Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 17, Issue 13, pp 3255–3268 | Cite as

Is the Atlantic Forest protected area network efficient in maintaining viable populations of Brachyteles hypoxanthus?

  • Daniel BritoEmail author
  • Carlos Eduardo V. Grelle
  • Jean Philippe Boubli
Original Paper

Abstract

Habitat loss and fragmentation are serious threats to biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest. A network of protected areas is essential to the protection of native biodiversity. However, internal and external factors may threaten the preservation of biota, thus population viability analyses (PVA) are important tools in protected area design and management planning. A PVA was carried out, using the computer package VORTEX, to assess the effectiveness of the protected area network within the Atlantic Forest in Brazil in retaining viable populations of the endemic primate Brachyteles hypoxanthus. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest has 42 protected areas within B. hypoxanthus geographic distribution area, and only five of those were considered to retain viable populations for 50 generations, whereas 28 were predicted to suffer from genetic decay, seven from both genetic decay and demographic stochasticity, and two of them are probably extinct populations. The model indicates that although the protected area network of the Atlantic Forest will likely keep B. hypoxanthus populations for the next 50 generations, most of them (35 out of 42, or 83%) will be facing some kind of demographic and/or genetic problem and will probably need management actions to be implemented in order to ensure their persistence.

Keywords

Brachyteles Population viability analysis PVA Protected areas Risk assessment Wildlife management 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Karen B. Strier and Anthony B. Rylands for valuable comments and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. We also thank support received from CNPq.

References

  1. Aguirre AC (1971) O Mono Brachyteles arachnoides (E. Geoffroy). Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  2. Brito D (2004) Lack of adequate taxonomic knowledge may hinder endemic mammal conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biodivers Conserv 13:2135–2144. doi: 10.1023/B:BIOC.0000040005.89375.c0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brito D, Fernandez FAS (2000) Dealing with extinction is forever: understanding the risks faced by small populations. J Braz Assoc Adv Sci 52:161–170Google Scholar
  4. Brito D, Grelle CEV (2004) Effectiveness of a reserve network for the conservation of the endemic marsupial Micoureus travassosi in Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. Biodivers Conserv 13:2519–2536. doi: 10.1023/B:BIOC.0000048450.85086.00 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brito D, Grelle CEV (2006) Estimating minimum area of suitable habitat and viable population size for the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus). Biodivers Conserv 15:4197–4210. doi: 10.1007/s10531-005-3575-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruner AG, Gullison RE, Rice RE, da Fonseca GAB (2001) Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science 291:125–128. doi: 10.1126/science.291.5501.125 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Câmara IG (2003) Brief history of conservation in the Atlantic Forest. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  8. Carvalho O, Ferrari SF, Strier KB (2004) Diet of a muriqui group (Brachyteles arachnoides) in continuous primary forest. Primates 45:201–204. doi: 10.1007/s10329-004-0079-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caughley G (1994) Directions in conservation biology. J Anim Ecol 63:215–244. doi: 10.2307/5542 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chediack SE, Baqueiro MF (2003) Harvesting and conservation of heart palm. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  11. Coimbra-Filho AF, Pissinatti A, Rylands AB (1993) Breeding muriquis Brachyteles arachnoides in captivity: the experience of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ-FEEMA). Dodo 29:66–77Google Scholar
  12. Coutinho BR (2007) Análise de viabilidade populacional do muriqui, Brachyteles hypoxanthus (Primates: Atelidae), em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica de Santa Maria do Jetibá, Espírito Santo. M.Sc. Thesis, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  13. Cullen L, Bodmer RE, Pádua CV (2000) Effects of hunting in habitat fragments of the Atlantic forests, Brazil. Biol Conserv 95:49–56. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00011-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dean W (1995) With broadax and firebrand: the destruction of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Companhia das Letras, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  15. Dib LRT, Oliva AS, Strier KB (1997) Terrestrial travel in muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) across a forest clearing at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Neotrop Primates 5:8–9Google Scholar
  16. Fagundes V (2005) Conservation genetics of the muriqui: past, present and future. Neotrop Primates 13:85–91Google Scholar
  17. Fagundes V, Paes MF, Chaves PB, Mendes SL, Possamai CB, Boubli JP et al (2005) Genetic structure in two northern muriqui populations (Brachyteles hypoxanthus, Primates, Atelidae) as inferred from fecal DNA. Genet Mol Biol 31:166–171Google Scholar
  18. Foose TJ (1993) Riders of the last ark: the role of captive breeding in conservation strategies. In: Kaufman L, Mallory K (eds) The last extinction. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. Foose TJ, Lande R, Flesness NR, Rabb G, Read B (1986) Propagation plans. Zoo Biol 5:139–146. doi: 10.1002/zoo.1430050208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frankham R (1995) Inbreeding and extinction: a threshold effect. Conserv Biol 9:792–799. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.09040792.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Galetti M, Aleixo A (1998) Effects of palm heart harvesting on avian frugivores in the Atlantic rain forest of Brazil. J Appl Ecol 35:286–293. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2664.1998.00294.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Galetti M, Fernandez JC (1998) Palm harvesting in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: changes in industry structure and the illegal trade. J Appl Ecol 35:294–301. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2664.1998.00295.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Galindo-Leal C (2003) Putting the pieces back together: fragmentation and landscape conservation. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  24. Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (2003) Atlantic Forest hotspot status: an overview. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  25. Gascon C, Williamson GB, da Fonseca GAB (2000) Receding forest edges and vanishing reserves. Science 288:1356–1358. doi: 10.1126/science.288.5470.1356 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gilligan DM, Woodworth LM, Montgomery ME, Briscoe DA, Frankham R (1997) Is mutation accumulation a threat to the survival of endangered populations? Conserv Biol 11:1235–1241. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96215.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grelle CEV, Brito D (2006) Synergism between gap and MVP analyses. Met Ecol Sist 1:16–19Google Scholar
  28. Grelle CEV, Fonseca GAB, Fonseca MT, Costa LP (1999) The question of scale in threat analysis: a case study with Brazilian mammals. Anim Conserv 2:149–152. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.1999.tb00060.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hirota MM (2003) Monitoring the Brazilian Atlantic Forest cover. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  30. Jacobsen TR (2003) Populating the environment: human growth, density and migration in the Atlantic Forest. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  31. Lacy RC (1993) VORTEX: a computer simulation model for population viability analysis. Wildl Res 20:45–65. doi: 10.1071/WR9930045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lacy RC (1997) Importance of genetic variation to the viability of mammalian populations. J Mammal 78:320–335. doi: 10.2307/1382885 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lacy RC (2000a) Structure of the VORTEX simulation model for population viability analysis. Ecol Bull 48:191–203Google Scholar
  34. Lacy RC (2000b) Considering threats to the viability of small populations using individual-based models. Ecol Bull 48:39–51Google Scholar
  35. Lairana AV (2003) A challenge for conservation: Atlantic Forest protected areas. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  36. Lande R (1994) Risk of population extinction from fixation of new deleterious mutations. Evolution Int J Org Evol 48:1460–1469. doi: 10.2307/2410240 Google Scholar
  37. Lindenmayer DB, Burgman MA, Akçakaya HR, Lacy RC, Possingham HP (1995) A review of the generic computer programs ALEX, RAMAS/space and VORTEX for modeling the viability of wildlife metapopulations. Ecol Modell 82:161–174. doi: 10.1016/0304-3800(94)00085-V CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martins WP, Strier KB (2004) Age at first reproduction in philopatric female muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus). Primates 45:63–67. doi: 10.1007/s10329-003-0057-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mata Atlântica SOS INPE (2002) Atlas dos remanescentes florestais da Mata Atlântica no período 1995/2000. Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica and Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  40. McCarthy MA, Burgman MA, Ferson S (1995) Sensitivity analysis for models of population viability. Biol Conserv 73:93–100. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(95)00046-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Melo FR, Dias LG (2005) Muriqui populations reported in the literature over the last 40 years. Neotrop Primates 13:19–24. doi: 10.1896/1413-4705.13.1.19 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mendes SL, Melo FR, Boubli JP, Dias LG, Strier KB, Pinto LPS et al (2005a) Directives for the conservation of the northern muriqui, Brachyteles hypoxanthus (Primates, Atelidae). Neotrop Primates 13:7–18Google Scholar
  43. Mendes SL, Santos RR, Carmo LP (2005b) Conserving the northern muriqui in Santa Maria de Jetibá, Espírito Santo. Neotrop Primates 13:31–35. doi: 10.1896/1413-4705.13.2.31 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Miller PS, Lacy RC (1999) VORTEX: a stochastic simulation of the extinction process. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), Apple ValleyGoogle Scholar
  45. Milton K (1984) Habitat, diet, and activity patterns of free-ranging woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides E Geoffroy 1806). Int J Primatol 5:491–514. doi: 10.1007/BF02692271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mittermeier RA, Gil PR, Hoffmann M, Pilgrim J, Brooks T, Mittermeier CG et al (2004) Hotspots revisited: earth’s biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. CEMEX, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  47. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858. doi: 10.1038/35002501 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Newmark WD (1987) A land-bridge island perspective on mammalian extinctions in western North American parks. Nature 325:430–432. doi: 10.1038/325430a0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Newmark WD (1995) Extinction of mammal populations in western North American national parks. Conserv Biol 9:512–526. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.09030512.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Newmark WD (1996) Insularization of Tanzanian parks and the local extinction of large mammals. Conserv Biol 10:1549–1556. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10061549.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nunney L, Campbell KA (1993) Assessing minimum viable population size: demography meets population genetics. Trends Ecol Evol 8:234–239. doi: 10.1016/0169-5347(93)90197-W CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pinto LP, Brito MCW (2003) Dynamics of biodiversity loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: an introduction. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  53. Pontual FB, Boubli JP (2005) The Caratinga alliance: community-based conservation efforts to increase forest for the muriquis and water for the farmers. Neotrop Primates 13:47–52. doi: 10.1896/1413-4705.13.2.47 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pope TR (1998) Genetic variation in remnant populations of the woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles arachnoides). Int J Primatol 19:95–109. doi: 10.1023/A:1020311111401 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Printes RC, Strier KB (1999) Behavioral correlates of dispersal in female muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Int J Primatol 20:941–960. doi: 10.1023/A:1020882719850 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ralls K, Ballou JD, Templeton AR (1988) Estimates of lethal equivalents and the cost of inbreeding in mammals. Conserv Biol 2:185–193. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.1988.tb00169.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ranta P, Blom T, Niemela J, Joensuu E, Siitonen M (1998) The fragmented Atlantic rain forest of Brazil: size, shape and distribution of forest fragments. Biodivers Conserv 7:385–403. doi: 10.1023/A:1008885813543 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reaser JK, Galindo-Leal C, Ziller SR (2003) Unwanted guests: the invasion of nonnative species. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  59. Rylands AB, Mittermeier RA, Rodríguez-Luna E (1995) A species list for the New World primates (Platyrrhini): distribution by country, endemism, and conservation status according to the Mace-Lande system. Neotrop Primates 3:113–160Google Scholar
  60. Rylands A, Strier K, Mittermeier R, Borovansky J, Seal US (1998) Population and habitat viability assesment workshop for the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides). IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group Apple ValleyGoogle Scholar
  61. Shafer CL (1999) National park and reserve planning to protect biological diversity: some basic elements. Landsc Urban Plan 44:123–153. doi: 10.1016/S0169-2046(98)00115-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shaffer ML (1981) Minimum population sizes for species conservation. Bioscience 31:131–134. doi: 10.2307/1308256 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Soulé ME (1987) Viable populations for conservation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  64. Strier KB (1987) Ranging behavior of woolly spider monkeys. Int J Primatol 8:575–591. doi: 10.1007/BF02735778 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Strier KB (1990) New World primates, new frontiers: insights from the woolly spider monkey, or muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides). Int J Primatol 11:7–19. doi: 10.1007/BF02193693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Strier KB (1991a) Diet in one group of woolly spider monkeys, or muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Am J Primatol 23:113–126. doi: 10.1002/ajp.1350230205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Strier KB (1991b) Demography and conservation in an endangered primate, Brachyteles arachnoides. Conserv Biol 5:214–218. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.1991.tb00126.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Strier KB (1993/1994) Viability analyses of an isolated population of muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides): implications for primate conservation and demography. Primate Conserv 14–15:43–52Google Scholar
  69. Strier KB (2000) Population viabilities and conservation implications for muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in Brazil’s Atlantic Forest. Biotropica 32:903–913Google Scholar
  70. Strier KB (2005) Reproductive biology and conservation of muriquis. Neotrop Primates 13:41–45. doi: 10.1896/1413-4705.13.3.41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Strier KB, Fonseca GAB (1996/1997) The endangered muriqui in Brazil’s Atlantic Forest. Primate Conserv 17:131–137Google Scholar
  72. Strier KB, Ziegler TE (2000) Lack of pubertal influences on female dispersal in muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides). Anim Behav 59:849–860. doi: 10.1006/anbe.1999.1387 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Strier KB, Mendes SL, Santos RR (2001) Timing in births in sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus). Am J Primatol 55:87–100. doi: 10.1002/ajp.1042 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Strier KB, Boubli JP, Possamai CB, Mendes SL (2006) Population demography of northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga/Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Am J Phys Anthropol 130:227–237. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.20366 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Van Valen L (1973) A new evolutionary law. Evol Theory 1:1–30Google Scholar
  76. Vieira LA, Mendes SL (2005) Presence of the muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in a rural property in the vicinity of the Augusto Ruschi Biological Reserve, Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo. Neotrop Primates 13:37–39. doi: 10.1896z/1413-4705.13.2.37 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Young CEF (2003) Socioeconomic causes of deforestation in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. In: Galindo-Leal C, Câmara IG (eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: biodiversity status, threats, and outlook. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Brito
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carlos Eduardo V. Grelle
    • 2
  • Jean Philippe Boubli
    • 3
  1. 1.Conservation International, Center for Applied Biodiversity ScienceArlingtonUSA
  2. 2.Laboratório de Vertebrados, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia, CCSUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrasil
  3. 3.Human Sciences Building, Anthropology DepartmentThe University of AucklandAucklandNewZealand

Personalised recommendations