Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 18, Issue 14, pp 3979–3988 | Cite as

Conflicts with fisheries and intentional killing of freshwater dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti) in the Western Brazilian Amazon

  • Carolina Loch
  • Miriam Marmontel
  • Paulo C. Simões-Lopes
Original Paper

Abstract

We report three cases of conflicts with fishing activities of freshwater dolphins Iniageoffrensis and Sotaliafluviatilis in the Western Brazilian Amazon. The animals presented several cuts produced by perforating and cutting objects, especially on the dorsum, sides and flukes. The wounds were probably caused by harpoons and machetes, gear commonly used by local inhabitants for fishing and agricultural practices in the Amazon. The carcasses had not been subsequently used in any way, which suggests that the animals were not killed for consumption. Conflicts with fishermen and persistent cultural taboos may have led to the deaths. These records are an indication of a growing situation of conflict with fishing activities that should be taken into consideration in the conservation policy planning of aquatic mammals in the Amazon.

Keywords

Amazonian dolphins Brazilian Amazonia Conflicts with fishermen Direct killing 

Abbreviations

AM

Amazonas state

ASDR

Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve

GIS

Geographic information system

IDSM

Mamirauá Sustainable Development Institute

Ig

Iniageoffrensis

Sf

Sotaliafluviatilis

TL

Total length

References

  1. Alves RRN, Rosa IL (2008) Use of tucuxi dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis for medicinal and magic/religious purposes in North Brazil. Hum Ecol 36:443–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balata D, Mariani S (2009) Culling whales: ethically and ecologically wrong. Science 324:464CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bearzi G, Holcer D, Notarbartolo di Sciara G (2004) The role of historical dolphin takes and habitat degradation in shaping the present status of northern Adriatic cetaceans. Aquat Conserv: Mar Freshw Ecosyst 14:363–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beltrán-Pedreros S (1998) Captura acidental de Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais 1853) na pescaria artesanal do Estuário Amazônico. MSc Dissertation, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazôniaGoogle Scholar
  5. Best RC, da Silva VMF (1989) Amazon river dolphin, Boto Inia geoffrensis (de Blainville 1817). In: Ridgway SH, Harrison RJ (eds) Handbook of marine mammals. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Borobia M, Siciliano S, Lodi L et al (1991) Distribution of the South American dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis. Can J Zool 69:1025–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crespo EA, Hall MA (2001) Interactions between aquatic mammals and humans in the context of ecosystem management. In: Evans PGH, Raga JA (eds) Marine mammals: biology and conservation. Kluwer/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. da Silva VMF, Best RC (1996) Freshwater dolphin/fisheries interaction in the Central Amazon (Brazil). Amazoniana 14(1/2):165–175Google Scholar
  9. da Silva VMF, Martin AR (2007) Impact of human activities upon two species of dolphins in Amazonian flooded forest, Brazil. In: Abstracts of the 17th biennial conference on the biology of marine mammals, Cape Town, South Africa, 29 November–3 December 2007Google Scholar
  10. DeMaster DP, Fowler SW, Perry SL, Richlen MF (2001) Predation and competiton: the impact of fisheries over marine-mammal populations over the next one hundred years. J Mammal 82(3):641–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drehmer CJ, Ferigolo J, Borsato ES (1998) Ocorrência de Mirounga leonina Linnaeus (Pinnipedia, Phocidae) no extremo sul do Brasil: agressão e patologias. Rev Bras Zool 15(4):1061–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Earle M (1996) Ecological interactions between cetaceans and fisheries. In: Simmonds MP, Hutchinson JD (eds) The conservation of whales and dolphins. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  13. Estupiñan GMB, Marmontel M, Queiroz HL, Souza PR, Valsecchi J, Batista GS, Pereira SB (2003) A pesca da Piracatinga (Calophysus macropterus) na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá. In: Technical report, Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia, Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá. Available in: http://www.socioambiental.org/website/noticias/agenda/fks/rel_piracatinga.htm. Cited 10 July 2009
  14. Fertl D (2002) Interference with fisheries. In: Perrin WF, Würsig B, Thewissen H (eds) Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  15. IWC (2007) Report of the Sub-comittee on small cetaceans. In: IWC Scientific Committee Annual Meeting. Available in http://www.iwcoffice.org/_documents/sci_com/SCRepFiles2007/Annex%20L%20Final.pdf. Cited 01 July 2008
  16. Kaschner K, Pauly D (2005) Competition between marine mammal and fisheries: food for thought. In: Salem DJ, Salem AN (eds) The state of animals III. Humane Society Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  17. Lauriano G, Caramanna L, Scarnò M, Andaloro F (2009) An overview of dolphin depredation in Italian artisanal fisheries. J Mar Biolog Assoc UK. doi:10.1017/S0025315409000393
  18. Lavigne DM (2003) Marine mammals and fisheries: the role of science in the culling debate. In: Gales N, Hindell M, Kirkwood R (eds) Marine Mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues. Csiro Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  19. Leatherwood S, Reeves RR (1997) Conservación de los delfines de rio, Inia geoffrensis y Sotalia fluviatilis, en la Amazonia Peruana. In: Fang TG, Bodmer RE, Aquino R, Valqui MH (eds) Manejo de Fauna Silvestre en la Amazonia. UNAP, La PazGoogle Scholar
  20. Mulvaney K (1996) Direct kills of small cetaceans worldwide. In: Simmonds MP, Hutchinson JD (eds) The conservation of whales and dolphins. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  21. Norris KS (1961) Standardized methods for measuring and recording data on the smaller cetaceans. J Mammal 42(2):471–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Northridge S (2002) Effects of fishing industry. In: Perrin WF, Würsig B, Thewissen H (eds) Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  23. Plagáynyi EE, Butterworth DS (2002) Competition with fisheries. In: Perrin WF, Würsig B, Thewissen H (eds) Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  24. Read AJ (2008) The looming crisis: interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. J Mammal 89(3):541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reeves RR, Tuboku-Metzger D, Kapindi RA (1988) Distribution and exploitation of manatees in Sierra Leone. Oryx 22(2):75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reeves RR, McGuire TL, Zúñiga EL (1999) Ecology and conservation of river dolphins in the Peruvian Amazon. IBI Reports 9:21–32Google Scholar
  27. Rosas FCW (1989) Aspectos da Dinâmica Populacional e Interações com a Pesca do Leão Marinho do Sul, Otaria flavescens, (Shaw 1800) (Pinnipedia, Otariidae) no Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MSc Dissertation, Fundação Universidade do Rio GrandeGoogle Scholar
  28. Serrano DB, da Silva VMF, Martin AR (2007) Illegal hunting causes the depletion of Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) in Brazil. In: Abstracts of the 17th biennial conference on the biology of marine mammals, Cape Town, South Africa, 29 November–3 December 2007Google Scholar
  29. Simões-Lopes PC, Ximenez A (1990) O impacto da pesca artesanal em área de nascimento do boto cinza, Sotalia fluviatilis, (Cetacea: Delphinidae) SC, Brasil. Biotemas 3(1):67–72Google Scholar
  30. Slater C (1994) Dance of the dolphin: transformation and disenchantment in the Amazonian imagination. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  31. Swartz W, Pauly D (2008) Who’s eating all the fish? The food security rationale for culling cetaceans. A report to Humane Society International presented at IWC 60, SantiagoGoogle Scholar
  32. Trujillo F, Diazgranados MC (2002) Delfines de río en la Amazonia e Orinoquia: Ecología e Conservación. Fundación Omacha, BogotáGoogle Scholar
  33. Yodzis P (2001) Must top predators be culled for the sake of fisheries? Trends Ecol Evol 16(2):78–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carolina Loch
    • 1
    • 2
  • Miriam Marmontel
    • 2
  • Paulo C. Simões-Lopes
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Mamíferos Aquáticos, Depto. de Ecologia e ZoologiaUniversidade Federal de Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Grupo de Pesquisa em Mamíferos Aquáticos AmazônicosInstituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável MamirauáTeféBrazil

Personalised recommendations