Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 20, Issue 11, pp 2483–2509 | Cite as

Biological invasions in rapidly urbanizing areas: a case study of Beijing, China

  • Hua-Feng Wang
  • Jordi López-Pujol
  • Laura A. Meyerson
  • Jiang-Xiao Qiu
  • Xiao-Ke Wang
  • Zhi-Yun Ouyang
Original Paper

Abstract

Urbanization is widely recognized as a major factor promoting biological invasions worldwide. In this article, we provide insights into the patterns of biological invasions in Beijing, one of the largest and quickly urbanizing cities of the world, by developing a comprehensive list of naturalized and invasive flora and their associate traits (e.g., distribution, life form, habitat, or geographic origin). One hundred and twelve naturalized (including 48 invasive) plants have been identified within the Beijing Municipality. Most of the naturalized and invasive plants belong to four families (Asteraceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Euphorbiaceae) and are annual herbs that preferentially grow in disturbed sites. North and South America are the main contributors to the naturalized and invasive flora of Beijing. As expected, those Beijing districts that have recently experienced the highest human population growth, urban expansion, and the largest economic growth are also those with the highest number of naturalized and invasive species. Urban expansion is predicted to continue in the near term making additional invasions likely that will significantly increase the proportion of introduced species in Beijing’s flora. An integrated management strategy for the whole municipality is urgently needed that includes comprehensive scientific research that documents the extent of invasions and their effects on Beijing’s economy and environment.

Keywords

Growth Urbanization Invasive species Naturalized species Horticulture Management 

References

  1. Anonymous (2007) Beijing’s population to top 21.4 m by 2020. China Daily, Beijing, 10 Dec 2007. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-12/10/content_6308561.htm. Accessed 24 Apr 2010
  2. BMBS (Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics, NBS Survey Office in Beijing) (2008) Beijing statistical yearbook 2008. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. BMBS (Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics, NBS Survey Office in Beijing) (2009) Beijing statistical yearbook 2009. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Botham MS, Rothery P, Hulme PE, Hill MO, Preston CD, Roy DB (2008) Do urban areas act as foci for the spread of alien plant species? An assessment of temporal trends in the UK. Divers Distrib 15:338–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cadotte MW, Lovett-Doust J (2001) Ecological and taxonomic differences between native and introduced plants of southwestern Ontario. Ecoscience 8:230–238Google Scholar
  6. Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT (2009) A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  7. Corlett RT (1988) The naturalized flora of Singapore. J Biogeogr 15:657–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dawson W, Mndolwa AS, Burslem DFRP, Hulme PE (2008) Assessing the risks of plant invasions arising from collections in tropical botanical gardens. Biodivers Conserv 17:1979–1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ding J, Mack RN, Lu P, Ren M, Huang H (2008) China’s booming economy is sparking and accelerating biological invasions. Bioscience 58:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fang J, Wan F (2009) Invasive species and their impacts on endemic ecosystems in China. In: Kohli RK, Jose S, Singh HP, Batish DR (eds) Invasive plants and forest ecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 157–175Google Scholar
  11. Feng J, Zhu Y (2010) Alien invasive plants in China: risk assessment and spatial patterns. Biodivers Conserv 19:3489–3497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J, Bai X, Briggs JM (2008) Global change and the ecology of cities. Science 319:756–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guézou A, Pozo P, Buddenhagen C (2007) Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos. PLoS One 2(10):e1042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haw SG (2007) Beijing—a concise history. Routledge, OxonGoogle Scholar
  15. Heywood VH, Brummit RK, Culham A, Seberg O (2007) Flowering plant families of the world. Royal Botanic Gardens, KewGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang QQ, Wu JM, Bai YY, Zhou L, Wang GX (2009) Identifying the most noxious invasive plants in China: role of geographical origin, life form and means of introduction. Biodivers Conserv 18:305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang QQ, Qian C, Wang Y, Jia X, Dai XF, Zhang H, He F, Peng SL, Wang GX (2010) Determinants of the geographical extent of invasive plants in China: effects of biogeographical origin, life cycle and time since introduction. Biodivers Conserv 19:1251–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hulme PE (2007) Biological invasions in Europe: drivers, pressures, states, impacts and responses. In: Hester RE, Harrison RM (eds) Biodiversity under threat—issues in environmental science and technology, no. 25. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 56–80Google Scholar
  19. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) (1999) IUCN guidelines for the prevention of biodiversity loss due to biological invasion. Species 31–32:28–42Google Scholar
  20. Ji Y (2009) We feel the green landscapes when we enter the Olympic Forest Park. Gard Mag 10:23–27 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Jiang Q, Lin Z, Li L, He X (2008) An investigation on the invasive plants in Zhongshan, Guangdong Province. Guangdong Forest Sci Technol 24:54–58 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Jiménez A, Pauchard A, Cavieres LA, Marticorena A, Bustamante RO (2008) Do climatically similar regions contain similar alien floras? A comparison between the Mediterranean areas of central Chile and California. J Biogeogr 35:614–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jing T-H, Liang T-G, Zhang Y (2004) Migration and clustering: the Beijing population dynamic image. Beijing City Plan Constr Rev 4:8–10Google Scholar
  24. Kil JH, Shim KC, Park SH, Koh KS, Suh MH, Ku YB, Suh SU, Oh HK, Kong HY (2004) Distributions of naturalized alien plants in South Korea. Weed Technol 18:1493–1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kowarik I (2005) Urban ornamentals escaped from cultivation. In: Gressel J (ed) Crop ferality and volunteerism. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 97–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kowarik I (2008) On the role of alien species in urban flora and vegetation. In: Marzluff JM, Shulenberger E, Endlicher W, Alberti M, Bradley G, Ryan C, Simon U, ZumBrunnen C (eds) Urban ecology—an international perspective on the interaction between humans and nature. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 321–338Google Scholar
  27. Li J (2004) The controversial greening of Beijing. China Internet Information Center. http://english1.china.org.cn/english/2004/Jul/101225.htm. Accessed 12 March 2010
  28. Li ZY, Xie Y (2002) Invasive alien species in China. Chinese Forestry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Li B, Qiu H, Ma J, Zhu H, Gilbert MG, Esser HJ, Dressler S, Hoffmann P, Gillespie LJ, Vorontsova M, McPherson GD (2008) Euphorbiaceae. In: Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (eds) Flora of China, vol 11, Oxalidaceae through Aceraceae. Science Press, Beijing and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, pp 163–314Google Scholar
  30. Lin W, Zhou G, Cheng X, Xu R (2007) Fast economic development accelerates biological invasions in China. PLoS One 2:e1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu QR, Yu M, Zhou Y (2002) A preliminary study on the invasive plants in Beijing. J Beijing Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 38:399–404 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. Liu J, Liang SC, Liu FH, Wang RQ, Dong M (2005) Invasive alien plant species in China: regional distribution patterns. Divers Distrib 11:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu J, Dong M, Miao SL, Li ZY, Song MH, Wang RQ (2006) Invasive alien plants in China: role of clonality and geographical origin. Biol Invasions 8:1461–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ma J, Liu Q (2003) Flora of Beijing: an overview and suggestions for future research. Urban Habitats 1:30–44Google Scholar
  35. Maatsch S, Monden R, Stockmann D (2009) ISL comment. Shipp Stat Mark Rev 53(5/6):5–17Google Scholar
  36. Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10:689–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McNeely JA, Mooney HA, Neville LE, Schei P, Waage JK (eds) (2001) A global strategy on invasive alien species. IUCN Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  38. Meng XS, Ouyang ZY, Cui GF, Li WF, Zheng H (2004) Composition of plant species and their distribution patterns in Beijing urban ecosystem. Acta Ecol Sin 24:2200–2206 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  39. Mu FY, Zhang ZX, Chi YB, Liu B, Zhou QB, Wang CY, Tan WB (2007) Dynamic monitoring of built-up area in Beijing during 1973–2005 based on multi-original remote sensed images. J Remote Sens 11:257–268 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. Ng SC, Corlett R (2002) The bad biodiversity: alien plant species in Hong Kong. Biodivers Sci 10:109–118 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  41. Pyšek P (1998) Is there a taxonomic pattern to plant invasions? Oikos 82:282–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pyšek P, Richardson DM (2007) Traits associated with invasiveness in alien plants: where do we stand? In: Nentwig W (ed) Biological invasions, ecological studies 193. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 97–126Google Scholar
  43. Pyšek P, Sádlo J, Mandák B, Jarošik V (2003) Czech alien flora and the historical pattern of its formation: what came first to Central Europe? Oecologia 135:122–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Rejmánek M, Webster GL, Williamson M, Kirschner J (2004) Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon 53:131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Qin XS, Zhang RJ, Chen HF, Yan YH, Zheng XL, Xing FW (2008) Alien plants in limestone regions of Hainan Island, China. Chin J Ecol 27:1861–1868 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. Qiu Y-X, Peng Z-H, Wu Y, Bo N-L (2007) Characteristic of plant landscape of Liuzhou. N Hort 12:155–157 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  47. Reichard SH, White P (2001) Horticulture as a pathway of invasive plant introductions in the United States. Bioscience 51:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rejmánek M (2000) Invasive plants: approaches and predictions. Aust Ecol 25:497–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Richardson DM, Pyšek P, Rejmánek M, Barbour MG, Panetta FD, West CJ (2000) Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Divers Distrib 6:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ricotta C, La Sorte FA, Pyšek P, Rapson GL, Celesti-Grapow L, Thompson K (2009) Phyloecology of urban alien floras. J Ecol 97:1243–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shi LC, Shi G, Yi QL, Qin YC, Dong ZD, Huang GZ (2009) The countermeasure researches for investigation and eradication of alien invasive plants in Liuzhou. J Guangxi Acad Sci 25:178–182 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  52. Tang Y, Kunzmann KR (2008) The evolution of spatial planning for Beijing. Inform Raumentwicklung 2008:457–470Google Scholar
  53. Tian G, Wu J, Yang Z (2010) Spatial pattern of urban functions in the Beijing metropolitan region. Habitat Int 34:249–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2009) Independent environmental assessment Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. UNEP, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  55. Vilà M, Valladares F, Traveset A, Santamaria L, Castro P (eds) (2008) Invasiones biológicas. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), MadridGoogle Scholar
  56. Von der Lippe M, Kowarik I (2008) Do cities export biodiversity? Traffic as dispersal vector across urban-rural gradients. Divers Distrib 14:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wan FH, Zheng XB, Guo JY (2005) Biology and management of invasive alien species in agriculture and forestry. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang GM, Jiang GM, Zhou Y, Liu Q, Ji Y, Wang S, Chen S, Liu H (2007) Biodiversity conservation in a fast-growing metropolitan area in China: a case study of plant diversity in Beijing. Biodivers Conserv 16:4025–4038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang GM, Jiang GM, Yu SL, Li YH, Liu H (2008) Invasion possibility and potential effects of Rhus typhina on Beijing Municipality. J Integr Plant Biol 50:522–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Weber E, Li B (2008) Plant invasions in China: what is to be expected in the wake of economic development? Bioscience 58:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Weber E, Sun SG, Li B (2008) Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biol Invasions 10:1411–1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wiersema JH, León B (1999) World economic plants: a standard reference. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  63. Wittig R (2004) The origin and development of the urban flora of Central Europe. Urban Ecosyst 7:323–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wu SH, Hsieh CF, Chaw SM, Rejmánek M (2004) Plant invasions in Taiwan: insights from the flora of casual and naturalized alien species. Divers Distrib 10:349–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wu Q, Li HQ, Wang RS, Paulussen J, He Y, Wang M, Wang BH, Wang Z (2006) Monitoring and predicting land use change in Beijing using remote sensing and GIS. Landscape Urban Plan 78:322–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wu SH, Sun HT, Teng YC, Rejmánek M, Chaw SM, Yang TA, Hsieh CF (2010) Patterns of plant invasions in China: taxonomic, biogeographic, climatic approaches and anthropogenic effects. Biol Invasions 12:2179–2206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Xinhua (2007) Nearly half the world’s new buildings built in China. Xinhua News Agency. http://www.sh.xinhuanet.com/2007-08/24/content_10953578.htm. Accessed 20 May 2010
  68. Xu BS (1999) Flora of Shanghai. Shanghai Science and Technology Publishing House, Shanghai (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  69. Xu HG, Qiang S (2004) Inventory: invasive alien species in China. Chinese Environment Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  70. Xu H, Qiang S, Han Z, Guo J, Huang Z, Sun H, He S, Ding H, Wu H, Wan F (2006) The status and causes of alien species invasion in China. Biodivers Conserv 15:2893–2904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Yan J (2009) 3910’ concept guides Green Beijing Action Plan. Beijing This Month [online], 13 Nov 2009.http://www.btmbeijing.com/contents/en/business/2010-01/coverstory/Article.2010-01-19.7848206798. Accessed 7 Dec 2010
  72. Yang J, Chen HB (2009) A preliminary study on alien invasive plants in Fujian Province. Subtrop Plant Sci 38:47–52 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  73. Yang J, Wang G, Jiang C, Zhao H, Zhang Z (2009) Ecological characters and distribution of invasive plants under the influence of urbanization in Beijing, China. Ecol Environ Sci 18:1857–1862 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  74. Yusuf S, Saich T (eds) (2008) China urbanizes—consequences, strategies, and policies. The World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  75. Zerbe S, Choi IK, Kowarik I (2004) Characteristics and habitats of non-native plant species in the city of Chonju, southern Korea. Ecol Res 19:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zhao J, Ouyang ZY, Zheng H, Zhou W, Wang X, Xu W, Ni Y (2010) Plant species composition in green spaces within the built-up areas of Beijing, China. Plant Ecol 209:189–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hua-Feng Wang
    • 1
  • Jordi López-Pujol
    • 2
  • Laura A. Meyerson
    • 3
  • Jiang-Xiao Qiu
    • 1
  • Xiao-Ke Wang
    • 1
  • Zhi-Yun Ouyang
    • 1
  1. 1.Beijing Urban Ecosystem Research Station, State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Botanic Institute of Barcelona (CSIC-ICUB)BarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.University of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA

Personalised recommendations