Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 589–617 | Cite as

An assessment of natural and human disturbance effects on Mexican ecosystems: current trends and research gaps

  • Luis E. Calderon-Aguilera
  • Víctor H. Rivera-Monroy
  • Luciana Porter-Bolland
  • Angelina Martínez-Yrízar
  • Lydia B. Ladah
  • Miguel Martínez-Ramos
  • Javier Alcocer
  • Ana Luisa Santiago-Pérez
  • Héctor A. Hernandez-Arana
  • Víctor M. Reyes-Gómez
  • Diego R. Pérez-Salicrup
  • Vicente Díaz-Nuñez
  • Joaquín Sosa-Ramírez
  • Jorge Herrera-Silveira
  • Alberto Búrquez
Review Paper


Mexico harbors more than 10% of the planet’s endemic species. However, the integrity and biodiversity of many ecosystems is experiencing rapid transformation under the influence of a wide array of human and natural disturbances. In order to disentangle the effects of human and natural disturbance regimes at different spatial and temporal scales, we selected six terrestrial (temperate montane forests, montane cloud forests, tropical rain forests, tropical semi-deciduous forests, tropical dry forests, and deserts) and four aquatic (coral reefs, mangrove forests, kelp forests and saline lakes) ecosystems. We used semi-quantitative statistical methods to assess (1) the most important agents of disturbance affecting the ecosystems, (2) the vulnerability of each ecosystem to anthropogenic and natural disturbance, and (3) the differences in ecosystem disturbance regimes and their resilience. Our analysis indicates a significant variation in ecological responses, recovery capacity, and resilience among ecosystems. The constant and widespread presence of human impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is reflected either in reduced area coverage for most systems, or reduced productivity and biodiversity, particularly in the case of fragile ecosystems (e.g., rain forests, coral reefs). In all cases, the interaction between historical human impacts and episodic high intensity natural disturbance (e.g., hurricanes, fires) has triggered a reduction in species diversity and induced significant changes in habitat distribution or species dominance. The lack of monitoring programs assessing before/after effects of major disturbances in Mexico is one of the major limitations to quantifying the commonalities and differences of disturbance effects on ecosystem properties.


Disturbance index Anthropogenic disturbance Hurricanes Long-term ecological research 



Chihuahuan desert


Coral reefs from the Caribbean Sea


Coral reefs from the Pacific Ocean


El Niño Southern Oscillation


Kelp forest


Long term ecological research network (ILTER, international MEXLTER, Mexican chapter of the ILTER)


Montane cloud forests


Mangrove forests from the Yucatan Peninsula


Non-timber forest products


Saline lake ecosystems


Tropical dry forests


Temperate montane forests


Tropical rain forest


Tropical semi-deciduous forests of the Yucatan Peninsula



The preparation of the manuscript was supported by funding from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia to the RED MEXLTER program (CONACyT-Fondo Institucional: I0002; Proyecto# 24847, Etapa: 001) through the project Demandas Hidrológicas de los Ecosistemas Naturales en Mexico: Fase 1. Partial funding for VHRM participation was provided by the NSF Florida Coastal Everglades-LTER program under Cooperative Agreements #DBI-0620409 and #DEB-9910514. We thank a number of colleagues from the RED MEXLTER for comments and ideas during the preparation of this work and Enriquena Bustamante and Bárbara Rojas for editing assistance and anonymous reviewers.

Supplementary material

10531_2011_218_MOESM1_ESM.doc (251 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 251 kb)


  1. Alcocer J, Escobar E (1990) The drying up of the Mexican Plateau axalapazcos. Salinet 4:44–46Google Scholar
  2. Alcocer J, Escobar-Briones E (2007) On the ecology of Caecidotea williamsi Escobar-Briones and Alcocer (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellidae) from Alchichica saline lake, Central México. Hydrobiol 576(1):103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcocer J, Hammer UT (1998) Saline lake ecosystems of México. Aquat Ecosys Health Manag 1(3–4):291–315. doi: 10.1016/s1463-4988(98)00011-6 Google Scholar
  4. Alcocer J, Williams W (1996) Historical and recent changes in Lake Texcoco, a saline lake in México. Int J Salt Lake Res 5(1):45–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alcocer J, Lugo A, Escobar E, Sanchez M (1996) The macrobenthic fauna of a former perennial and now episodically filled mexican saline lake. Int J Salt Lake Res 5(3):261–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alcocer J, Lugo A, Sánchez Ma, Escobar E (1998) Isabela Crater-Lake: a Mexican insular saline lake. Hydrobiol 381(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alcocer J, Escobar EG, Lugo A, Oseguera LA (1999) Benthos of a perennially-astatic, saline, soda lake in México. Int J Salt Lake Res 8(2):113–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alcocer J, Escobar E, Lugo A (2000) Water use (and abuse) and its effects on the crater-lakes of Valle de Santiago, México. Lakes Reserv Res Manag 5(3):145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Almada-Villela P, McField M, Kramer P, Arias-Gonzalez E (2002) Status of coral reefs of Mesoamerica: México, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador. In: Wilkinson C (ed) Status of coral reefs of the world:2002, chap 16. GCRMN Report, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, pp 303–324Google Scholar
  10. Alongi DM (2002) Present state and future of the world’s mangrove forests. Environ Conserv 29(03):331–349. doi: 10.1017/S0376892902000231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alvarado-Rosales D, Saavedra-Romero LL, Sánchez AA (2007) Agentes asociados y su papel en la declinación y muerte de encinos (Quercus, Fagaceae) en el Centro-Oeste de México. Polibotanica 23:1–21Google Scholar
  12. Alvarez-Aquino C, Williams-Linera G, Newton AC (2005) Disturbance Effects on the Seed Bank of Mexican cloud forest fragments. Biotropic 37(3):337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Alvarez-Filip L, Gil I (2006) Effects of hurricanes Emily and Wilma on coral reefs in Cozumel, México. Coral Reefs 25:583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Álvarez-Yépiz JC, Martínez-Yrizar A, Búrquez A, Lindquist C (2008) Variation in vegetation structure and soil properties related to land use history of old-growth and secondary tropical dry forests in northwestern México. For Ecol Manag 256(3):355–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Arellano L, Favila M, Huerta C (2005) Diversity of dung and carrion beetles in a disturbed Mexican tropical montane cloud forest and on shade coffee plantations. Biodivers Conserv 14(3):601–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Aronson RB, Precht WF (2001) White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiol 460(1):25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Aronson RB, MacIntyre IG, Pretch WF, Murdoch TJT, Wapnick CM (2002) The expanding scale of species turnover events on coral reefs in Belize. Ecol Monogr 72(2):233–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Arriaga L (2000a) Gap-building-phase regeneration in a tropical montane cloud forest of north-eastern México. J Trop Ecol 16(04):535–562. doi: null CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Arriaga L (2000b) Types and causes of tree mortality in a tropical montane cloud forest of Tamaulipas, México. J Trop Ecol 16(05):623–636. doi: null CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Asbjornsen H, Velázquez-Rosas N, García-Soriano R, Gallardo- Hernández C (2005) Deep ground fires cause massive above- and below-ground biomass losses in tropical montane cloud forests in Oaxaca, México. J Trop Ecol 21:427–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Barral H (1988) El hombre y su impacto en los ecosistemas a través del ganado. In: Montaña C (ed) Estudio integrado de los recursos vegetación, suelo y agua en la reserva de la biosfera de Mapimí. Instituto de Ecología-MAB, Publicación 23, México, DF, pp 241–261Google Scholar
  22. Bautista-Cruz AL, Del Castillo RF (2005) Soil changes during secondary succession in a tropical montane cloud forest area. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69(3):906–914. doi: 10.2136/sssaj2004.0130 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Binford MW, Brenner M, Whitmore TJ, Higuera-Gundy A, Deevey ES, Leyden B (1987) Ecosystems, paleoecology and human disturbance in subtropical and tropical america. Quat Sci Rev 6(2):115–128. doi: 10.1016/0277-3791(87)90029-1 Google Scholar
  24. Boose E, Foster D, Plotkin A, Hall B (2003) Geographical and historical variation in hurricanes across the Yucatan Peninsula. In: Gomez-Pompa A, Allen M, Fedick S, Jimenez-Osornio J (eds) The lowland Maya area: three millennia at the human-wildland interface. Haworth Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Bosire JO, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Walton M, Crona BI, Lewis Iii RR, Field C, Kairo JG, Koedam N (2008) Functionality of restored mangroves: a review. Aquat Bot 89(2):251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brooks M, Chambers J (2011) Resistance to invasion and resilience to fire in desert shrublands of North America. Rangel Ecol Manag 64(5):431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burgos A, Maass JM (2004) Vegetation change associated with land-use in tropical dry forest areas of Western México. Agric Ecosyst Environ 104(3):475–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Búrquez A, Martínez-Yrízar A (2006) Conservación, transformación del paisaje y biodiversidad en el noroeste de México. In: Oyama K, Castillo A (eds) Manejo, conservación y restauración de recursos naturales en México. Perspectivas desde la investigación científica. Siglo Veintiuno-UNAM, Col. Ambiente y Democracia, 364 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Búrquez A, Martínez-Yrízar A (2010) Límites geográficos entre las Selvas Bajas Caducifolias y los Matorrales Espinosos y Xerófilos: ¿Qué Conservar? In: Ceballos GML, García A et al (eds) Diversidad, amenazas y área prioritarias para la conservación de las selvas secas del Pacífico de México. Fondo de Cultura Económica, CONABIO, México, DFGoogle Scholar
  30. Calderon-Aguilera LE, Martínez-Ramos M, Porter-Bolland L (2008) Perturbaciones sobre Ecosistemas Mexicanos. Cien Desarro 34:19–23Google Scholar
  31. Carriquiry JD, Cupul-Magafra AL, Rodríguez-Zaragoza F, Medina-Rosas P (2001) Coral bleaching and mortality in the Mexican Pacific during the 1997–1998 El Nino and prediction from a remote sensing approach. Bull Mar Sci 69(1):237–249Google Scholar
  32. Castillo-Flores AA, Calvo-Irabión LM (2003) Animal dispersal of two secondary-vegetation herbs into the evergreen rain forest of south-eastern México. J Trop Ecol 19(03):271–278. doi: 10.1017/S0266467403003304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Castro T, Malpica SA, Castro G, de Lara R (2000) Environmental and biological characteristics of Artemia ecosystems in México: an updated review. In: Munawar M, Lawrence SG, Munawary IF, MD F (eds) Aquat ecosyst Mex. Status and scope. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 191–202Google Scholar
  34. Cayuela L, Golicher DJ, Benayas JMR, González-Espinosa M, Ramírez-Marcial N (2006) Fragmentation, disturbance and tree diversity conservation in tropical montane forests. J Appl Ecol 43(6):1172–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ceballos G, Brown JH (1995) Global patterns of mammalian diversity, endemism, and endangerment. Patrones globales de la diversidad, endemismo y riesgo de extinción de los mamiferos. Conserv Biol 9(3):559–568Google Scholar
  36. Ceballos G, Oliva G (2005) Los mamíferos silvestres de México. CONABIO—Fondo de Cultura Económica, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  37. Challenger A (1998) La zona ecológica templada húmeda. Utilización y Conservación de Los Ecosistemas Terrestres de México: Pasado, Presente y Futuro. CONABIO/Instituto de Biología UNAM/Agrupación Sierra Madre, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  38. Chowdhury RR (2006) Driving forces of tropical deforestation: the role of remote sensing and spatial models. Singap J Trop Geogr 27(1):82–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cibrián D, Méndez J, Campos R (1995) Insectos forestales de México, forest insects of México. Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  40. CONABIO (2008) Capital natural de México, Conocimiento actual de la biodiversidad, vol I. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  41. CONABIO (2009) Manglares de México: extensión y distribución, 2nd edn. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  42. CONABIO (2010) El Bosque Mesófilo de Montaña en México: amenazas y oportunidades para su conservación y manejo sostenible. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  43. Corbera E, Brown K, Adger WN (2007) The equity and legitimacy of markets for ecosystem services. Dev Chang 38(4):587–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dale VH, Lugo AE, MacMahon JA, Pickett STA (1998) Ecosystem management in the context of large, infrequent disturbances. Ecosyst 1(6):546–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dawson EY (1951) A further study of upwelling and associated vegetation along Pacific Baja California, México. J Mar Res 1:39–58Google Scholar
  46. Dayton P (1985) Ecology of kelp communities. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 16:215–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Denslow JS (1987) Tropical rainforest gaps and tree species diversity. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18(1):431–451. doi: 10.1146/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Díaz-Núñez V, Sánchez-Martínez G, Gillette NE (2006) Respuesta de dendroctonus mexicanus hopkins a dos isómeros ópticos de verbenota. Agrociencia 40:349–354Google Scholar
  49. Dirzo R, Miranda A (1991) Altered patterns of herbivory and diversity in the forest understory. A case study of the possible consequences of contemporary defaunation. In: Price P, Lewinsohn T, Wilson FG (eds) Herbivory: tropical and temperate perspectives. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Domínguez-Domínguez O, Boto L, Alda F, Pérez-Ponce De León G, Doadrio I (2007) Human impacts on drainages of the mesa central, México, and its genetic effects on an endangered fish, zoogoneticus quitzeoensis. Conserv Biol 21(1):168–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Drewa PB, Havstad KM (2001) Effects of fire, grazing, and the presence of shrubs on Chihuahuan desert grasslands. J Arid Environ 48(4):429–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dulin P, Bezaury J, McField M, Basterrechea M, Aspra de Lupiac B, Espinosa J (2000) Conservation and sustainable use of the mesoamerican barrier reef system: threat and root cause analysis. Report No. 00/008 CP – CAM. Available at
  53. Ebeling AW, Laur DR, Rowley RJ (1985) Severe storm disturbances and reversal of community structure in a southern California kelp forest. Mar Biol 84(3):287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Endfield G, O’Hara S (1997) Conflicts over water in ‘The Little Drought Age’ in Central México. Environ Hist 3:255–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fa JE, Morales LM (1993) Patterns of mammalian diversity in México. In: Ramamoorthy TP, Bye R, Lot A, Fa JE (eds) Biological diversity of México origins and distribution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 253–280Google Scholar
  56. Fettig C, Klepzig K, Billings R, Munson A, Nebeker T, Negron J, Nowak J (2007) The effectiveness of vegetation management practices for prevention and control of bark beetle infestations in coniferous forests of the western and southern United States. For Ecol Manag 238:24–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Figueroa F, Sánchez-Cordero V (2008) Effectiveness of natural protected areas to prevent land use and land cover change in México. Biodivers Conserv 17(13):3223–3240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Flores J, Espejel I (1994) Tipos de vegetación de la Península de Yucatán. Etnoflora Yucatanense (Fascículo 3.), 135 ppGoogle Scholar
  59. Foster DR, Knight DH, Franklin JF (1998) Landscape patterns and legacies resulting from large, infrequent forest disturbances. Ecosyst 1(6):497–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fulé PZ, Covington WW (1997) Changing fire regimes in Mexican PineForests: ecological and management implications. J For 94(10):33–38Google Scholar
  61. Galicia L, García-Romero A (2007) Land use and land cover change in highland temperate forests in the Izta-Popo National Park, Central México. Mt Res Dev 27(1):48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. García-Oliva F, Maass J, Galicia L (1995) Rainstorm analysis and rainfall erosivity of a seasonal typical region with a strong cyclonic influence on the Pacific coast of México. J Appl Meteorol 34:2491–2498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Geddes MC, Williams WD (1987) Comments on Artemia introductions and the need for conservation. In: Sorgeloos P, Bengston DA, Decleir W, Jasper E (eds) Artemia research and its applications, vol 3. Universa Press, Wetteren Belgium, pp 19–26Google Scholar
  64. Giddings L, Soto M (2003) Rhythms of precipitation in the Yucatan Peninsula. In: Gomez-Pompa A, Allen M, Fedick S, Jimenez-Osornio J (eds) The lowland Maya area: three millennia at the human-wildland interface. Haworth Press, Binghampton, pp 77–90Google Scholar
  65. Granados-Sánchez D, López-Ríos GF (2001) Declinación forestal. Revista Chapingo, Series Ciencia Forestales y del Ambiente 7(1):5–13Google Scholar
  66. Graniel CE, Morris LB, Carrillo-Rivera JJ (1999) Effects of urbanization on groundwater resources of Merida, Yucatan, México. Environ Geol 37(4):303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Groombridge B, Jenkins M (2002) World atlas of biodiversity. United Nations Environment University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  68. Hernández L, Romero AG, Laundré JW, Lightfoot D, Aragón E, López Portillo J (2005) Changes in rodent community structure in the Chihuahuan Desert México: comparisons between two habitats. J Arid Environ 60(2):239–257. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.03.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hernández-Carmona G, Rodríguez-Montesinos Y, Casas-Valdez MM, Sánchez-Rodríguez I (1991) Evaluation of the beds of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta, Laminariales) in the Baja California peninsula México III. Summer 1986 and seasonal variation. Cienc Mar 17(4):121–145Google Scholar
  70. Herrera-Silveira JA, Morales-Ojeda SM (2009) Evaluation of the health status of a coastal ecosystem in southeast México: assessment of water quality, phytoplankton and submerged aquatic vegetation. Mar Pollut Bull 59(1–3):72–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Herrerías-Diego Y, Benítez-Malvido J (2004) Consecuencias de la fragmentación de los ecosistemas. In: Sánchez O, Peters E, Márquez-Huitzil R (eds) Temas sobre restauración ecológica. SEMARNAT- INE- US and Wildlife Service- Unidos para la Conservación A.C., México, pp 113–126Google Scholar
  72. Jackson EC, Krogh SN, Whitford WG (2003) Desertification and biopedturbation in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. J Arid Environ 53(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jardel E, Alvarado E, Morfín-Ríos JE, Castillo-Navarro F, Flores-Garnic JG (2009) Regímenes de incendios en ecosistemas forestales de México. In: Flores-Garnica JG (ed) Impacto ambiental de incendios forestales. Mundi-Prensa/Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias/Colegio de Postgraduados, México, pp 73–100Google Scholar
  74. Jauregui E (2003) Climatology of landfalling hurricanes and tropical storms in México. Atmósfera 16:193–204Google Scholar
  75. Jellison R, Williams WD, Timms B (2008) Salt lakes: values, threats and future In: Polunin NVC (ed) Aquatic ecosystems: trends and global perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 94–112Google Scholar
  76. Kauffman JB, Steele MD, Cummings DL, Jaramillo VJ (2003) Biomass dynamics associated with deforestation, fire, and, conversion to cattle pasture in a Mexican tropical dry forest. For Ecol Manag 176(1–3):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kaus A (1993) Social realities of environmental ideologies: a case study of the mapimi biosphere reserve. Cult Agricult 13(45–46):29–35. doi: 10.1525/cuag.1993.13.45-46.29 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Keys E (2004) Commercial agriculture as creative destruction or destructive creation: a case study of chili cultivation and plant-pest disease in the southern Yucatán region. Land Degrad Dev 15(4):397–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ladah LB, Zertuche J (2004) Giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) survival in deep water (25–40 m) during El Niño of 1997–1998 in Baja California, México. Bot Mar 47:367–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ladah LB, Zertuche-González JA, Hernández-Carmona G (1999) Giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera, PHAEOPHYCEAE) recruitment near its southern limit in Baja California after mass disappearance during ENSO 1997–1998. J Phycol 35(6):1106–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lawrence D, Vester H, Perez-Salicrup D, Eastman J, Turner BL, Geoghegan J (2004) Integrated analysis of ecosystem interactions with land use change: the southern Yucatan peninsular region. In: DeFries R, Asner G, Houghton R (eds) Ecosys and land use chang geophysical monograph series. Am Geophys Union, Washington, pp 277–292Google Scholar
  82. Lebrija-Trejos E, Bongers F, Pérez-García EA, Meave JA (2008) Successional change and resilience of a very dry tropical deciduous forest following shifting agriculture. Biotrop 40(4):422–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lessios HA (1988) Mass mortality of diadema antillarum in the caribbean: what have we learned? Ann Rev Ecol Syst 19 (ArticleType: research-article/Full publication date: 1988/Copyright © 1988 Annual Reviews):371–393Google Scholar
  84. Liot C, Grünberger O (2005) Las Salinas de Carrillo: un ejido de producción de sal continental en el desierto Chihuahuense. In: Grünberger O, Reyes Gómez VM, Janeau JL (eds) Las Playas del Desierto Chihuahuense (Parte Mexicana), influencia de las sales en ambientes áridos y semiáridos. Instituto de Investigación para el Desarrollo en America Latina-Instituto Nacional de Ecología, XalapaGoogle Scholar
  85. López-Barrera F, Newton A, Manson R (2005) Edge effects in a tropical montane forest mosaic: experimental tests of post-dispersal acorn removal. Ecol Res 20(1):31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lott E, Atkinson T (2006) Mexican and Central American seasonally dry tropical forests: Chamela-Cuixmala, as a focal point for comparison. In: Pennington T, Lewis GP, JA Ratter (eds) Neotropical savannas and seasonally dry forests. Plant diversity, biogeography and conservation. Taylor & Francis, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  87. Luna I, Velásquez A, Velásquez E (2001) México. In: Kappelle M, Brown A (eds) Bosques nublados del Neotrópico. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad—INBIO, Costa Rica, pp 183–230Google Scholar
  88. Maass JM, Jaramillo V, Martínez-Yrízar A, García-Oliva F, Pérez-Jiménez LA, Sarukhán J (2002) Aspectos funcionales del ecosistema de selva baja caducifolia en Chamela, Jalisco. In: Noguera FA, Vega JH, García-Aldrete AN, Quesada M (eds) Historia Natural de Chamela. Instituto de Biología UNAM, México City, pp 525–542Google Scholar
  89. Martínez ML, Pérez-Maqueo O, Vázquez G, Castillo-Campos G, García-Franco J, Mehltreter K, Equihua M, Landgrave R (2009) Effects of land use change on biodiversity and ecosystem services in tropical montane cloud forests of México. For Ecol Manag 258(9):1856–1863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Martínez-Pantoja MA, Alcocer J, Maeda-Martínez AM (2002) On the Spinicaudata (Branchiopoda) from Lake Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México: First report of a clam shrimp fishery. Hydrobiologia 486(1):207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Martínez-Ramos M (1985) Claros, ciclos vitales de los arboles tropicales y regeneración natural de las selvas altas perenifolias. In: Gómez-Pompa A, del AR (eds) Investigaciones Sobre la Regeneración de las Selvas Altas en Veracruz, México, vol II. Inst. Nac. Invest. Sobre Recursos Biot., Alhambra, México, pp 191–239Google Scholar
  92. Martínez-Ramos M, Álvarez-Buylla E (1986) Seed dispersal, gap dynamics and tree recruitment: the case of Cecropia obtusifolia at Los Tuxtlas, México. In: Estrada A, Fleming TH (eds) Frugivores and seed dispersal. Dr. W. Junk Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 333–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Martínez-Ramos M, Álvarez-Buylla E, Sarukhan J, Pinero D (1988) Tree fall age determination and gap dynamics in a tropical forest. J Ecol 76(3):700–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Martínez-Yrízar AM, Búrquez A, Maass M (2000) Structure and functioning of tropical deciduous forests in Western México. In: Robichaux RH (ed) The tropical deciduous forest of Alamos Southern Sonora México biodivers threat ecosyst in México. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 20–35Google Scholar
  95. Masera OR, Hernández T, Ordóñez A, Guzmán A (1995) Land-use change and forestry. In: Preliminary inventory of national greenhouse gases: México. UNEP PROJECT #GF/4102- 92-01 (pp/3011), México, City, pp 56–100Google Scholar
  96. McAfee K, Shapiro EN (2010) Payments for ecosystem services in México: nature, neoliberalism, social movements, and the state. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 100(3):579–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Metcalfe SE, Street-Perrott FA, Brown RB, Hales PE, Perrott RA, Steininger FM (1989) Late holocene human impact on lake basins in central México. Geoarchaeology 4(2):119–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Metcalfe SE, O’Hara SL, Caballero M, Davies SJ (2000) Records of late Pleistocene–Holocene climatic change in México—a review. Quat Sci Rev 19(7):699–721. doi: 10.1016/s0277-3791(99)00022-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Miranda A (2002) Diversidad, historia natural, ecología y conservación de los mamíferos de Chamela. In: Noguera FA, Vera Rivera JH, García Aldrete AN, Quesada Avendaño M (eds) Historia natural de chamela. Instituto de Biología Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, pp 359–377Google Scholar
  100. Mittermeier R, Goetsch C (1997) Megadiversidad: los países biológicamente más ricos del mundo. DF CEMEX, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  101. Montaña C, Breimer R (1987) Major vegetation and environment units. In: Montana C (ed) Estudio integrado de los recursos vegetacion, suelos y Agua en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Mapimi, vol I, Ambiente Natural y Humano. Instituto de Ecologia, Publicación 23, México, City, pp 99–114Google Scholar
  102. Mumby PJ (2006) The impact of exploiting grazers (Scaridae) on the dynamics of caribbean coral reefs. Ecol Appl 16(2):747–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Murray G (2007) Constructing paradise: the impacts of big tourism in the Mexican coastal zone. Coast Manag 35:339–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mutchler T, Dunton KH, Townsend-Small A, Fredriksen S, Rasser MK (2007) Isotopic and elemental indicators of nutrient sources and status of coastal habitats in the Caribbean Sea, Yucatan Peninsula, México. Estuar Coas Shelf Sci 74(3):449–457Google Scholar
  105. Negrete-Yankelevich S, Fragoso C, Newton AC, Heal OW (2007) Successional changes in soil, litter and macroinvertebrate parameters following selective logging in a Mexican cloud forest. Appl Soil Ecol 35(2):340–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Newton AC, Cayuela L, Echeverría C, Armesto JJ, Del Castillo RF, Golicher D, Geneletti D, Gonzalez-Espinosa M, Huth A, López-Barrera F, Malizia L, Manson R, Premoli A, Ramírez-Marcial N, Rey Benayas J, Rüger N, Smith-Ramírez C, Williams-Linera G (2009) Toward integrated analysis of human impacts on forest biodiversity: lessons from Latin America. Ecol Soc 14(2):2 [online]Google Scholar
  107. Nuñez-Lara E, Arias-Gonzalez JE, Legendre P (2005) Spatial patterns of Yucatan reef fish communities: testing models using a multiscalle survey design. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 324:157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Nyström M, Folke C, Moberg F (2000) Coral reef disturbance and resilience in a human-dominated environment. Trends Ecol Evol 15(10):413–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. O’Hara SL, Metcalfe SE, Street-Perrott FA (1994) On the arid margin: the relationship between climate, humans and the environment. A review of evidence from the highlands of central México. Chemosph 29(5):965–981Google Scholar
  110. Oliver C, Larson B (1996) Forest stand dynamics. Update edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  111. Paine RT, Tegner MJ, Johnson EA (1998) Compounded perturbations yield ecological surprises. Ecosyst 1(6):535–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pérez-Salicrup D (2004) Forest types and their implications. In: Turner BL, Geoghegan J, Foster DR (eds) Integrated land-change science and tropical deforestation in the Southern Yucatán: final frontiers. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 63–80Google Scholar
  113. Perry E, Velázquez-Olimán G, Socki RA (2003) Hydrogeology of the Yucatán Península. In: Pompa AG, Fedick S (eds) The lowland Maya area. The Haworth Press, Inc, New York, pp 115–138Google Scholar
  114. Pickett STA, White PS (1985) The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  115. Pineda E, Moreno C, Escobar F, Halffter G (2005) Frog, bat, and dung beetle diversity in the cloud forest and coffee agroecosystems of Veracruz, México. Conserv Biol 19(2):400–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Porter-Bolland L, Ellis EA, Gholz HL (2007) Land use dynamics and landscape history in La Montaña, Campeche, México. Landsc Urban Plan 82(4):198–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Quan Young L, Espinoza-Avalos J (2006) Reduction of zooxanthellae density, chlorophyll a concentration, and tissue thickness of the coral montastraea faveolata/Scleractinia) when competing with mixed turf algae. Limnol Oceanogr 51(2):1159–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ramírez-Marcial N, González-Espinosa M, Williams-Linera G (2001) Anthropogenic disturbance and tree diversity in montane rain forests in Chiapas, México. For Ecol Manag 154(1–2):311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rendón-Carmona H, Martínez-Yrizar A, Balvanera P, Pérez-Salicrup D (2009) Selective cutting of woody species in a Mexican tropical dry forest: incompatibility between use and conservation. For Ecol Manag 257(2):567–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Restrepo C, Alvarez N (2006) Landslides and their contribution to land-cover change in the mountains of México and Central America1. Biotrop 38(4):446–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Reyes Bonilla H (2001) Effects of the 1997–1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on coral communities of the Gulf of California, México. Bull Mar Sci 69(1):251–266Google Scholar
  122. Reyes Bonilla H (2003) Coral reefs of the Pacific coast of México. In: Cortés J (ed) Latin American coral reefs. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 331–349Google Scholar
  123. Reyes Bonilla H, Calderón-Aguilera LE (1994) Parámetros problacionales de Porites panamensis (Anthozoa: Scleractinia), en el arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, México. Revista de Biol Trop 42(1–2):121–128Google Scholar
  124. Reyes Bonilla H, Carriquiry JD, Leyte-Morales GE, Cupul-Magaña AL (2002) Effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the anti-El Niño event (1997–1999) on coral reefs of the western coast of México. Coral Reefs 21:368–372. doi: 10.1007/s00338-002-0255-4 Google Scholar
  125. Reyes Bonilla H, Calderon Aguilera LE, Cruz Piñon G, Medina Rosas P, López Pérez RA, Herrero Pérezrul MD, Leyte Morales GE, Cupul Magaña AL, Carriquiry Beltrán JD (2005) Atlas de los corales pétreos (Anthozoa: scleractinia) del Pacífico Mexicano. Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad de Guadalajara/Centro Universitario de la Costa, Universidad del Mar, EnsenadaGoogle Scholar
  126. Rivera-Monroy V, Twilley R, Coronado C, Feller I, Herrera-Silveira J, Jaffe R, Mancera E, Rejmankova E (2004) A conceptual framework to develop long-term ecological research and management objectives in the wider Caribbean region. BioSci 54(9):843–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rivera-Monroy VH, Twilley RR, Mancera E, Alcantara-Eguren A, Castañeda-Moya E, Casas-Monroy O, Reyes F, Restrepo J, Perdomo L, Campos E, Cotes G, Villoria E (2006) Adventures and misfortunes in Macondo: rehabilitation of the Cienaga Grande de Santa Martaa Lagoon Complex, Colombia. Ecotrop 19:72–93Google Scholar
  128. Robbins CS (ed) (2003) Prickly trade: trade and conservation of chihuauan desert cacti. TRAFFIC North America. Washington, DC. World Wildlife Fund, p 48Google Scholar
  129. Romero-Duque LP, Jaramillo VJ, Pérez-Jiménez A (2007) Structure and diversity of secondary tropical dry forests in México, differing in their prior land-use history. For Ecol Manag 253(1–3):38–47Google Scholar
  130. Ruiz-Zarate MA, Hernandez-Landa RC, Gonzalez-Salas C, Nuñez-Lara E, Arias-Gonzalez JE (2003) Condition of coral reef ecosystems in central southern Quintana Roo, México (part 1: Stony corals and algae). In: Lang JC (ed) Status of coral reefs in the western Atlantic: results of initial surveys, Atlantic and gulf rapid reef assessment (AGRRA) program. Atoll Res Bull 496:318–337. doi: 10.5479/si.00775630.496-00.630 Google Scholar
  131. Rzedowski J (1978) La Vegetación de México. Editorial Limusa, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  132. Rzedowski J (1996) Análisis preliminar de la flora vascular de los bosques mesófilos de montaña de México. Acta Botánica Mexicana 35:25–44Google Scholar
  133. Salazar-Vallejo SI (2002) Huracanes y biodiversidad costera tropical. Revista de Biol Trop 50(2):415–428Google Scholar
  134. Schneider LC (2006) Invasive species and land-use: the effect of land management practices on bracken fern invasion in the region of Calakmul, México. J Latin Am Geogr 5:91–107Google Scholar
  135. Schroeder RA, Orem WH, Kharaka YK (2002) Chemical evolution of the Salton Sea, California: nutrient and selenium dynamics. Hydrobiol 473(1):23–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Seymour RJ, Tegner MJ, Dayton PK, Parnell PE (1989) Storm wave induced mortality of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, in Southern California. Est Coast Shelf Sci 28(3):277–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Snook LK (1996) Catastrophic disturbance, logging and the ecology of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King): grounds for listing a major tropical timber species in CITES. Bot J Linnean Soc 122(1):35–46. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1996.tb02061.x Google Scholar
  138. Snook L (1998) Sustaining harvests of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) from México’s Yucatan forests: past, present, and future. In: Primack R, Bray D, Galletti H, Ponciano I (eds) Timber, tourists, and temples: conservation and development in the Maya forest of Belize, Guatemala and México. Island Press, Washington, pp 61–80Google Scholar
  139. Solis-Montero L, Flores-Palacios A, Cruz-Angon A (2005) Shade-coffee plantations as refuges for tropical wild orchids in Central Veracruz, México. Conserv Biol 19(3):908–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Soto-Galera E, Paulo-Maya J, López-López E, Serna-Hernández JA, Lyons J (1999) Change in fish fauna as indication of aquatic ecosystem condition in Río Grande de Morelia “Lago de Cuitzeo” Basin, México. Environ Manag 24(1):133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sousa WP (2001) Natural disturbance and the dynamics of marine benthic communities In: Bertness MD, Hay ME, Gaines SD (eds) Mar community ecol. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA, pp 85–130Google Scholar
  142. StatSoft I (2005) STATISTICA (data analysis software system). 7.1 ednGoogle Scholar
  143. Steneck RS, Graham MH, Bourque BJ, Corbett D, Erlandson JM, Estes JA, Tegner MJ (2002) Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environ Conserv 29(04):436–459. doi: 10.1017/S0376892902000322 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Street-Perrott F, Perrott R, Harkness D (1989) Anthropogenic soil erosion around Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, México, during the Preclassic and Late Postclassic-Hispanic periods. Am Antiq 54:759–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tegner M, Dayton P (1991) Sea urchins, El Niño’s, and long term stability of Southern California kelp forest communities. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 77:49–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tegner MJ, Dayton PK (2000) Ecosystem effects of fishing in kelp forest communities. ICES J Marine Sci J Cons 57(3):579–589. doi: 10.1006/jmsc.2000.0715 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tegner MJ, Dayton PK, Ford AMaED (1987) El Niño effects on Southern California kelp forest communities. In: Advances in ecological research, vol 17. Academic Press, New York, pp 243–279Google Scholar
  148. Tegner MJ, Dayton PK, Edwards PB, Riser KL, Chadwick DB, Dean TA, Deysher L (1995) Effects of a large sewage spill on a kelp forest community: catastrophe or disturbance? Mar Environ Res 40(2):181–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Tejeda-Cruz C, Williams SJ (2004) Bird responses to shade coffee production. Anim Conserv 7(2):169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Turner MG, Dale VH (1998) Comparing large, infrequent disturbances: what have we learned? Ecosystems 1(6):493–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Turner M, Dale V, Everham E (1997) Fires, hurricanes, and volcanoes: comparing large disturbances. Bioscience 47:758–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Turner MG, Baker WL, Peterson CJ, Peet RK (1998) Factors influencing succession: lessons from large, infrequent natural disturbances. Ecosystems 1(6):511–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Turner BL, Villar SC, Foster D, Geoghegan J, Keys E, Klepeis P, Lawrence D, Mendoza PM, Manson S, Ogneva-Himmelberger Y, Plotkin AB, Salicrup DPr, Chowdhury RR, Savitsky B, Schneider L, Schmook B, Vance C (2001) Deforestation in the southern Yucatán peninsular region: an integrative approach. For Ecol Manag 154(3):353–370Google Scholar
  154. Turner MG, Collins SL, Lugo AE, Magnuson JJ, Rupp TS, Swanson FJ (2003) Disturbance dynamics and ecological response: the contribution of long-term ecological research. Bioscience 53(1):46–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Valdez MC, Zaragoza ES, Belda DL, Marcos R, Ram RA (2003) Effect of climatic change on the harvest of the kelp macrocystis pyrifera on the Mexican Pacific coast. Bull Mar Sci 73(3):545–556Google Scholar
  156. Vázquez Silva L, Tamarit Urias JC, Quintanar Olguín J, Varela Fregoso L (2004) Caracterización de la Declinación de bosques de encinos en “Sierra de Lobos”Guanajuato, México. Polibotánica, vol agosto. Instituto Politécnico Nacional, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  157. Vital Rumebe A, Grünberger O (2005) Los cultivos de playa: evolución después del abandono. In: Grünberger O, Reyes Gómez VM, Janeau JL (eds) Las Playas del Desierto Chihuahuense (Parte Mexicana), influencia de las sales en ambientes áridos y semiáridos. Instituto de Investigación para el Desarrollo en America Latina-Instituto Nacional de Ecología, XalapaGoogle Scholar
  158. Whigham DF, Olmsted I, Cano EC, Curtis AB (2003) Impacts of hurricanes on the forest of Quintana Roo, Yucatán Peninsula, México. In: Gomez-Pompa A, Allen M, Fedick SL, Jiménez-Osornio JJ (eds) The lowland Maya area: three millennia at the human-wildland interface. Haworth Press, New York, pp 193–214Google Scholar
  159. Williams WD (1993) Conservation of salt lakes. Hydrobiologia 267(1):291–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Williams-Linera G (2007) El bosque de niebla del centro de Veracruz: ecología, historia y destino en tiempos de fragmentación y cambio climático. CONABIO—Instituto de Ecología AC, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  161. Woodley JD, Chornesky EA, Clifford PA, Jackson JBC, Kaufman LS, Knowlton N, Lang JC, Pearson MP, Porter JW, Rooney MC, Rylaarsdam KW, Tunnicliffe VJ, Wahle CM, Wulff JL, Curtis ASG, Dallmeyer MD, Jupp BP, Koehl MAR, Neigel J, Sides EM (1981) Hurricane Allen`s impact on Jamaican coral reefs. Science 214:749–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wu J (1995) From balance of nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: a paradigm shift in ecology. Q Rev Biol 70:439–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Yool SR (1998) Multi-scale analysis of disturbance regimes in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. J Arid Environ 40:467–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Young MB, Gonneea ME, Fong DA, Moore WS, Herrera-Silveira J, Paytan A (2008) Characterizing sources of groundwater to a tropical coastal lagoon in a karstic area using radium isotopes and water chemistry. Mar Chem 109(3–4):377–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zaldívar Jiménez A, Herrera Silveira J, Coronado Molina C, Alonzo Parra D (2004) Estructura y productividad de los manglares en la reserva de biosfera Ría Celestún, Yucatán, México. Madera y Bosques Special Issue 10(1):25–35Google Scholar
  166. Zhang K, Simard M, Ross M, Rivera-Monroy V, Houle P, Ruiz P, Twilley R, Whelan K (2008) Airborne laser scanning quantification of disturbances from hurricanes and lightning strikes to mangrove forests in Everglades National Park, USA. Sensors 8(4):2262–2292CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis E. Calderon-Aguilera
    • 1
  • Víctor H. Rivera-Monroy
    • 2
  • Luciana Porter-Bolland
    • 3
  • Angelina Martínez-Yrízar
    • 4
  • Lydia B. Ladah
    • 1
  • Miguel Martínez-Ramos
    • 5
  • Javier Alcocer
    • 6
  • Ana Luisa Santiago-Pérez
    • 7
  • Héctor A. Hernandez-Arana
    • 8
  • Víctor M. Reyes-Gómez
    • 9
  • Diego R. Pérez-Salicrup
    • 5
  • Vicente Díaz-Nuñez
    • 10
  • Joaquín Sosa-Ramírez
    • 10
  • Jorge Herrera-Silveira
    • 11
  • Alberto Búrquez
    • 4
  1. 1.División de OceanologíaCentro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada Carretera EnsenadaEnsenadaMexico
  2. 2.Department of Oceanography and Coastal SciencesSchool of the Coast and the Environment, Louisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  3. 3.Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Red de Ecología FuncionalXalapaMexico
  4. 4.Instituto de EcologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México, ApdoHermosilloMexico
  5. 5.Centro de Investigaciones en EcosistemasUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Campus Morelia) Antigua Carretera a PátzcuaroMoreliaMexico
  6. 6.Proyecto de Investigación en Limnología Tropical, FES IztacalaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. de los BarriosTlalnepantlaMexico
  7. 7.Departamento de Producción Forestal, CUCBAUniversidad de GuadalajaraZapopanMexico
  8. 8.Depto Ecología y Sistemática AcuáticaÁrea Conservación de la Biodiversidad El Colegio de la Frontera Sur Unidad ChetumalChetumalMexico
  9. 9.Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Red Ambiente y SustentabilidadChihuahuaMexico
  10. 10.Centro de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma de AguascalientesCiudad UniversitariaMexico
  11. 11.CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad MéridaMéridaMexico

Personalised recommendations