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Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 151–166 | Cite as

Distribution of pteridophyte communities along environmental gradients in Central Amazonia, Brazil

  • Gabriela ZuquimEmail author
  • Flávia R. C. Costa
  • Jefferson Prado
  • Ricardo Braga-Neto
Original Paper

Abstract

Extrapolation of local abundance–environment relationships to broader scales provides species distribution models used for conservation planning. We investigated the importance of environmental heterogeneity and geographic distance on pteridophyte species spatial distribution on 38 plots of 250 × 2.5 m distributed over 90 km2 in Central Amazon. Inclusion of canopy openness in our models increased the capacity of predicting community composition even under the narrow range of canopy openness found in our plots. Nevertheless, there was still a large amount of unexplained variance (55–65%). The response of the community to the light gradient was hierarchical and we did not find evidences of light partitioning. Most species were concentrated in low light plots but a few common and abundant occurred along the entire gradient. Soil properties were the major determinants of community composition. Contrary to similar studies, slope was not a good predictor of pteridophyte community composition, indicating that this relationship may be site-specific. There was no correlation between floristic distances and geographic distances. We concluded that mesoscale turnover is low, although locally environmental variation determines high turnover of species. Studies among different Amazonian physiognomies tend to find high levels of beta-diversity. However, coarse comparisons can not reveal subtle patterns that are relevant for biodiversity conservation planning. This study found some important changes on pteridophyte community within the same type of forest, mainly related to environmental heterogeneity, even in narrow ranges of environmental variation.

Keywords

Beta diversity Canopy openness Dispersal limitation Environmental heterogeneity Ferns Soil characteristics Tropical forest Turnover Understorey 

Abbreviations

BDFFP

Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project

INPA (The portuguese acronym for National Institute of Amazonian Research)

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia

RAPELD

Inventory method that accommodates two sampling scales, Rapid Assessment surveys (RAP) and Long-Term Ecological Research (PELD, the Brazilian acronym for LTER)

CAPES

Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior

PCoA

Principal coordinates analysis

ANOVA

Analyses of variance

GPS

Global positioning system

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank many field assistants for their invaluable help, especially Ocírio Juruna, Osmaíldo Ferreira Costa and José Tenaçol Andes Junior. Maria Luziene and Tânia Pimentel provided support on laboratorial soil analyses and Marina Antongiovanni helped with Fig. 1. This work is part of the first author’s master dissertation at INPA. CAPES provided the postgraduate scholarship. Financial support came from Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, Long-Term Ecological Research, Fundação O Boticário de Proteção à Natureza, and Fundação Vitória Amazônica. Alexandre Adalardo de Oliveira, Bruce Nelson, Nigel Pitman and William E. Magnusson improved early drafts of this paper. This is publication 518 from the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project’s technical series.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriela Zuquim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Flávia R. C. Costa
    • 1
  • Jefferson Prado
    • 2
  • Ricardo Braga-Neto
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazôniaCoordenação de Pesquisas em EcologiaManausBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de BotânicaHerbárioSão Paulo, SPBrazil

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