Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 14, pp 4147–4163 | Cite as

Conservation genetics in a globally changing environment: present problems, paradoxes and future challenges

Review Paper

Abstract

Despite recent advances in conservation genetics and related disciplines and the growing impact that conservation genetics is having in conservation biology, our knowledge on several key issues in the field is still insufficient. Here we identify some of these issues together with addressing several paradoxes which have to be solved before conservation genetics can face new challenges that are appearing in the transitory phase from the population genetics into the population genomics era. Most of these issues, paradoxes and challenges, like the central dogma of conservation genetics, the computational, theoretical and laboratory experiment achievements and limitations in the conservation genetics field have been discussed. Further knowledge on the consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding depression in wild populations as well as the capacity of small populations to adapt to local environmental conditions is also urgently needed. The integration of experimental, theoretical and applied conservation genetics will contribute to improve our understanding of methodological and applied aspects of conservation genetics.

Keywords

Biodiversity Conservation genetics Global change Inbreeding depression Outbreeding depression Genetic markers Genetic structure Neutral vs selective variation Adaptive variation 

References

  1. Andersen DH, Pertoldi C, Scali V, Loeschcke V (2002) Intraspecific hybridisation, developmental stability and fitness in Drosophila mercatorum. Evol Ecol Res 4:603–621Google Scholar
  2. Balloux F (1999) EASYPOP, a software for population genetic simulation. University of Lausanne, Lausanne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  3. Bangert R, Turek RJ, Martinsen GD, Wimp GM, Bailey JK, Whitham TG (2005) Benefits of conservation of plant genetic diversity to arthropod diversity. Conserv Biol 19:379–390Google Scholar
  4. Barbraud C, Weimerskirch H (2003) Climate and density shape population dynamics of a marine top predator. Proc R Soc B 270:2111–2116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bass AL, Epperly SP, Braun-McNell J (2004) Multi-year analysis of stock composition of a loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta foraging habitat using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Conserv Genet 5:783–796Google Scholar
  6. Basset P, Balloux F, Perrin N (2001) Testing demographic models on effective population size. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:211–317Google Scholar
  7. Beaumont MA, Rannala B (2004) The Bayesian revolution in genetics. Nat Rev Genet 5:251–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bijlsma R, Bundgaard J, Boerema A (2000) Does inbreeding affect the extinction risk of small populations?: predictions from Drosophila. J Evol Biol 13:502–514Google Scholar
  9. Bijlsma R, Bundgaard J, Van Putten VF (1999) Environmental dependence of inbreeding depression and purging in Drosophila Melanogaster. J Evol Biol 12:1125–1137Google Scholar
  10. Bouchy P, Theodorou K, Couvet D (2005) Metapopulation viability: influence of migration. Conserv Genet 6:75–78Google Scholar
  11. Boyce MS, Haridas CV, Lee CT, the NCEAS Stochastic Demography Working Group (2006) Demography in an increasingly variable world. Trends Ecol Evol 21:141–148Google Scholar
  12. Brito D, Da Fonseca GAB (2006) Evaluation of minimum viable population size and conservation status of the long-furred woolly mouse opossum Micoureus paraguayanus: an endemic marsupial of the Atlantic Forest. Biodivers Conserv 15:1713–1728Google Scholar
  13. Brito D, Grelle CED (2004) Effectiveness of a reserve network for the conservation of the endemic marsupial Micoureus travassosi in Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. Biodivers Conserv 13:2519–2536Google Scholar
  14. Brito D, Grelle CEV (2006) Estimating minimum area of suitable habitat and viable population size for the northern muriqui Brachyteles hypoxanthus. Biodivers Conserv 15:4197–4210Google Scholar
  15. Bürger R, Lynch M (1995) Evolution and extinction in a changing environment: a quantitative-genetic analysis. Evolution 49:151–163Google Scholar
  16. Byers DL, Waller DM (1999) Do plant populations purge their genetic load? Effects of population size and mating history on inbreeding depression. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 30:479–513Google Scholar
  17. Caballero A (1994) Developments in the prediction of effective population size. Heredity 73:657–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Caprio MA, Tabashnik BE (1992) Gene flow accelerates local adaptation among finite populations: simulating the evolution of insecticide resistance. J Econ Entomol 85:611–620Google Scholar
  19. Chelomina GN (2006) Ancient DNA. Russ J Genet 42:219–233Google Scholar
  20. Comins HN (1977) The development of insecticide resistance in the presence of migration. J Theor Biol 64:177–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Coulson T, Benton TG, Lundberg P, Dall SRX, Kendall BE, Gaillard J-M (2005b) Estimating individual contributions to population growth: evolutionary fitness in ecological time. Proc R Soc B 273:547–555Google Scholar
  22. Coulson T, Guiness F, Pemberton J, Clutton-brock T (2005a) The demographic consequences of releasing a population of red deer from culling. Ecology 85:411–422Google Scholar
  23. Courtois R, Bernatchez L, Ouellet J-P, Breton L (2003) Significance of caribou Rangifer tarandus ecotypes from a molecular genetics viewpoint. Conserv Genet 4:393–404Google Scholar
  24. Crandall KA, Bininda-Edmonds ORP, Mace GM, Wayne RK (2000) Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology: an alternative to “evolutionary significant units”. Trends Ecol Evol 15:290–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Crandall KA, Dan Vasco DP (1999) Effective population sizes: missing measures and missing concepts. Anim Conserv 4:317–319Google Scholar
  26. Crnokrak P, Roff DA (1999) Inbreeding depression in the wild. Heredity 83:260–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Day SB, Bryant EH, Meffert LM (2003) The influence of variable rates of inbreeding on fitness, environmental responsiveness, and evolutionary potential. Evolution 57:1314–1324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. De Souza CL Jr, Geraldi IO, Vencovsky R (2000) Response to recurrent selection under small effective population size. Genet Mol Biol 23:841–846Google Scholar
  29. Dobzhansky T (1970) Genetics of the evolutionary process. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Douglas SE (2006) Microarray studies of gene expression in fish. Omics J Integr Biol 10:474–489Google Scholar
  31. Edmands S (2007) Between a rock and a hard place: evaluating the relative risks of inbreeding and outbreeding for conservation and management. Mol Ecol 16:463–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Edmands S, Timmerman CC (2003) Modeling factors affecting the severity of outbreeding depression. Conserv Biol 17:883–892Google Scholar
  33. Ernande B, Dieckmann U (2004) The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in spatially structured environments: implications of intraspecific competition, plasticity costs, and environmental characteristics. J Evol Biol 17:613–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fabiani A, Hoelzel AR, Galimberti F, Muelbert MMC (2003) Long-range paternal gene flow in the southern elephant seal. Science 299:676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Frankham R (1995) Conservation genetics. Annu Rev Genet 29:305–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Frankham R (2005) Genetics and extinction (review article). Biol Conserv 126:131–140Google Scholar
  37. Frankham R, Ballou JD, Briscoe DA (2002) Introduction to conservation genetics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. Gaggiotti OE (2003) Genetic threats to population persistence. Ann Zool Fenn 40:155–168Google Scholar
  39. Gaggiotti OE, Vetter RD (1999) Effect of life history strategy, environmental variability, and overexploitation on the genetic diversity of pelagic fish populations. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:1376–1388Google Scholar
  40. Garrigan D, Hammer MF (2006) Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era. Nat Rev Genet 7:669–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gilligan DM, Briscoe DA, Frankham R (2005) Comparative losses of quantitative and molecular genetic variation in finite populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res 85:47–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gilpin ME (1987) Spatial structure and population vulnerability. In: Soulé ME (ed) Viable populations for conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 125–139Google Scholar
  43. Gomulkiewicz R, Holt RD (1995) When does evolution by natural selection prevent extinction? Evolution 49:201–207Google Scholar
  44. Gotelli NJ (1991) Metapopulation models—The rescue effect, the propagule rain, and the core-satellites hypothesis. Am Nat 138:768–776Google Scholar
  45. Guillaume F, Perrin N (2006) Joint evolution of dispersal and inbreeding load. Genetics 173:497–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hanski I, Gilpin ME (1997) Metapopulation biology, ecology, genetics, and evolution. Academic, San Diego, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  47. Harshman LG, Hoffmann AA (2000) Laboratory selection experiments using Drosophila: what do they really tell us? Trends Ecol Evol 15:32–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hauser L, Adcock GJ, Smith PJ, Ramirez JHB, Carvalho GR (2002) Loss of microsatellite diversity and low effective population size in an overexploited population of New Zealand snapper Pagrus auratus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:11742–11747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hedrick PW (2000) Inbreeding depression in conservation biology. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 31:139–162Google Scholar
  50. Hedrick PW (2001) Conservation genetics: where are we now? Trends Ecol Evol 16:629–636Google Scholar
  51. Hedrick PW (2005) Large variance in reproductive success and the Ne/N ratio. Evolution 59:1596–1599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Higgins K, Lynch M (2001) Metapopulation extinction caused by mutation accumulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2928–2933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoelzel AR (1999) Impact of population bottlenecks on genetic variation and the importance of life-history; a case study of the northern elephant seal. Biol J Linn Soc 68:23–39Google Scholar
  54. Hoffmann AA, Sørensen JG, Loeschcke V (2003) Adaptation to extreme temperatures in Drosophila combining quantitative and molecular approaches. J Therm Biol 28:175–216Google Scholar
  55. Holt RD, Gomulkiewicz R (1997) How does immigration influence local adaptation? A reexamination of a familiar paradigm. Am Nat 149:563–572Google Scholar
  56. Husband BC, Schemske DW (1996) Evolution of the magnitude and timing of inbreeding depression in plants. Evolution 50:54–70Google Scholar
  57. Jimenez JA, Hughes KA, Alaks G, Graham L, Lacy RC (1994) An experimental study of inbreeding depression in natural habitat. Science 266:271–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Keller LF, Waller DM (2002) Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends Ecol Evol 17:230–241Google Scholar
  59. Kimberly AS, Toonen RJ (2006) Microsatellites for ecoloigists: a practical guide to using and evaluating microsatellites markers. Ecol Lett 9:615–629Google Scholar
  60. Kristensen TN, Loeschcke V, Hoffmann AA (2007) Can artificially selected phenotypes influence a component of field fitness? Thermal selection and fly performance under thermal extremes. Proc R Soc B 274:771–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kristensen TN, Pertoldi C, Andersen HD, Loeschcke V (2003) The use of fluctuating asymmetry and phenotypic variability as indicators of developmental instability, testing of a new method employing clonal organisms and high temperature stress. Evol Ecol Res 5:53–68Google Scholar
  62. Kristensen TN, Pertoldi C, Pedersen LD, Andersen DH, Bach LA, Loeschcke V (2004) The increase of fluctuating asymmetry in a monoclonal strain of collembolans after chemical exposure—discussing a new method for estimating the environmental variance. Ecol Indic 4:73–81Google Scholar
  63. Kristensen TN, Sorensen AC, Sorensen D, Pedersen KS, Sørensen JG, Loeschcke V (2005a) A test of quantitative genetic theory using Drosophila—effects of inbreeding and rate of inbreeding on heritabilities and variance components. J Evol Biol 18:763–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kristensen TN, Sorensen P, Kruhoffer M, Kruhøffer M, Loeschcke V (2005b) Genome-wide analysis on inbreeding effects on gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 171:157–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kristensen TN, Sorensen P, Pedersen KS, Kruhøffer M, Loeschcke V (2006) Inbreeding by environmental interactions affect gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 173:1329–1336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lacy RC (1997) Importance of genetic variation to the viability of mammalian populations. J Mammal 78:320–335Google Scholar
  67. Lande R (1995) Mutation and conservation. Conserv Biol 9:782–791Google Scholar
  68. Lande R, Shannon S (1996) The role of genetic variation in adaptation and population persistence in changing environment. Evolution 50:434–437Google Scholar
  69. Lenormand Y (2002) Gene flow and the limits to natural selection. Trends Ecol Evol 17:183–189Google Scholar
  70. Luikart G, England PR (1999) Statistical analysis of microsatellite DNA data. Trends Ecol Evol 14:253–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lynch M (1996) A quantitative-genetic perspective on conservation issues. In: Avise JC, Hamrick JL (eds) Conservation genetics. Case histories from nature. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp 471–501Google Scholar
  72. Lynch M, Walsh B (1998) Genetics and analysis of quantitative traits. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
  73. Manel S, Berthier P, Luikart G (2002) Detecting wildlife poaching: identifying the origin of individuals with bayesian assignment tests and multilocus genotypes. Conserv Biol 16:650–659Google Scholar
  74. Manel S, Schwartz MK, Luikart G, Taberlet P (2003) Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics. Trends Ecol Evol 18:189–197Google Scholar
  75. Marr AB, Keller LF, Arcese P (2002) Heterosis and outbreeding depression in descendant of natural immigrants to an inbred population of song sparrow Melospiza melodia. Evolution 56:131–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. May RM (2001) Stability and complexity in model ecosystems. Princeton University Press, OxfordshireGoogle Scholar
  77. McCann KS, Botsford L, Hastings AW (2003) Differential response of marine populations to climate forcing. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:971–985Google Scholar
  78. McCarty JP (2001) Ecological consequences of recent climate change. Conserv Biol 15:320–331Google Scholar
  79. McLaughlin JF, Hellmann JJ, Boggs CL, Erlich PR (2002) Climate change hastens population extinctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:6070–6074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Merila J (1997) Expression of genetic variation in body size of the collared flycatcher under different environmental conditions. Evolution 51:526–536Google Scholar
  81. Morin PA, Luikart G, Wayne RK (2004) SNPs in ecology, evolution and conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 19:208–216Google Scholar
  82. Niehaus AC, Wilson RS, Franklin CE (2006) Short- and long-term consequences of thermal variation in the larval environment of anurans. J Anim Ecol 75:686–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Nielsen EE, Hansen MM, Loeschcke V (1997) Analysis of microsatellite DNA from old scale samples of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: a comparison of genetic composition over 60 years. Mol Ecol 6:487–492Google Scholar
  84. Nomura T (2005) Methods for minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in conserved populations with overlapping generations. Conserv Genet 6:655–663Google Scholar
  85. Nunney L (1999) The effective size of a hierarchically structured population. Evolution 53:1–10Google Scholar
  86. O’Regan HJ, Kitchener AC (2005) The effects of captivity on the morphology of captive, domesticated and feral mammals. Mamm Rev 35:215–230Google Scholar
  87. Orrock JL (2005) Conservation corridors affect the fixation of novel alleles. Conserv Genet 6:623–630Google Scholar
  88. Ouborg NJ, Vergeer P, Mix C (2006) The rough edges of the conservation genetics paradigm for plants. J Ecol 94:1233–1248Google Scholar
  89. Paabo S, Poinar H, Serre D, Jaenicke-Despres V, Hebler J, Rohland N, Kuch M, Krause J, Vigilant L, Hofreiter M (2004) Genetic analyses from ancient DNA. Annu Rev Genet 38:645–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pakkasmaa S, Merilä J, O’Hara RB (2003) Genetic and maternal effect influences on viability of common frog tadpoles under different environmental conditions. Heredity 91:117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Palo JU, Schmeller DS, Laurila A, Primmer CR, Kuzmin SL, Merila J (2004) High degree of population subdivision in a widespread Amphibian. Mol Ecol 13:2631–2644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Pearse DE, Crandall KA (2004) Beyond FST: analysis of population genetic data for conservation. Conserv Genet 5:585–602Google Scholar
  93. Pertoldi C, Bach LA, Barker JSF, Lundberg P, Loeschcke V (2007a) The consequences of the variance-mean rescaling effect on effective population size. Oikos 116:769–774Google Scholar
  94. Pertoldi C, Bijlsma R, Loeschcke V (2007b) Integrating population genetics and conservation biology: merging theoretical, experimental and applied approaches (Potsdam, Germany). Conserv Genet (OnlineEarly Articles). doi:10.1007/s10592-006-9261-3Google Scholar
  95. Pertoldi C, Hansen MM, Loeschcke V, Madsen AB, Jacobsen L, Baagoe H (2001) Genetic consequences of population decline in European Otter Lutra lutra: an assessment of microsatellite DNA variation in Danish otters from 1883 to 1993. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:1775–1781Google Scholar
  96. Pertoldi C, Loeschchke V, Randi E, Madsen AB, Hansen MM, Bijlsma R, Van De Zande L (2005) Present and past microsatellite variation and assessment of genetic structure in Eurasian badger Meles meles in Denmark. J Zool 265:387–394Google Scholar
  97. Pertoldi C, Norup AM, Madsen AB, Baagoe H, Randi E, Loeschcke V (2006a) No evidence of past bottlenecks in two Danish mustelids: results of the craniometric and genetic studies in time and space. Biol J Linn Soc 88:541–553Google Scholar
  98. Pertoldi C, Sørensen JG, David JR, Loeschcke V (2006b) Lerner’s theory on the genetic relationship between heterozygosity, genomic co-adaptation, and developmental instability, revisited. Evol Ecol Res 8:1487–1498Google Scholar
  99. Pigliucci M (2005) Evolution of phenotypic plasticity: where are we going now? Trends Ecol Evol 20:481–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Quattro JM, Vrijenhoek RC (1989) Fitness differences among remnant populations of the endangered Sonoran topminnow. Science 245:976–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Randi E, Lucchini V (2002) Detecting rare introgression of domestic dog genes into wild wolf Canis lupus population by Bayesian admixture analyses of microsatellite variation. Conserv Genet 3:31–45Google Scholar
  103. Reed DH, Frankham R (2001) How closely correlated are molecular and quantitative measures of genetic variation? A meta-analysis. Evolution 55:1095–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Reed DH, Lowe EH, Briscoe DA, Frankham R (2003) Inbreeding and extinction: effects of rate of inbreeding. Conserv Genet 4:405–410Google Scholar
  105. Reusch TBH, Ehlers A, Hämmerli A, Worm B (2005) Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:2826–2831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Røgilds A, Andersen DH, Pertoldi C, Dimitrov K, Loeschcke V (2005) Maternal and grandmaternal age effects on developmental instability and wing size in parthenogenetic Drosophila mercatorum. Biogerontology 6:1–9Google Scholar
  107. Saether BE, Lande R, Engen S, Weimerskirch H, Lillegard M, Altwegg RH, Becker P, Bregnballe T, Brommer JE, McCleery RH, Merila J, Nyholm E, Rendell W, Robertson R (2005) Time to extinction in bird populations. Ecology 86:693–700Google Scholar
  108. Sagvik J, Uller T, Olsson M (2005) Outbreeding depression in the common frog Rana temporaria. Conserv Genet 6:205–211Google Scholar
  109. Schlichting CD, Pigliucci M (1998) Phenotypic plasticity: a reaction norm perspective. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  110. Schwartz MK, Luikart G, Waples RS (2007) Genetic monitoring as a promising tool for conservation and managent. Trends Ecol Evol 22:25–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sheldon BC, West SA (2004) Maternal dominance, maternal condition, and offspring sex ratio in ungulate mammals. Am Nat 163:40–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Slatkin M (1987) Gene flow and the geographic structure of natural-populations. Science 236:787–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sørensen JS, Nielsen MM, Loeschcke V (2007) Gene expression profile analysis of Drosophila melanogaster selected for resistance to environmental stressors. J Evol Biol 20:1624–1636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Spielman D, Brook BW, Briscoe DA, Frankham R (2004a) Does inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity decrease genetic resistance? Conserv Genet 5:439–448Google Scholar
  115. Spielman D, Brook BW, Frankham R (2004b) Most species are not driven to extinction before genetic factors impact them. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:15261–15264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Stenseth N, Viljugrein H, Saitoh T, Hansen TF, Kittilsen MO, Bølviken E, Glöckner F (2003) Seasonality, density-dependence and population cycles in Hokkaido voles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:11478–11483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Stern DL (2000) Evolutionary developmental biology and the problem of variation. Evolution 54:1079–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Strand AE (2002) metasim 1.0: an individual-based environment for simulating population genetics of complex population dynamics. Mol Ecol Notes 2:373–376Google Scholar
  119. Swindell WR, Bouzat JL (2006) Gene flow and adaptive potential in Drosophila melanogaster. Conserv Genet 7:79–89Google Scholar
  120. Taylor CE, Georghiou GP (1979) Suppression of insecticide resistance by alteration of gene dominance and migration. J Econ Entomol 72:105–109Google Scholar
  121. Taylor LR (1961) Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature 189:732–735Google Scholar
  122. Templeton AR (1986) Coadaptation and outbreeding depression. In: Soule´ ME (ed) Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp 105–116Google Scholar
  123. Templeton AR (1991) Off-site breeding of animals and implications for plant conservation strategies. In: Falk DA, Holsinger KE (eds) Genetics and conservation of rare plants. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 182–194Google Scholar
  124. Tilman D (1996) Biodiversity: population versus ecosystem stability. Ecology 77:350–363Google Scholar
  125. Toro M, Barragán C, Óvilo C, Rodrigañez J, Rodriguez C, Silió L (2002) Estimation of coancestry in Iberian pigs using molecular markers. Conserv Genet 3:309–320Google Scholar
  126. Townsend JP, Cavalieri D, Hartl DL (2003) Population genetic variation in genome-wide gene expression. Mol Biol Evol 20:955–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Turner TF (2001) Temporal-method estimates of Ne from highly polymorphic loci. Conserv Genet 2:297–308Google Scholar
  128. Turner TF, Wares JP, Gold JR (2002) Genetic effective size is three orders of magnitude smaller than adult census size in an abundant, estuarine-dependent marine fish Sciaenops ocellatus. Genetics 162:1329–1339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Valladares F, Sanchez-Gomez D, Zavala MA (2006) Quantitative estimation of phenotypic plasticity: bridging the gap between the evolutionary concept and its ecological applications. J Ecol 94:1103–1116Google Scholar
  130. Vergeer P, Sonderen E, Ouborg NJ (2004) Introduction strategies put to the test: local adaptation versus heterosis. Conserv Biol 18:812–821Google Scholar
  131. Vignal A, Milan D, SanCristobal M, Eggen A (2002) A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics source. Genet Sel Evol 34:275–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Walther G-R, Post E, Convey P, Menzel A, Parmesan C, Trevor J, Beebee C, Fromentin JM, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Bairlein F (2002) Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416:389–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wang D, Marsh JL, Ayala FJ (1996) Evolutionary changes in the expression pattern of a developmentally essential gene in three Drosophila species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:7103–7107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Wang J (2000) Effects of population structures and selection strategies on the purging of inbreeding depression due to deleterious mutations. Genet Res 76:75–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Waples RS (1991) Pacific salmon Oncorbynchus spp., and the definition of “species” under the Endangered species act. Mar Fish Rev 53:11–22Google Scholar
  136. Waples RS (2002) Evaluating the effect of stage-specific survivorship on the Ne/N ratio. Mol Ecol 11:1029–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Whitlock MC, Barton NH (1997) The effective size of a subdivided population. Genetics 146:427–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Williamson-Natesan EG (2005) Comparisons of methods for detecting bottlenecks from microsatellite loci. Conserv Genet 6:551–562Google Scholar
  139. Wisely SM, Maldonado JM, Fleische MC (2004) A technique for sampling ancient DNA that minimizes damage to museum specimens. Conserv Genet 5:105–107Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Genetics, Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of AarhusAarhus CDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Wildlife Ecology & BiodiversityNational Environmental Research InstituteRondeDenmark
  3. 3.Population and Conservation Genetics, Evolutionary GeneticsUniversity of GroningenHarenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations