Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 17, Issue 14, pp 3471–3483 | Cite as

Dialectical relations between professionals and volunteers in a biodiversity monitoring organisation

Original Paper

Abstract

The paper presents a case study of the changes in organisational culture of volunteer biodiversity monitoring organisations and is based on ethnographic research of Bird Watching and Bird Study Association of Slovenia (DOPPS). In the authors’ opinion, the dynamics of organisation’s culture is influenced by the emerging opposition between professionalism on one side and voluntarism on the other. It is explained that professionalism, though being a necessary developmental stage, may have a negative impact on voluntarism and may result in the reduction of the initial altruistic sentiments among members and hence decrease their willingness to participate. On the other hand, if an organisation depends entirely on volunteers, it may not survive and flourish in a changing socio-political environment. The paper is intended to provide a feasible solution for successful development of similar organisations facing constantly changing settings by erasing boundaries between categories of volunteers and professionals, which mitigates the dialectic processes.

Keywords

Biodiversity monitoring Birdwatching Organisational culture Professionals Social dynamics Volunteers 

References

  1. Archer M (1996) Culture and agency. The place of culture in social theory. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Bateson G (1987) Steps to an ecology of mind. Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Jason Aronson Inc., NorthvaleGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell S, Marzano M, Podjed D (2007) Inside monitoring. A comparison of bird monitoring groups in Slovenia and the United Kingdom. In: Lawrence A (ed) Taking stock of nature: participatory biodiversity assessment for policy planning and practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (in press)Google Scholar
  4. Benderly J, Kraft E (1994) Independent Slovenia. Origins, movements prospects. Macmillan, Houndmills BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernard HR (1994) Research methods in anthropology. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourdieu P (1977) Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Brightman R (1995) Forget culture, replacement, transcendence, relexification. Cult Anthropol 10(4):509–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burawoy M, Verdery K (1999) Introduction. In: Burawoy M, Verdery K (eds) Uncertain transition. Ethnographies of change in the postsocialist world. Rowman & Littlefield, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  9. Butler J (1993) Bodies that matter. On the discursive limits of “sex”. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. DeWalt KM, DeWalt BR (2002) Participant observation. A guide for fieldworkers. Altamira Press, Walnut CreekGoogle Scholar
  11. Eldredge N, Gould SJ (1972) Punctuated equilibria. An alternative to phyletic gradualism. Models in paleobiology. In: Schopf TJM (ed) Models in paleobiology. Freeman Cooper, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellis R, Waterton C (2005) Caught between the cartographic and the ethnographic imagination. The whereabouts of amateurs, professionals, and nature in knowing biodiversity. Environ Plan D 23:673–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Elwert G (2002) Switching identity discourses. Primordial emotions and the social construction of we-groups. In: Schlee G (ed) Imagined differences. Hatred and the construction of identity. Lit Verlag, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  14. Ford RC, Armandi BR, Heaton CP (1988) Organization theory. An integrative approach. Harper Collins Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Freud S (1961) Totem and taboo. Some points of agreement between the mental lives of savages and neurotics. Routledge & Kegan Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Geister I (1980) Pozdravni nagovor na ustanovni skupščini Društva za opazovanje in proučevanje ptic Slovenije. Acrocephalus 1(1):1–3Google Scholar
  17. Geister I (ed) (1995) Ornitološki atlas Slovenije. Razširjenost gnezdilk. DZS, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  18. Gennep AV (1960) The rites of passage. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  19. Gersick CJG (1988) Time and transition in work teams. Toward a new model of group development. Acad Manag J 31(1):9–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gersick CJG (1991) Revolutionary change theories. A multilevel exploration of the punctuated equilibrium paradigm. Acad Manag Rev 16(1):10–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Giddens A (1979) Central problems in social theory. Action structure and contradiction in social analysis. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Gow J, Carmichael C (2001) Slovenia and the Slovenes. A small state and the new Europe. Hurst & Company, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Greiner LE (1998) Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. Harv Bus Rev 76(3):55–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hatch MJ (1993) The dynamics of organizational culture. Acad Manag Rev 18(4):657–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jančar T (2004) Zgodovina sodelovanja DOPPS z BirdLife od začetkov do polnopravnega partnerstva. Svet ptic 10(4):41–43Google Scholar
  26. Jaques E (1952) The changing culture of a factory. Dryden Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Keesing RM (1981) Cultural anthropology. A contemporary perspective. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, Forth WorthGoogle Scholar
  28. Kolarič Z, Črnak-Meglič A, Vojnovič M (2002) Zasebne neprofitno-volonterske organizacije v mednarodni perspektivi. FDV, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  29. Kuhn TS (1970) The structure of scientific revolutions, 2nd edn. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  30. Kuper A (1999) Culture, the anthropologists’ account. Harvard University Press, HarvardGoogle Scholar
  31. Latour B (2005) Reassembling the social. An introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  32. Levinson DJ (1978) The seasons of a man’s life. Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Maanen JV (1988) Tales of the field. On writing ethnography. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  34. Monroe A (2005) Interrogation machine. Laibach and NSK. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. Muršič R (2000) Trate vaše in naše mladosti, Zgodba o mladinskem in rock klubu. Subkulturni azil, CeršakGoogle Scholar
  36. Parker M (2000) Organizational culture and identity. Unity and division at work. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Prigogine I, Stengers I (1984) Order out of chaos. Man’s new dialogue with nature. Bantam Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Robbins SP (1996) Organizational behavior. Concepts, controversies, applications, 7th edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  39. Sahlins M (1999) Two or three things that I know about culture. J R Anthropol Inst 5(3):399–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schein EH (1992) Organizational culture and leadership, 2nd edn. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  41. Schein EH (1980) Organizational psychology, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  42. Sovinc A (1994) Zimski ornitološki atlas Slovenije. Rezultati zimskega kartiranja ptic članov Društva za opazovanje in proučevanje ptic Slovenije. Tehniška založba Slovenije, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  43. Stebbins RA (1992) Amateurs, professionals, and serious leisure. McGill-Queen’s University Press, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  44. Stebbins RA (2004) Between work and leisure. The common ground of two separate worlds. Transaction Publishers, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  45. Stebbins RA (2007) Serious leisure. A perspective for our time. Transaction Publishers, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  46. Turner V (1974) The ritual process. Structure and anti-structure. Penguin Books, HarmondsworthGoogle Scholar
  47. Tushman M, Romanelli E (1985) Organizational evolution. A metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientation. In: Cummings LL, Staw BM (eds) Research in organizational behavior, vol 7. JAI Press, GreenwichGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of ArtsUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations