Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 17, Issue 7, pp 1701–1714 | Cite as

Primary and secondary vegetation patches as contributors to floristic diversity in a tropical deciduous forest landscape

  • Gonzalo Castillo-Campos
  • Gonzalo Halffter
  • Claudia E. MorenoEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

The floristic diversity of Mexican tropical deciduous forests (TDF) is of critical importance given the high species richness (alpha diversity), species turnover (beta diversity), and the intense deforestation rates. Currently, most TDF landscapes are mosaics of agricultural land, secondary vegetation, and patches of relatively undisturbed primary vegetation. Here we illustrate how both primary forest remnants and secondary vegetation patches contribute to the floristic diversity of TDF in a landscape of volcanic origin in central Veracruz, Mexico. Our objectives were to assess sampling efficiency and inventory completeness, to compare mean and cumulative species richness between primary forest and secondary vegetation sites, and to analyze beta diversity between vegetation types. In an area of 12,300 m² we recorded 105 families, 390 genera, and 682 species. Species inventories for both vegetation types were about 80% complete. Secondary vegetation is more alpha diverse than primary forest, both in terms of cumulative and mean species richness. We found a remarkably high beta diversity between vegetation types (75% of complementarity, 91.60% of mean dissimilarity). We also identified the species that contribute the most to similarity within vegetation types and to dissimilarity between vegetation types. Our results support the idea that assessing biodiversity on the landscape scale is an appropriate way to ascertain the impact of human activities. For this land mosaic, conservation of the flora would not be possible by focusing solely on primary forest remnants. We propose the implementation of a network of small conservation areas with a flexible structure, following the “archipelago reserve” model.

Keywords

Alpha and beta diversity Archipelago reserves Species turnover Plant communities Spatial heterogeneity Veracruz Mexico 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the following people for their support: Pablo O. Aguilar and Lamberto Aragón Axomulco for technical support with computer programming, Sergio Avendaño Reyes, Israel Acosta Rosado and Ma. Elena Medina Abreo for technical support in field sampling. We thank José Ramón Verdú (CIBIO, Universidad de Alicante) for his constructive revision of the manuscript, and Bianca Delfosse for her careful correction of the English. This research was financed by CONABIO (Project L-228), CONACYT (153088), and the Department of Biodiversity and Systematics (902-14) at the Instituto de Ecología, A.C.

References

  1. Begon M, Townsend CR, Harper JL (2006) Ecology: from individuals to ecosystems, 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Brooks TM, Mittermeier RA, da Fonseca GAB, Gerlach J, Hoffmann M, Lamoreux JF, Mittermeier CG, Pilgrim JD, Rodrigues ASL (2006) Global biodiversity conservation priorities. Science 313:58–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chazdon RL, Colwell RK, Denslow JS, Guariguata MR (1998) Statistical methods for estimating species richness of woody regeneration in primary and secondary rain forests of northeastern Costa Rica. In: Dallmeier F, Comiskey JA (eds) Forest biodiversity research, monitoring and modelling: conceptual background and old world case studies. The Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris, pp 285–309Google Scholar
  4. Chee YE (2004) An ecological perspective on the valuation of ecosystem services. Biol Conserv 120:549–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiarucci A, Maccherini S, De Dominicis V (2001) Evaluation and monitoring of the flora in a nature reserve by estimation methods. Biol Conserv 101:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clarke KR, Warwick M (1994) Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  7. Clarke KR, Gorley RN (2001) PRIMER v5: user manual/tutorial. Plymouth Marine Laboratory, PlymouthGoogle Scholar
  8. Colwell RK (2005) EstimateS: statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 7.5. Available on line at:  http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates. University of Connecticut, Storrs
  9. Colwell RK, Coddington JA (1994) Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. Phil Trans R Soc B 345:101–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colwell RK, Mao CX, Chang J (2004) Interpolating, extrapolating, and comparing incidence-based species accumulation curves. Ecology 85:2717–2727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rainforests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeAngelis DL, Waterhouse JC (1987) Equilibrium and non-equilibrium concepts in ecological models. Ecol Monogr 57:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Díaz-Francés E, Soberón J (2005) Statistical estimation and model selection of species-accumulation functions. Conserv Biol 19:569–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edwards PJ, Abivardi C (1998) The value of biodiversity: where ecology and economy blend. Biol Conserv 83:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. García E (1981) Modificaciones al sistema de clasificación climática de Köppen. Indianápolis 30, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  16. Gentry AH (1982) Neotropical floristic diversity. Ann Mo Bot Gard 69:557–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gerhardt K (1993) Tree seedling development in tropical dry abandoned pasture and secondary forest in Costa Rica. J Veg Sci 4:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gotelli NJ, Colwell RK (2001) Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecol Lett 4:397–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gordon JE, Hawthorne WD, Reyes-García A, Sandoval G, Barrance AJ (2004) Assessing landscapes: a case study of tree and shrub diversity in the seasonally dry tropical forests of Oaxaca, Mexico and southern Honduras. Biol Conserv 117:429–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gove AD, Majer JD, Rico-Gray V (2005) Methods for conservation outside of formal reserve systems: the case of ants in the seasonally dry tropics of Veracruz, Mexico. Biol Conserv 126:328–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Halffter G (1998) A strategy for measuring landscape biodiversity. Biol Int 36:3–17Google Scholar
  22. Halffter G (2005) Towards a culture of biodiversity conservation. Acta Zool Mex (n.s.) 21:133–153Google Scholar
  23. Halffter G, Moreno CE (2005) Significado biológico de las diversidades alfa, beta y gamma. In: Halffter G, Soberón J, Koleff P, Melic A (eds) Sobre Diversidad Biológica: el Significado de las Diversidades Alfa, Beta y Gamma. M3M: Monografías Tercer Milenio, vol 4. Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, Zaragoza, pp 5–18Google Scholar
  24. Hernandez-Stefanoni JL (2006) The role of landscape patterns of habitat types on plant species diversity of a tropical forest in Mexico. Biodivers Conserv 15:1441–1457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hernandez-Stefanoni JL, Bello-Pineda J, Valdes-Valadez G (2006) Comparing the use of indigenous knowledge with classification and ordination techniques for assessing the species composition and structure of vegetation in a tropical forest. Environ Manage 37:686–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holling CS (1986) The resilience of terrestrial ecosystems: local surprise and global change. In: Williams CC, Munn RE (eds) Sustainable development of the biosphere. IISASA. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 289–317Google Scholar
  27. Janzen D (1988) Tropical dry forest: the most endangered major tropical ecosystems. In: Wilson EO (ed) Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington DC, pp 130–137Google Scholar
  28. Khurana E, Singh JS (2001) Ecology of seed and seedling growth for conservation and restoration of tropical dry forest: a review. Environ Conserv 28:39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Laurance WF (1999) Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis. Biol Conserv 91:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lerdau M, Whitbeck J, Holbrook NM (1991) Tropical deciduous forest: death of a biome. Trends Ecol Evol 6:201–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li J, Ren Z, Zhou Z (2006) Ecosystem services and their values: a case study in the Qinba mountains of China. Ecol Res 21:597–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lott EJ (1987) Floristic diversity and structure of upland and arroyo forest of coastal Jalisco. Biotropica 19:228–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Medail F, Verlaque R (1997) Ecological characteristics and rarity of endemic plants from southeast France and Corsica: implications for biodiversity conservation. Biol Conserv 80:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miranda F, Hernández XE (1963) Los tipos de vegetación de México y su clasificación. Bol Soc Bot Méx 28:29–179Google Scholar
  35. Mooney HA, Bullock SH, Medina E (1995) Introduction. In: Bullock SH, Mooney HA, Medina E (eds) Seasonally dry tropical forests. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  36. Murphy PG, Lugo AE (1986) Ecology of tropical dry forest. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 17:67–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Negendank JFW, Emmermann R, Krawczyk R, Mooser F, Tobschall H, Werle D (1985) Geological and geochemical investigations on the eastern trans Mexican volcanic belt. Geofísica Internacional 24:477–575Google Scholar
  38. Ortega OR (1981) Vegetación y flora de una corriente de lava (malpaís) al noreste del Cofre de Perote, Ver. Biotica 6:57–97Google Scholar
  39. Ricker M, Ramírez-Krauss I, Ibarra-Manríquez G, Martínez E, Ramos CH, González-Medellín G, Gómez-Rodríguez G, Palacio-Prieto JL, Hernández HM (2007) Optimizing conservation of forest diversity: a country-wide approach in Mexico. Biodivers Conserv 16:1927–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rzedowski J (1978) Vegetación de México. Limusa, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  41. Sarukhán J (1998) Los tipos de vegetación arbórea de la zona cálido húmeda de México. In: Pennington TD, Sarukhán J (eds) Árboles Tropicales de México. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and Fondo de Cultura Económica, México D.F., pp 13–65Google Scholar
  42. Soberón J, Llorente J (1993) The use of species accumulation functions for the prediction of species richness. Conserv Biol 7:480–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steininger MK, Tucker CJ, Ersts P, Killeen TJ, Villegas Z, Hecht SB (2001) Clearance and fragmentation of tropical deciduous forest in the Tierras Bajas, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Conserv Biol 15:856–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tilman D, Pacala S (1993) The maintenance of species richness in plant communities. In: Ricklefs R, Schluter D (eds) Species diversity in ecological communities: historical and geographical perspectives. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 13–25Google Scholar
  45. Toledo VM (1982) Pleistocene changes of vegetation in tropical Mexico. In: Prance GT (ed) Biological diversification in the tropics. Columbia University Press, New York, USA, pp 93–111Google Scholar
  46. Trejo I (2005) Análisis de la diversidad de la selva baja caducifolia en México. In: Halffter G, Soberón J, Koleff P, Melic A (eds) Sobre Diversidad Biológica: el Significado de las Diversidades Alfa, Beta y Gamma. M3M: Monografías Tercer Milenio, vol 4. Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa, Zaragoza, pp 111–122Google Scholar
  47. Trejo I, Dirzo R (2000) Deforestation of seasonally dry tropical forest: a national and local analysis in Mexico. Biol Conserv 94:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Trejo I, Dirzo R (2002) Floristic diversity of Mexican seasonally dry tropical forests. Biodivers Conserv 11:2063–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vieira DLM, Scariot A (2006) Principles of natural regeneration of tropical dry forests for restoration. Restor Ecol 14:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Williams-Linera G (2002) Tree species richness complementarity, disturbance and fragmentation in a Mexican tropical montane cloud forest. Biodivers Conserv 11:1825–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gonzalo Castillo-Campos
    • 1
  • Gonzalo Halffter
    • 1
  • Claudia E. Moreno
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Instituto de Ecología, A. C.XalapaMexico
  2. 2.Centro de Investigaciones BiológicasUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de HidalgoPachucaMexico

Personalised recommendations