2008) Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity? Biodivers Conserv 17:925–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cabinet Office (2004) White paper on the national lifestyle 2004. Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, Tokyo
  8. Canadell JG, Raupach MR (2008) Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 320:1456–1457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carnus J-M, Parrotta J, Brockerhoff E, Arbez M, Jactel H, Kremer A, Lamb D, O’Hara K, Walters B (2006) Planted forests and biodiversity. J For 104:65–77Google Scholar
  10. Chai S-L, Tanner EVJ (2011) 150-year legacy of land use on tree species composition in old-secondary forests of Jamaica. J Ecol 99:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chazdon RL, Peres CA, Dent D, Sheil D, Lugo AE, Lamb D, Stork NE, Miller SE (2009) The potential for species conservation in tropical secondary forests. Conserv Biol 23:1406–1417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiba T (1991) Study on bald mountains. Societe Publications, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  13. Clapp RA (2001) Tree farming and forest conservation in Chile: do replacement forests leave any originals behind? Soc Nat Resour 14:341–356Google Scholar
  14. Clough Y, Barkmann J, Juhrbandt J, Kessler M, Wanger TC, Anshary A, Buchori D, Cicuzza D, Darras K, Putra DD, Erasmi S, Pitopang R, Schmidt C, Schulze CH, Seidel D, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stenchly K, Vidal S, Weist M, Wielgoss AC, Tscharntke T (2011) Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:8311–8366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Côté P, Tittler R, Messier C, Kneeshaw DD, Fall A, Fortin M-J (2010) Comparing different forest zoning options for landscape-scale management of the boreal forest: possible benefits of the TRIAD. For Ecol Manag 259:418–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daily GC (2001) Ecological forecasts. Nature 411:245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dauvergne P (1997) Shadows in the forest: Japan and the politics of timber in Southeast Asia. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  18. Debinski DM, Holt RD (2000) A survey and overview of habitat fragmentation experiments. Conserv Biol 14:342–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Department of Population Dynamics Research (2012) Population projections for Japan: 2011–2060 with long-range population projections: 2061–2110. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Tokyo (in Japanese)
  20. Dietsch TV, Philpott SM, Rice RA, Greenberg R, Bichier P (2004) Conservation policy in coffee landscapes. Science 303:625–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Edwards DP, Hodgson JA, Hamer KC, Mitchell SL, Ahmad AH, Cornell SJ, Wilcove DS (2010) Wildlife-friendly oil palm plantations fail to protect biodiversity effectively. Conserv Lett 3:236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellis EC, Goldewijk KK, Siebert S, Lightman D, Ramankutty N (2010) Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000. Global Ecol Biogeogr 19:589–606Google Scholar
  23. Ewers RM, Marsh CJ, Wearn OR (2010) Making statistics biologically relevant in fragmented landscapes. Trends Ecol Evol 25:699–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fahrig L (2001) How much habitat is enough? Biol Conserv 100:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fahrig L (2002) Effect of habitat fragmentation on the extinction threshold: a synthesis. Ecol Appl 12:346–353Google Scholar
  26. Fahrig L (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:487–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. FAO (2006) Global planted forests thematic study: results and analysis. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  28. FAO (2007) State of the world’s forests 2007. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  29. FAO (2010) Global forest resources assessment 2010. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  30. Fischer J, Brosi B, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR, Goldman R, Goldstein J, Lindenmayer DB, Manning AD, Mooney HA, Pejchar L, Ranganathan J, Tallis H (2008) Should agricultural policies encourage land sparing or wildlife-friendly farming? Front Ecol Environ 6:380–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fischer J, Batáry P, Bawa KS, Brussaard L, Chappell MJ, Clough Y, Daily GC, Dorrough J, Hartel T, Jackson LE, Klein AM, Kremen C, Kuemmerle T, Lindenmayer DB, Mooney HA, Perfecto I, Philpott SM, Tscharntke T, Vandermeer J, Wanger TC, Von Wehrden H (2011) Conservation: limits of land sparing. Science 334:593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Forestry Agency (2007a) Statistics on long term log prices. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo (in Japanese)
  33. Forestry Agency (2007b). Status of forest resources. Forestry Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo (in Japanese)
  34. Forestry Agency (2009) Strategy of conservation and sustainable use of forest biodiversity. Forestry Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  35. Forestry Agency (2010) White paper on forestry and forests, 2009. Japan Forestry Association, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  36. Forestry Agency (2011) White paper on forestry and forests, 2010. Japan Forestry Association, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  37. Franklin JF (2003) Challenges to temperate forest stewardship—focusing on the future. In: Lindenmayer DB, Franklin JF (eds) Towards forest sustainability. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  38. Gibson L, Lee TM, Koh LP, Brook BW, Gardner TA, Barlow J, Peres CA, Bradshaw CJA, Laurance WF, Lovejoy TE, Sodhi NS (2011) Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity. Nature 478:378–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Green RE, Cornell SJ, Scharlemann JPW, Balmford A (2005) Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science 307:550–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guénette J-S, Villard M-A (2005) Thresholds in forest bird response to habitat alteration as quantitative targets for conservation. Conserv Biol 19:1168–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hecht SB, Saatchi SS (2007) Globalization and forest resurgence: changes in forest cover in El Salvador. BioSci 57:663–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Higuchi K, Sato S, Kato R, Shimoda H (1975) Studies on the weed-vegetation at the early stage of plantation (I) Vegetative transition on Cryptomeria japonica planted in every year. J Jpn For Soc 57:346–350Google Scholar
  43. Himiyama Y (1995) Atlas: environmental change in modern Japan. Asakura Publishing, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  44. Hodgson JA, Kunin WE, Thomas CD, Benton TG, Gabriel D (2010) Comparing organic farming and land sparing: optimizing yield and butterfly populations at a landscape scale. Ecol Lett 13:1358–1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Inoue T (2005) Causes of butterfly decline in Japan. Jpn J Entomol (New Ser) 8:43–64 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  46. Ishii H, Maleque M, Taniguchi S (2008) Line thinning promotes stand growth and understory diversity in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations. J For Res 13:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ito S, Nakagawa M, Buckley GP, Nogami K (2003) Species richness in sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. DON) plantations in southeastern Kyushu, Japan: the effects of stand type and age on understory trees and shrubs. J For Res 8:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ito S, Nakayama R, Buckley GP (2004) Effects of previous land-use on plant species diversity in semi-natural and plantation forests in a warm-temperate region in southeastern Kyushu, Japan. For Ecol Manag 196:213–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ITTO (2010) Annual review and assessment of the world timber situation. International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  50. JBOSC (2010) Japan Biodiversity Outlook. Japan Biodiversity Outlook Science Committee (JBOSC), Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  51. Kajisa T, Yoshida S, Nagashima K, Murakami T, Mizoue N, Sasaki S, Kuwano Y, Saho K, Shimizu M, Miyazaki J, Fukuzato K, Oda M, Shimozono H (2011) Situation of erosion, landslide, and limiting factors of vegetation recovery on abandoned clear-cut sites in Kyushu region. J Jpn For Soc 93:288–293 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kirby K (1992) Woodland and wildlife. Whittet Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Koh LP, Gardner TA (2010) Conservation in human-modified landscapes. In: Sodhi NS, Ehrlich PR (eds) Conservation biology for all. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 236–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Koh LP, Ghazoul J (2010) A matrix-calibrated species-area model for predicting biodiversity losses due to land-use change. Conserv Biol 24:994–1001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Koh LP, Levang P, Ghazoul J (2009) Designer landscapes for sustainable biofuels. Trends Ecol Evol 24:431–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kon H, Watanabe I, Yasaka M (2007) Effect of thinning on the natural regeneration of broad-leaved trees in Abies sachalinensis plantations. J Jpn For Soc 89:395–400 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kuussaari M, Bommarco R, Heikkinen RK, Helm A, Krauss J, Lindborg R, Öckinger E, Pärtel M, Pino J, Rodà F, Stefanescu C, Teder T, Zobel M, Steffan-Dewenter I (2009) Extinction debt: a challenge for biodiversity conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 24:564–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Laurance WF (2008) The need to cut China’s illegal timber imports. Science 319:1184–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lenzen M, Moran D, Kanemoto K, Foran B, Lobefaro L, Geschke A (2012) International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations. Nature 486:109–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lindenmayer DB, Fischer J (2006) Habitat fragmentation and landscape change: an ecological and conservation synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  61. Lindenmayer DB, Franklin J (2003) Transitions to ecological sustainability in forests—a synthesis. In: Lindenmayer DB, Franklin JF (eds) Towards forest sustainability. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 205–213Google Scholar
  62. Lindenmayer DB, Cunningham RB, Donnelly CF, Nix H, Lindenmayer BD (2002) Effects of forest fragmentation on bird assemblages in a novel landscape context. Ecol Monogr 72:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. MacLean DA, Seymour RS, Montigny MK, Messier C (2009) Allocation of conservation efforts over the landscape: the TRIAD approach. In: Villard M-A, Jonsson BG (eds) Setting conservation targets for managed forest landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 283–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Makino S, Goto H, Inoue T, Sueyoshi M, Okabe K, Hasegawa M, Hamaguchi K, Tanaka H, Okochi I (2006) The monitoring of insects to maintain biodiversity in Ogawa forest reserve. Environ Monit Assess 120:477–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Maleque MA, Ishii HT, Maeto K, Taniguchi S (2007) Line thinning fosters the abundance and diversity of understory Hymenoptera (Insecta) in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations. J For Res 12:14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Margules CR, Pressey RL (2000) Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405:243–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mashimo Y (1983) Ecology and environment. In: Sakaguchi K (ed), All of Japanese cedar New Edition. Zenkoku Ringyou Kairyou Hukyu Kyoukai, Tokyo, pp. 77–124 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  68. Mayer AL, Kauppi PE, Angelstam PK, Zhang Y, Tikka PM (2005) Importing timber, exporting ecological impact. Science 308:359–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McGarigal K, Cushman SA (2002) Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation effects. Ecol Appl 12:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Menéndez R, Megías AG, Hill JK, Braschler B, Willis SG, Collingham Y, Fox R, Roy DB, Thomas CD (2006) Species richness changes lag behind climate change. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 273:1465–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Messier C, Tittler R, Kneeshaw DD, Gélinas N, Paquette A, Berninger K, Rheault H, Meek P, Beaulieu N (2009) TRIAD zoning in Quebec: experiences and results after 5 years. Forest Chron 85:885–896Google Scholar
  72. Meyfroidt P, Rudel TK, Lambin EF (2010) Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:20917–20922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mitsuda Y, Ito S, Sakamoto S (2007) Predicting the site index of sugi plantations from GIS-derived environmental factors in Miyazaki Prefecture. J For Res 12:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moorman CE, Guynn DCJ (2001) Effects of group-selection opening size in breeding bird habitat use in a bottomland forest. Ecol Appl 11:1680–1691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moriyama H (1988) What is nature conservation? Rural Culture Association Japan, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  76. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nagaike T (2002) Differences in plant species diversity between conifer (Larix kaempferi) plantations and broad-leaved (Quercus crispula) secondary forests in central Japan. For Ecol Manag 168:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nagaike T, Hayashi A, Kubo M, Abe M, Arai N (2006) Plant species diversity in a managed forest landscape composed of Larix kaempferi plantations and abandoned coppice forests in central Japan. For Sci 52:324–332Google Scholar
  79. Nagashima K, Omoto K, Yoshida S (2011) The patterns and factors of vegetation recovery at abandoned plantation clearcut sites in Kyushu region: implication for management. J Jpn For Soc 93:294–302 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nájera A, Simonetti JA (2010) Enhancing avifauna in commercial plantations. Conserv Biol 24:319–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nakashizuka T, Iida S (1995) Composition, dynamics and disturbance regime of temperate deciduous forests in Monsoon Asia. Vegetatio 121:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Noble IR, Dirzo R (1997) Forests as human-dominated ecosystems. Science 277:522–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nonoda S, Shibuya M, Saito H, Ishibashi S, Takahashi M (2008) Invasion and growth processes of natural broadleaved trees and influences of thinning on the processes in an Abies sachalinensis plantation. J Jpn For Soc 90:103–110 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ogura J (2012) History of forest and grassland: transitions of Japanse vegetation. Kokon Shoin, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  85. Ohsawa M (2004) Species richness of Cerambycidae in larch plantations and natural broad-leaved forests of the central mountainous region of Japan. For Ecol Manag 189:375–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ohsawa M (2007) The role of isolated old oak trees in maintaining beetle diversity within larch plantations in the central mountainous region of Japan. For Ecol Manag 250:215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ohsawa M, Nagaike T (2006) Influence of forest types and effects of forestry activities on species richness and composition of Chrysomelidae in the central mountainous region of Japan. Biodivers Conserv 15:1179–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ohsawa M, Shimokawa T (2011) Extending the rotation period in larch plantations increases canopy heterogeneity and promotes species richness and abundance of native beetles: implications for the conservation of biodiversity. Biol Conserv 144:3106–3116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Paquette A, Messier C (2010) The role of plantations in managing the world’s forests in the Anthropocene. Front Ecol Environ 8:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pautasso M (2006) Scale dependence of the correlation between human population presence and vertebrate and plant species richness. Ecol Lett 9:16–24Google Scholar
  91. Perfecto I, Vandermeer J (2010) The agroecological matrix as alternative to the land-sparing/agriculture intensification model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:5786–5791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Perfecto I, Vandermeer J, Mas A, Pinto LS (2005) Biodiversity, yield, and shade coffee certification. Ecol Econ 54:435–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Phalan B, Onial M, Balmford A, Green RE (2011) Reconciling food production and biodiversity conservation: land sharing and land sparing compared. Science 333:1289–1291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Prugh LR, Hodges KE, Sinclair ARE, Brashares JS (2008) Effect of habitat area and isolation on fragmented animal populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:20770–20775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Puyravaud J-P, Davidar P, Laurance WF (2010) Cryptic destruction of India’s native forests. Conserv Lett 3:390–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rudel TK, Schneider L, Uriarte M, Turner BL, DeFries R, Lawrence D, Geoghegan J, Hecht S, Ickowitz A, Lambin EF, Birkenholtz T, Baptista S, Grau R (2009) Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970–2005. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:20675–20680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sakura T, Numata M (1980) Community dynamics of young stands of Sugi, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) (I) A comparison between weeded and non-weeded plots during the five years after clear cutting. J Jpn For Soc 62:371–380Google Scholar
  98. Scherber C, Eisenhauer N, Weisser WW, Schmid B, Voigt W, Fischer M, Schulze E-D, Roscher C, Weigelt A, Allan E, Beszler H, Bonkowski M, Buchmann N, Buscot F, Clement LW, Ebeling A, Engels C, Halle S, Kertscher I, Klein A-M, Koller R, Konig S, Kowalski E, Kummer V, Kuu A, Lange M, Lauterbach D, Middelhoff C, Migunova VD, Milcu A, Muller R, Partsch S, Petermann JS, Renker C, Rottstock T, Sabais A, Scheu S, Schumacher J, Temperton VM, Tscharntke T (2010) Bottom-up effects of plant diversity on multitrophic interactions in a biodiversity experiment. Nature 468:553–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schlossberg S, King DI, Chandler RB, Mazzei BA (2010) Regional synthesis of habitat relationships in shrubland birds. J Wildl Manag 74:1513–1522Google Scholar
  100. Sedjo RA, Botkin D (1997) Using forest plantations to spare natural forests. Environment 39:14–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Seiwa K, Eto Y, Hishita M, Masaka K (2012a) Effects of thinning intensity on species diversity and timber production in a conifer (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation in Japan. J For Res: 1–11Google Scholar
  102. Seiwa K, Etoh Y, Hisita M, Masaka K, Imaji A, Ueno N, Hasegawa Y, Konno M, Kanno H, Kimura M (2012b) Roles of thinning intensity in hardwood recruitment and diversity in a conifer, Criptomeria japonica plantation: a 5-year demographic study. For Ecol Manag 269:177–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Seymour RS, Hunter MLJ (1999) Principles of ecological forestry. In: Hunter MLJ (ed) Maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 22–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sodhi NS, Brook BW (2006) Southeast Asian biodiversity in crisis. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  105. Steffan-Dewenter I, Kessler M, Barkmann J, Bos MM, Buchori D, Erasmi S, Faust H, Gerold G, Glenk K, Gradstein SR, Guhardja E, Harteveld M, Hertel D, Höhn P, Kappas M, Köhler S, Leuschner C, Maertens M, Marggraf R, Migge-Kleian S, Mogea J, Pitopang R, Schaefer M, Schwarze S, Sporn SG, Steingrebe A, Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, Tjitrosoemito S, Twele A, Weber R, Woltmann L, Zeller M, Tscharntke T (2007) Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4973–4978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sugita H, Kunisaki T, Takahashi T, Takahashi R (2008) Effects of previous forest types and site conditions on species composition and abundance of naturally regenerated trees in young Cryptomeria japonica plantations in northern Japan. J For Res 13:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Suka T, Okamoto T, Ushimaru A (2012) Grassland and Japanese: a journey of Japanese grassland for ten thousand years. Tsukiji Shokan Publishing, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  108. Swift TL, Hannon SJ (2010) Critical thresholds associated with habitat loss: a review of the concepts, evidence, and applications. Biol Rev 85:35–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Takeuchi K, Brown RD, Washitani I, Tsunekawa A, Yokohari M (2003) Satoyama: the traditional rural landscape of Japan. Springer, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  110. Taki H, Inoue T, Tanaka H, Makihara H, Sueyoshi M, Isono M, Okabe K (2010) Responses of community structure, diversity, and abundance of understory plants and insect assemblages to thinning in plantations. For Ecol Manag 259:607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Taki H, Yamaura Y, Okabe K, Maeto K (2011) Plantation vs. natural forest: matrix quality determines pollinator abundance in crop fields. Sci Rep 1:132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tojo H (2007) Estimating species number of forest-dependent birds in Japan. Bull For For Prod Res Inst 6:9–26Google Scholar
  113. Totman C (1989) The green archipelago: forestry in pre-industrial Japan. Ohio University Press, OhioGoogle Scholar
  114. Turner MG, Dale VH (1998) Comparing large, infrequent disturbances: what have we learned? Ecosystems 1:493–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Utsugi E, Kanno H, Ueno N, Tomita M, Saitoh T, Kimura M, Kanou K, Seiwa K (2006) Hardwood recruitment into conifer plantations in Japan: effects of thinning and distance from neighboring hardwood forests. For Ecol Manag 237:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vandermeer J, Carvajal R (2001) Metapopulation dynamics and the quality of the matrix. Am Nat 158:211–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vandermeer J, Perfecto I (2005a) Breakfast of biodiversity: the political ecology of rain forest destruction. Food First Books, OaklandGoogle Scholar
  118. Vandermeer J, Perfecto I (2005b) The future of farming and conservation. Science 308:1257–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Vandermeer J, Perfecto I, Schellhorn N (2010) Propagating sinks, ephemeral sources and percolating mosaics: conservation in landscapes. Landsc Ecol 25:509–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vellend M, Verheyen K, Jacquemyn H, Kolb A, Calster HV, Peterken G, Hermy M (2006) Extinction debt of forest plants persists for more than a century following habitat fragmentation. Ecology 87:542–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vincent JR, Binkley CS (1993) Efficient multiple-use forestry may require land-use specialization. Land Econ 69:370–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Watling JI, Nowakowski AJ, Donnelly MA, Orrock JL (2011) Meta-analysis reveals the importance of matrix composition for animals in fragmented habitat. Global Ecol Biogeogr 20:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wiegand T, Revilla E, Moloney KA (2005) Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population dynamics. Conserv Biol 19:108–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wiens JA, Rotenberry JT, Van Horne R (1986) A lesson in the limitations of field experiments: shrubsteppe birds and habitat alteration. Ecology 67:365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wright SJ, Muller-Landau HC (2006) The future of tropical forest species. Biotropica 38:287–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Yamada S, Tachibana S, Hirano Y, Hori Y (2010) Exports of Japanese timber products with special reference to China. In: Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (ed), Chinese forest, forestry, and wood industry: present situation and future prospect. Japan Forestry Invenstigation Committee, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  127. Yamagawa H, Ito S, Nakao T (2010) Restoration of semi-natural forest after clearcutting of conifer plantations in Japan. Landsc Ecol Eng 6:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Yamaura Y, Katoh K, Takahashi T (2006) Reversing habitat loss: deciduous habitat fragmentation matters to birds in a larch plantation matrix. Ecography 29:827–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Yamaura Y, Katoh K, Takahashi T (2008a) Effects of stand, landscape, and spatial variables on bird communities in larch plantations and deciduous forests in central Japan. Can J For Res 38:1223–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Yamaura Y, Kawahara T, Iida S, Ozaki K (2008b) Relative importance of the area and shape of patches to the diversity of multiple taxa. Conserv Biol 22:1513–1522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Yamaura Y, Amano T, Koizumi T, Mitsuda Y, Taki H, Okabe K (2009a) Does land-use change affect biodiversity dynamics at a macroecological scale? A case study of birds over the past 20 years in Japan. Anim Conserv 12:110–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yamaura Y, Ikeno S, Sano M, Okabe K, Ozaki K (2009b) Bird responses to broad-leaved forest patch area in a plantation landscape across seasons. Biol Conserv 142:2155–2165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Yamaura Y, Amano T, Kusumoto Y, Nagata H, Okabe K (2011) Climate and topography drives macroscale biodiversity through land-use change in a human-dominated world. Oikos 120:427–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Yamaura Y, Royle JA, Shimada N, Asanuma S, Sato T, Taki H, Makino S (2012) Biodiversity of man-made open habitats in an underused country: a class of multispecies abundance models for count data. Biodivers Conserv 21:1365–1380Google Scholar
  135. Yorimitsu R (1984) Japanese forests and forest resources. Toyo Keizai, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  136. Yumoto T (2011) Environmental history of grasslands. Bun-Ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  137. Yui M, Suzuki Y (1987) The analyses of structure of the woodland bird communities in Japan. IV. Density, species richnesss and diversity of breeding community in various forest types. J Yamashina Inst Ornithol 19:13–27 (in Japanese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuichi Yamaura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hiroyasu Oka
    • 2
  • Hisatomo Taki
    • 3
  • Kenichi Ozaki
    • 4
  • Hiroshi Tanaka
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Environmental Resources, Graduate School of AgricultureHokkaido UniversityHokkaidoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Forest Policy and EconomicsForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Forest EntomologyForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  4. 4.Hokkaido Research CenterForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteSapporo, HokkaidoJapan
  5. 5.Department of Forest VegetationForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukuba, IbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations