Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 21, Issue 8, pp 1901–1919 | Cite as

A critical review on the utility of DNA barcoding in biodiversity conservation

Review Paper

Abstract

This article considers the utility of DNA barcodes for conservation. DNA barcoding is a molecular tool that uses standardised genetic primers, traditionally the 600- to 800-segments of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I, to classify species. It has become increasingly popular as an efficient way of studying and categorising species to prioritise conservation efforts. A challenge remains, however, in using this information to provide a universally acceptable species concept. Genetic barcoding may focus conservation strategies on populations that have differences in mitochondrial DNA rather than on species. DNA barcodes might also provide potentially useful information about taxa that are relatively well studied—rather than those that require more research. The argument is made that DNA barcoding can provide useful taxonomic data, but should be used with caution to prevent it from being used out of context. DNA barcoding is an increasingly fashionable and novel concept that has generated optimism in enhancing biodiversity assessments—however, this approach should be used in conjunction with other methods for effective conservation efforts.

Keywords

DNA barcoding Biodiversity assessment Species Conservation strategies 

Abbreviations

COI

Cytochrome c oxidase I

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

ITS

Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA

numt

Nuclear pseudogene of mitochondrial origin

OTU

Operational taxonomic unit

PD

Phylogenetic diversity

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of GeographyKing’s College LondonLondonEngland, UK

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