Advertisement

Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 10, pp 2965–2988 | Cite as

Diversity and structural patterns for tropical montane and premontane forests of central Peru, with an assessment of the use of higher-taxon surrogacy

  • María De Los Ángeles La Torre-CuadrosEmail author
  • Salvador Herrando-Pérez
  • Kenneth R. Young
Original Paper

Abstract

The Chanchamayo valley in the Peruvian Andes formerly contained large areas of montane and premontane tropical forests, although logging and agricultural expansion has resulted in extensive deforestation and habitat fragmentation. This study evaluates the regional context of the valley by a comparison of data from a series of one hectare plots giving data on the diversity and structure of trees ≥10 dbh, and then examines in more detail data from a 1 ha plot located in a newly declared conservation area (Pampa Hermosa Reserved Zone) embodying one of the most intact forest remains. An explicit goal was also to test the efficacy of sampling using taxonomic surrogacy, which could provide an effective means of making more efficient such work among diverse tropical forests. The Cedros de Pampa Hermosa plot contained 444 individuals belonging to 135 species, 66 genera and 35 families. The families Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae provided over half of the individuals counted. The high representation of Urticaceae species suggests a disturbance regime driven by the large sizes of the Meliaceae species and their dynamics on steep slopes. Indicator species analyses supported other evidence that this site at 1,600 m is located in a broad ecotonal area transitioning to premontane and lowland rain forests. Ordinations (nMDS) based on Bray–Curtis similarities and total abundance, basal areas and presence-absence data of the 598 species (3,469 individuals) found on all seven one hectare plots sampled in the valley showed a clear separation into three tree assemblage types, namely the lower montane site, and two others on the eastern and western sides of the valley. Ordination patterns were quite similar at species and family level, but did not show any site groupings at the generic level, suggesting important turnover of species and families along environmental gradients. A number of species could not be allocated to known taxonomic groups, and were evaluated as morphotaxa. The inclusion or exclusion of such taxa did not dramatically alter the main ordination patterns within taxonomic levels of botanical family or of species, which implies that rapid inventory methods and incomplete identifications can still provide data useful for conservation planning in this and similar forests.

Keywords

Montane forest Morphospecies Surrogacy Tree diversity Tropical forest 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We appreciate the collaboration of Aniseto Daza, Felix Villajuan, Felix Lima S., Pablo Bejarano, Aylin Wetzell, Delicia Pino, Walter Sarabia, Helga Bañón, Clinton Plumer, Víctor Villalobos, Carmen La Torre and Ruy Morales during fieldwork. We are especially grateful to Carlos Reynel for all kinds of scientific support and species identifications, and to Gustavo Dreyfus for advice on Melastomataceae. Angélica Almeyda, Sergio Caro, Eurídice Honorio, Carlos Reynel, and Dante Antón kindly shared plot data, Carolina Tovar assisted in GIS mapping and Oliver Phillips with one anonymous reviewer provided useful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. Finally, the first author (MALTC) thanks Idea Wild (www.ideawild.org) for field equipment and Deborah Woodcock (University of Hawaii at Manoa) for financial support.

References

  1. Almeyda ZA (2004) Diversidad y Composición de la flora arbórea en un área de Bosque Montano tardío: Fundo Génova-UNALM. In: Antón D, Reynel C (eds) Relictos de Bosques de excepcional diversidad en los andes centrales de Perú. Peru Darwin Project- PBR – APRODES - Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM), Lima, Perú, pp 263–303Google Scholar
  2. Antón BD, Reynel RC (2004) Diversidad y composición de la flora arbórea en un área de ladera de colinas en bosque premontano: Microcuenca de Tirol, valle de Chanchamayo, 1000–1500 msnm. In: Antón D, Reynel C (eds) Relictos de Bosques de excepcional diversidad en los andes centrales de Perú. Perú Darwin Project- PBR – APRODES – Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM), Lima, Perú, pp 221–262Google Scholar
  3. Araújo MB, Humphries CJ (2001) Would environmental diversity be a good surrogate for species diversity? Ecography 24(1):103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brako J, Zarucchi JL (1993) Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany, The Missouri Botanical Garden, vol 45Google Scholar
  5. Brown KS Jr (1977) Centros de evolução, refugios quaternaries e conservacão de patrimonies genéticos na região neotropical: patroes de diferenacão em lihomiinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Acta Amazonica 7:75–137Google Scholar
  6. Bussmann RW (2001) The montane forests of Reserva Biológica San Francisco (Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador) vegetation zonation and natural regeneration. Die Erde 132(1):9–25Google Scholar
  7. Caro HS, Reynel RC, Antón BD (2004) Diversidad y Composición de la flora arbórea en un área de Ladera de Colinas en Bosque Premontano: Fundo Genova-UNALM, valle de Chanchamayo, 1000–1500 msnm. In: Antón D, Reynel C (eds) Relictos de Bosques de excepcional diversidad en los andes centrales de Perú. Peru Darwin Project- PBR – APRODES - Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM), Lima, Perú, pp 187–220Google Scholar
  8. CDB (Convenio de Diversidad Biológica) (2003) Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica. Diversidad Biológica de Montaña. Tema 4 del programa provisional. Octava Reunión. UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/8/5, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  9. Churchill SP, Balslev H, Forero E, Luteyn JL (eds) (1995). Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, USAGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke KR (1993) Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Aust J Ecol 18:117–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarke KR, Gorley RN (2001) PRIMER v5. User Manual/Tutorial. Primer-E Ltd, Plymouth, UK, 91 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Cleef AM, Rangel OC, Van der Hammen T, Jaramillo R (1984) La vegetación de las selvas del transecto Buritaca. In: Van der Hammen T, Ruíz PM (eds) La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia), Transecto Buritaca-La Cumbre. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 2. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Liechtenstein, Germany, pp 267–406Google Scholar
  13. Clinebell R, Phillips O, Gentry AH, Strak N, Zuuring H (1995) Prediction of neotropical tree and liana species richness from soil and climatic data. Biodivers Conserv 4:56–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Condit R, Ashton P, Balslev H, Brokaw N, Bunyavejchewin S, Chuyong G, Co L, Dattaraja HS, Davies S, Esufali S, Ewango CEN, Foster R, Gunatilleke N, Gunatilleke S, Hernandez C, Hubbell S, John R, Kenfack D, Kiratiprayoon S, Hall P, Hart T, Itoh A, Lafrankie J, Liengola I, Lagunzad D, Lao S, Losos E, Magard E, Makana J, Manokaran N, Navarrete H, Mohammed Nur S, Okhubo T, Pérez R, Samper C, Hua Seng L, Sukumar R, Svenning JC, Tan S, Thomas D, Thompson J, Vallejo M, Villa Muñoz G, Valencia R, Yamakura T, Zimmerman J (2005) Tropical tree α-diversity: results from a worldwide network of large plots. Biologiske Skrifter 55:565–582Google Scholar
  15. Curtis JT, Mcintosh RP (1951) An unpland forest continum in the prairie forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32:476–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dallmeir F, Kabel M, Foster R (1996) Floristic composition, diversity, mortality and recruitment on different substrates: lowland tropical forest, Pakitza, Rio Manu Peru. In: D Wilson, Sandoval A (eds) Manu: the biodiversity of southern Peru. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, DC. Editorial Horizonte, Lima, pp 61–88Google Scholar
  17. Derraik JGB, Cross GP, Dickinson KJM, Sirvid P, Barratt BIP, Patrick BH (2002) Arthropod morphospecies versus taxonomic species: a case study with Araneae, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. Conserv Biol 16(4):1015–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Doumenge C, Gilmour D, Ruiz Pérez M, Blockhus J (1995) Tropical montane cloud forests: Conservation status and management issues. In: Hamilton LS, Juvik JO, Scatena EN (eds) Tropical Montane Cloud Forests. Springer, New York, p 24–37.Google Scholar
  19. El Peruano (2005) Resolución Ministerial N° 0275–2005-AG-288852, Normas Legales - Sección Agricultura. Año XXII – N° 9034. Lima, Perú, pp 288852–288855. http://www.elperuano.com.pe or http://www.editoraperu.com.pe
  20. Ellis D (1985) Taxonomic sufficiency in pollution assessment. Mar Pollut Bull 16:459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Enquist BJ, Haskell JP, Tiffney BH (2002) General patterns of taxonomic and biomass partitioning in extant and fossil plant communities. Nature 419:610–613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Faith DP (2003) Environmental diversity (ED) as surrogate information for species-level biodiversity. Ecography 26(3):374–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fisher RA, Corbet AS, Williams CB (1943) The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. J Anim Ecol 12:42–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fjeldså J, Lambin E, Mertens B (1999) Correlations between endemism and local ecoclimatic stability documented by comparing Andean bird distributions and remotely sensed land surface data. Ecography 22:63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frahm JP, Gradstein SR (1991) An altitudinal zonation of tropical rain forests using bryophytes. J Biogeogr 18:669–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Galdo L (1985) Evaluación de escorrentía superficial y erosión hídrica bajo diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal en San Ramón, Chanchamayo. Tesis de Ingeniero Forestal. Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, Huancayo, Perú, 121 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Gentry AH (1982) Patterns of neotropical plant species diversity. Evol Biol 15:1–84Google Scholar
  28. Gentry AH (1988) Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Ann Mo Bot Gard 75(1):1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gentry AH (1989) Northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador and Peru). In: Campbell D, Hammond HD (eds) Floristic inventory of tropical forests. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, USA, pp 392–400Google Scholar
  30. Gentry AH (1992) Diversity and floristic composition of Andean forests of Peru and adjacent countries: implications of their conservation. In: Young KR, Valencia N (eds) Biogeografía, Ecología y Conservación del Bosque Montano en el Perú. Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural 21. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú, pp 11–29Google Scholar
  31. Gentry AH (1993) A field guide to the families and genera of woody plants of Northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) with supplementary notes on Herbaceous taxa. Conservation International, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  32. Gentry AH (1995) Patterns of diversity and floristic composition in neotropical rain forests. In: Churchill SP, Balslev H, Forero E, Luteyn JL (eds) Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, USA, pp 103–126Google Scholar
  33. Gould KA, Fredericksen TS, Morales F, Kennard D, Putz FE, Mostacedo B, Toledo M (2002) Post-fire regeneration of lowland Bolivia: implications for fire management. For Ecol Manage 165:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grau HR (2000) Regeneration patterns of Cedrela lilloi (Meliaceae) in northwestern Argentina subtropical montane forests. J Trop Ecol 16:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grubb PJ (1977) Control of forests growth and distribution on wet tropical mountains with special reference to mineral nutrition. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 8:38–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamilton LS, Juvik JO, Scatena FN (eds) (1994) Tropical montane cloud forest. Ecological studies 110. Springer, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  37. Higgins MA, Roukolainen K (2004) Rapid tropical forest inventory: a comparison of techniques based on inventory data from western Amazonia. Conserv Biol 18(3):799–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holdridge LR (1967) Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica, 216 ppGoogle Scholar
  39. Isaac NJB, Mallet J, Mace GM (2004) Taxonomic inflation: its influence on macroecology and conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 19(9):464–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kappelle M, Brown AD (eds) (2001) Bosques Nublados del Neotrópico. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad INBio, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica, 704 ppGoogle Scholar
  41. Kessler M, Bach K (1999) Using indicator families for vegetation classification in species-rich neotropical forest. Phytocoenologia 29:485–502Google Scholar
  42. Kruskal JB (1964) Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: a numerical method. Psychometrika 29:15–129Google Scholar
  43. La Torre-Cuadros MA (2003) Composición florística y diversidad en el bosque relicto Los Cedros de Pampa Hermosa (Chanchamayo, Junín) e implicancias para su conservación. Tesis Magíster Scientiae en Conservación de Recursos Forestales. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú. 141 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Lamas G (1982) A preliminary zoogeographical division of Peru, based on butterfly distribution (Lepidoptera, Papillionoidea). In: Prance GT (ed) Biological diversification in the tropics. Columbia University Press, New York, USA, pp 336–357Google Scholar
  45. Leigh EG Jr (1975) Structure and climate in tropical rain forests. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 6:67–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leigh EG Jr, Loo de Lao S (2000) Fisher’s alpha: measuring tree diversity. CTFS Summer 6–7:12Google Scholar
  47. León B, Young KR, Brako L (1992) Análisis de la composición florística del bosque montano oriental del Perú. In: Young KR, Valencia N (eds) Biogeografía, Ecología y Conservación del Bosque Montano en el Perú. Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural 21. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú, pp 141–154Google Scholar
  48. Lyons KG, Brigham CA, Traut BH, Schwartz NW (2005) Rare species and ecosystem functioning. Conserv Biol 19(4):1019–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mace GM, Gittleman JR, Purvis JR (2003) Preserving the tree of life. Science 300:1707–1709CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Mori S, Boom B, de Carvalino MA , dos Santos S (1983) Ecological importance of Myrtaceae in an Eastern Brazilian wt forest. Biotropica 15(1):68–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Oliver I, Beattie AJ (1996) Invertebrate morphospecies as surrogates for species. A case study. Conserv Biol 10(1):99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Oliver I, Beattie AJ, York A (1998) Spatial fidelity, of plant, vertebrate and invertebrate assemblages in multiple-use in eastern Australia. Conserv Biol 12(4):822–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Olsgard F, Brattegard T, Holthe T (2003) Polychaetes as surrogates for marine biodiversity: lower taxonomic resolution and indicator groups. Biodivers Conserv 12:1033–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Park A, Justiniano MJ, Fredericksen TS (2005) Natural regeneration and environmental relationships of tree species in logging gaps in a Bolivian tropical forest. For Ecol Manage 217:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pearson DL (1995) Selecting indicator taxa for quantitative assessment of biodiversity. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Biodiversity measurement and estimation. Chapman and Hall, London, UK, pp 75–79Google Scholar
  57. Pharo EJ, Beattie AJ, Binns D (1999) Vascular plant diversity as a surrogate for bryophite and lichen diversity. Conserv Biol 13:282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Phillips OL, Malhi Y, Vinceti B, Baker T, Lewis S, Higuchi N, Laurance WF, Nuñez VP, Vásquez MR, Laurance SG, Ferriera LV, Stern M, Brown S, Grace J (2002) Changes in growth of tropical forests: evaluating potential biases. Ecol Appl 12:576–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Phillips OL, Vásquez MR, Nuñez VP, Lorenzo MA, Chuspe ZM, Galiano SW, Peña CA, Timaná M, Yli-Halla M, Rose S (2003) Efficient plot-based floristic assessment of tropical forests. J Trop Ecol 19:629–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pik JA, Oliver I, Beattie AJ (1999) Taxonomic sufficiency in ecological studies of terrestrial invertebrates. Aust J Ecol 24: 555–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Prance GT (1973) Phytogeographic support for the theory of Pleistocene forest refuges in the Amazon Basin, based on evidence from distribution patterns in Caryocaraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Dichapetalaceae and Lecythidaceae. Acta Amazonica 3:5–28Google Scholar
  62. Rangel JO (1991) Ecología de Ecosistemas Andinos en Colombia. Ph. D. Dissertation. Universidad de Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 392 ppGoogle Scholar
  63. Reynel RC, Antón BD (2004a) Diversidad y composición de la flora arbórea en un área de Cumbre de Colinas en Bosque Premontano: Fundo Génova-UNALM, valle de Chanchamayo 1000–1500 msnm. In: Antón D, Reynel C (eds) Relictos de Bosques de excepcional diversidad en los andes centrales de Perú. Peru Darwin Project- PBR – APRODES - Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM), Lima, Perú, pp 143–186Google Scholar
  64. Reynel RC, Antón BD (2004b) Diversidad y composición de la flora arbórea en un área Ribereña de Bosque Montano: Pichita, valle de Chanchamayo, 200–2500 msnm. In: Antón D, Reynel C (eds) Relictos de Bosques de excepcional diversidad en los andes centrales de Perú. Peru Darwin Project- PBR – APRODES - Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM), Lima, Perú, pp 99–142Google Scholar
  65. Reynel RC, Honorio CE (2004) Diversidad y composición de la flora arbórea en un área de Ladera de Bosque Montano: Pichita, valle de Chanchamayo, 2000–2500 msnm. In: Antón D, Reynel C (eds) Relictos de Bosques de excepcional diversidad en los andes centrales de Perú. Peru Darwin Project- PBR – APRODES - Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM), Lima, Perú, pp 45–98Google Scholar
  66. Reynel C, León J (1989) Especies forestales de los bosques secundarios de Chanchamayo. Proyecto de Utilización de Bosques Secundarios en el Trópico Húmedo Peruano. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú, 173 ppGoogle Scholar
  67. Rodríguez LO, Young KR (2000) Biological diversity of Peru: determining priority areas for conservation. Ambio 29(6):329–337Google Scholar
  68. Sarmiento FO (1995) Restoration of equatorial Andes: the challenge for conservation of trop-Andean landscapes in Ecuador. In: Churchill SP, Balslev H, Forero E, Luteyn JL (eds) Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, USA, pp 637–651Google Scholar
  69. Somerfield PJ, Clarke KR (1995) Taxonomic levels, in marine community studies revisited. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 127:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Spichiger R, Loizeau PA, Latour C, Barriera G (1996) Tree species richness of a south-western Amazonian forest (Jenaro Herrera, Peru, 73°40′ W/4°54′ S). Candollea 51:559–577Google Scholar
  71. Stadtmüller T (1987) Los Bosques nublados en el trópico húmedo: una revisión bibliográfica. Universidad de las Naciones Unidas y Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Turrialba, Costa Rica. 85 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. STATSOFT, Inc (1998) STATISTICA for Windows. STATSOFT, Inc., 2300 East 14th Street, Tulsa 74104, USAGoogle Scholar
  73. ter Steege H, Pitman N, Sabatier D, Castellanos H, Van Der Hout P, Daly DC, Silveira M, Phillips O, Vásquez R, Van Andel T, Duivenvoorden J, Adelardo de Oliveira A, Ek R, Lilwah R, Thomas R, Van Essen J, Baider C, Maas P, Mori S, Terborgh J, Nunez Vargas P, Mogollón H, Morawetz W (2003). A spatial model of tree α - diversity for the Amazon. Biodivers Conserv 12(11):2255–2277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Turner IM, Corlett RT (1996) The conservation value of small, isolated fragments of lowland tropical rain forest. Trends Ecol Evol 11(8):330–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Valencia R (1995) Composition and structure of an Andean forest fragment in eastern Ecuador. In: Churchill SP, Balslev H, Forero E, Luteyn JL (eds) Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, USA, pp 239–249Google Scholar
  76. van Rheenen HMPJB, Boot RGA, Werger MJA, Ulloa M (2004) Regeneration of timber trees in a logged tropical forest in north Bolivia. For Ecol Manage 200:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vásquez M, Phillips OL (2000) Floristics and ecology of a high-diversity forest at Allpahuayo, Amazonian Peru. Ann Mo Bot Gard 87:499–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vásquez R, Rojas R, Rodríguez E (2002) Adiciones a la flora peruana: especies nuevas, nuevos registros y estados taxonómicos de las angiospermas para el Perú. Arnaldoa 9(2):43–110Google Scholar
  79. Warwick RM (1988) The level of taxonomic discrimination required to detect pollution effects on marine benthic communities. Mar Pollut Bull 19:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Webb CO, Ackerly DD, McPeek MA, Donoghue MJ (2002) Phylogenies and community ecology. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:475–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Webster GL (1995) The panorama of neotropical cloud forest. In: Churchill SP, Balslev H, Forero E, Luteyn JL (eds) Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, USA, pp 53–78Google Scholar
  82. Whitmore TC (1984) Tropical rain forests of the far east, 2nd edn. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 352 ppGoogle Scholar
  83. Wright IA, Chessman BC, Fairweather PG, Benson LJ (1995) Measuring the impact of sewage ef?uent on the macroinvertebrate community of an upland stream: the effect of different levels of taxonomic resolution and quantification. Aust J Ecol 20:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Young KR (1998a) Composition and structure of a timberline forest in north-central Peru. In: Dallmeier F, Comiskey JA (eds) Forest biodiversity in north, central and south America and the Caribbean: research and monitoring. Man and the biosphere series, vol 21. UNESCO and the Parthenon Publishing Group, Carnforth, Lancashire, UK, pp 595–613Google Scholar
  85. Young KR (1998b) Deforestation in landscapes with humid forests in the central Andes: patterns and process. In: Zimmerer KS, Young KR (eds) Nature’s geography: new lessons for conservation in developing countries. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, USA, pp 75–99Google Scholar
  86. Young KR, Keating PL (2001) Remanant Forest of Volcan Cotacachi, northern Ecuador. Arct Antarct Alp Res 33(2):165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Young KR, León B (1999) Peru’s humid eastern montane forests: an overview of their physical settings, biological diversity, human use and settlement, and conservation needs. Diversity of Andean Rainforests, DIVA. Technical Report 5:1–97. http://www.diva.dmu.dk/1_viden/2_miljoe-tilstand/3_natur/diva/diva_rep.htm
  88. Young KR, León B (2001) Perú. In: Kappelle M, Brown AD (eds) Bosques Nublados del Neotrópico. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad INBio, Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica, pp 549–580Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • María De Los Ángeles La Torre-Cuadros
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Salvador Herrando-Pérez
    • 3
  • Kenneth R. Young
    • 4
  1. 1.Herbario Forestal MOLUniversidad Nacional Agraria La MolinaLimaPeru
  2. 2.LimaPeru
  3. 3.CastellonSpain
  4. 4.Department of Geography and the EnvironmentUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations