Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 41–57 | Cite as

Reservoirs promote the taxonomic homogenization of fish communities within river basins

Original Paper

Abstract

Most studies analyzing patterns in biotic homogenization of fish communities have used large-scale approaches, while the community-level effects of species introductions and local extinctions within river basins have been sparsely analyzed. In this article, we examine patterns in freshwater fish α- and β-diversity in relation to the presence of reservoirs in a Mediterranean river (Guadiana river; Iberian Peninsula). We used fish samples from 182 river localities and 59 reservoir ones to address two main questions: (i) do reservoirs favor the establishment of invasive fish species?; and (ii) do reservoirs bear taxonomically homogenized fish communities? Although total species richness was not different between rivers and reservoirs, the latter had more invasive species and less native ones. Fish species found in reservoirs tended to be larger ones, but invasive species of any size showed higher preferences for reservoirs. Native species that were rare or absent in reservoirs were those that showed higher sensitivity to invasive species in rivers. Reservoir fish communities were taxonomically homogenized in relation to river ones, both when considering all fish species and using only natives or only invasive ones. Our results suggest that invasive species occupying reservoirs constitute an ecological filter excluding most native species from such systems. Invasive species in the study area are often widely introduced elsewhere, while native species found in reservoirs are congeneric and ecologically similar to those found in other Iberian studies. Thus, we conclude that reservoirs promote taxonomic homogenization at multiple spatial scales, while could also be promoting the functional homogenization of Iberian fish communities.

Keywords

Biotic homogenization β-diversity Freshwater fish Fish conservation Mediterranean rivers Invasive species Regulated rivers 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Francisco Blanco-Garrido, Arturo Menor, and the people from URS (United Research Services España) for their participation in the field study. The surveys were financed by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana through the project “Diseño y Explotación de la Red de Control Biológico de la Cuenca del Río Guadiana” and the Ministry of Science and Technology (REN2002-03513, CGL2005-02699). V. H. held a pre-doctoral fellowship funded by the Spanish Ministry of Education (MEC; AP-2004-1414), and M.C. held a Juan de la Cierva contract also funded by MEC.

References

  1. Berga-Casafont L (2003) Rivers and reservoirs in 20th century Spain. Rev Obra Públicas 3438:37–40 (in Spanish with English abstract)Google Scholar
  2. Blanco-Garrido F, Clavero M, Prenda J (2009) Jarabugo (Anaecypris hispanica) and freshwater blenny (Salaria fluviatilis): habitat preferences and relationship with exotic fish species in the middle Guadiana basin. Limnetica 28:39–148Google Scholar
  3. Carol J, Benejam L, Alcaraz C et al (2006) The effects of limnological features on fish assemblages in fourteen Spanish reservoirs. Ecol Freshw Fish 15:66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cassey P, Lockwood JL, Blackburn TM, Olden JD (2007) Spatial scale and evolutionary history determine the degree of taxonomic homogenization across island bird assemblages. Divers Distrib 13:458–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clavero M, García-Berthou E (2006) Homogenization dynamics and introduction routes of invasive freshwater fish in the Iberian Peninsula. Ecol Appl 16:2313–2324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clavero M, Blanco-Garrido F, Prenda J (2004) Fish fauna in Iberian Mediterranean basins: biodiversity, introduced species and damming impacts. Aquat Conserv 14:575–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clavero M, Blanco-Garrido F, Prenda J (2006) Monitoring small fish populations in streams: a comparison of four passive methods. Fish Res 78:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Darwall W, Smith K, Allen D et al (2008) Freshwater biodiversity—a hidden resource under threat. In: Vié JC, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (eds) Wildlife in a changing world—an analysis of the 2008 IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  9. Didham RK, Tylianakis JM, Hutchinson MA et al (2005) Are invasive species the drivers of ecological change? Trends Ecol Evol 20:470–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Didham RK, Tylianakis JM, Gemmell NJ et al (2007) Interactive effects of habitat modification and species invasion on native species decline. Trends Ecol Evol 22:489–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elvira B, Almodóvar A (2001) Freshwater fish introductions in Spain: facts and figures at the beginning of the 21st century. J Fish Biol 59:323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elvira B, Almodóvar A, Nicola GG (1998) Fish communities of the middle-upper Tagus river (central Spain): a story of river regulation and exotic introductions. Pol Arch Hydrobiol 45:165–171Google Scholar
  13. Encina L, Rodríguez-Ruiz A, Granado-Lorencio C (2004) Trophic habits of the fish assemblage in an artificial freshwater ecosystem: the Joaquín Costa reservoir, Spain. Folia Zool 53:437–449Google Scholar
  14. García-Berthou E, Moreno-Amich R (2000) Introduction of exotic fish into a Mediterranean lake over a 90-year period. Arch Hydrobiol 149:271–284Google Scholar
  15. Gasith A, Resh VH (1999) Streams in Mediterranean climate regions: abiotic influences and biotic responses to predictable seasonal events. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 30:51–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gido KB, Schaefer JF, Falke JA (2009) Convergence of fish communities from the littoral zone of reservoirs. Freshw Biol 54:1163–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Godinho FN, Ferreira MT, Portugal MC (1998) Fish assemblage composition in relation to environmental gradients in Portuguese reservoirs. Aquat Living Resour 11:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hermoso V, Blanco-Garrido F, Prenda J (2008) Spatial distribution of exotic fish species in the Guadiana river basin, with two new records. Limnetica 27:189–194Google Scholar
  19. Hermoso V, Clavero M, Blanco-Garrido F, Prenda J (2009) Assessing freshwater fish sensitivity to different sources of perturbation in a Mediterranean basin. Ecol Freshw Fish 18:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hermoso V, Clavero M, Blanco-Garrido F, Prenda J (in press) Invasive species and habitat degradation in Iberian streams: an explicit analysis of their role and interactive effects on freshwater fish biodiversity loss. Ecol Appl. doi: 10.1890/09-2011.1
  21. Johnson PTJ, Olden JD, Vander Zanden MJ (2008) Dam Invaders: impoundments facilitate biological invasions into freshwaters. Front Ecol Environ 6:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2000) Freshwater nonindigenous species: interactions with other global changes. In: Mooney HA, Hobbs RJ (eds) Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  23. Kottelat M, Freyhof J (2007) Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, CornolGoogle Scholar
  24. La Sorte FA, McKinney ML (2007) Compositional changes over space and time along an occurrence-abundance continuum: anthropogenic homogenization of the North American avifauna. J Biogeogr 34:2159–2167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lambdon PW, Lloret F, Hulme PE (2008) Do non-native species invasions lead to biotic homogenization at small-scales? Similarity and functional diversity of habitats compared for the alien and native components of Mediterranean floras. Divers Distrib 14:774–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leprieur F, Beauchard O, Hugueny B et al (2008) Null model of biotic homogenization: a test with the European freshwater fish fauna. Divers Distrib 14:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lockwood JL (2006) Life in a double-hotspot: the transformation of Hawaiian passerine bird diversity following invasion and extinction. Biol Invasions 8:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lorenzoni M, Ghetti L, Mearelli M (2006) Native and exotic fish species in the Tiber river watershed (Umbria – Italy) and their relationship to the longitudinal gradient. Bull Fr Peche Piscic 382:19–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Magalhães MF, Batalha DC, Collares-Pereira MJ (2002) Gradients in stream fish assemblages across a Mediterranean landscape: contributions of environmental factors and spatial structure. Freshw Biol 47:1015–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marchetti MP, Moyle PB (2001) Effects of flow regime and habitat structure on fish assemblages in a regulated California stream. Ecol Appl 11:530–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marchetti MP, Light T, Feliciano J et al (2001) Homogenization of California’s fish fauna through abiotic change. In: Lockwood JL, McKinney ML (eds) Biotic homogenization. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Marchetti MP, Moyle PB, Levine R (2004) Alien fishes in California watersheds: characteristics of successful and failed invaders. Ecol Appl 14:587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marta P, Bochechas J, Collares-Pereira MJ (2001) Importance of recreational fisheries in the Guadiana river basin in Portugal. Fish Manag Ecol 8:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McKinney ML (2004) Measuring floristic homogenization by non-native plants in North America. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 13:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McKinney ML, Lockwood JL (1999) Biotic homogenization: a few winners replacing many losers in the next mass extinction. Trends Ecol Evol 14:450–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moyle PB (2002) Inland fishes of California. Revised and expanded. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  37. Moyle PB, Light T (1996) Biological invasions of fresh water: Empirical rules and assembly theory. Biol Conserv 78:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moyle PB, Mount JF (2007) Homogenous rivers, homogenous faunas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:5711–5712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nilsson C, Reidy CA, Dynesius M, Revenga C (2005) Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world’s large river systems. Science 308:405–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Olden JD, Poff NL (2003) Toward a mechanistic understanding and prediction of biotic homogenization. Am Nat 162:442–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Olden JD, Poff NL (2004) Ecological processes driving biotic homogenization: testing a mechanistic model using fish faunas. Ecology 85:1867–1875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Olden JD, Rooney TP (2006) On defining and quantifying biotic homogenization. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Olden JD, Kennard MJ, Pusey BJ (2008) Species invasions and the changing biogeography of Australian freshwater fishes. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 17:25–37Google Scholar
  44. Poff LJ, Allan JD, Bain MB et al (1997) The natural flow regime: a paradigm for river conservation and restoration. BioScience 47:769–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Poff NL, Olden JD, Merritt DM, Pepin DM (2007) Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:5732–5737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rahel FJ (2000) Homogenization of fish faunas across the United States. Science 288:854–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ribeiro F, Beldade R, Dix M, Bochechas J (2007) Carta Piscícola Nacional, versão 01/2007. www.fluviatilis.com. Direcção Geral dos Recursos Florestais – Fluviatilis, Lda, Lisboa, Portugal
  48. Ribeiro F, Elvira B, Collares-Pereira MJ, Moyle PB (2008) Life-history traits of non-native fishes in Iberian watersheds across several invasion stages: a first approach. Biol Invasions 10:89–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rincón PA, Velasco JC, González N, Pollo C (1990) Fish assemblages in small streams in western Spain: the influence of an introducer predator. Arch Hydrobiol 118:81–91Google Scholar
  50. Ruiz AR (1998) Fish species composition before and after construction of a reservoir on the Guadalete river (SW Spain). Arch Hydrobiol 142:353–369Google Scholar
  51. Sales-Luís T, Pedroso NM, Santos-Reis M (2007) Prey availability and diet of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) on a large reservoir and associated tributaries. Can J Zool 85:1125–1135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Santos LN, Araújo FG, Brotto DS (2008) Artificial structures as tools for fish habitat rehabilitation in a neotropical reservoir. Aquat Conserv 18:896–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sax DF, Gaines SD (2003) Species diversity: from global decreases to local increases. Trends Ecol Evol 18:561–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith KG, Darwall WRT (compilers) (2006) The status and distribution of freshwater fish endemic to the Mediterranean Basin. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  55. Spear D, Chown SL (2008) Taxonomic homogenization in ungulates: patterns and mechanisms at local and global scales. J Biogeogr 35:1962–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Taylor EB (2004) An analysis of homogenization and differentiation of Canadian freshwater fish fauna with an emphasis on British Columbia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:68–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Urrea G, Sabater S (2009) Epilitic diatom assemblages and their relationship to environmental characteristics in an agricultural watershed (Guadiana river, SW Spain). Ecol Indic 9:693–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grup d’Ecologia del Paisatge, Àrea de Biodiversitat, Centre Tecnològic Forestal de CatalunyaSolsonaSpain
  2. 2.Departament de Ciències AmbientalsUniversitat de GironaGironaSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Biología Ambiental y Salud PúblicaUniversidad de HuelvaHuelvaSpain
  4. 4.The Ecology Centre, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations