Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 857–870 | Cite as

Monitoring mammals in the Caxiuanã National Forest, Brazil – First results from the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) program

  • Simone de Souza Martins
  • James G. Sanderson
  • José de Sousa e Silva-Júnior
Original Paper

Abstract

The need for long-term biodiversity monitoring using standardized protocols led to the creation of the Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) initiative. At some 50 field stations in tropical forests around the world, TEAM will monitor various taxa such as ants, birds, butterflies, medium and large terrestrial mammals, primates, litter fall, and trees, as well as landscape change in nine tropical biodiversity hotspots and three tropical wilderness areas. The TEAM terrestrial mammal program calls for using a grid of camera phototraps to monitor long-term trends in densities and occupancy rates of species that can or cannot be uniquely identified, respectively. We describe the TEAM camera phototrapping program and provide results for the first TEAM site–Caxiuanã National Forest in northern Brazil. An intensive one year camera trapping effort was carried out to determine which months were most suitable for long-term monitoring. Fifteen species of medium and large terrestrial mammals and two large birds were recorded, including three xenarthrans, five carnivores, one perissodactyle, three artiodactyles, two rodents, and one marsupial. The medium and large terrestrial mammal diversity was well represented during two consecutive wet and dry months, respectively. We also recorded activity patterns for all species photographed by our camera traps more than 10 times.

Keywords

Brazil Camera trapping Monitoring TEAM program Tropical rainforest 

References

  1. Ávila-Pires TCS, Hoogmoed MS (1997) The Herpetofauna. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 389–401Google Scholar
  2. Balmford A, Green RE, Jenkins M (2003) Measuring the changing state of nature. Trends Ecol Evol 18:326–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernardi JAR, Rufino N, Costa GNR, Rocha RA-T (2002) Répteis. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 533–540Google Scholar
  4. Bobadilla UL (1998) Abundância, tamanho de agrupamento e uso do hábitat por Cuxiús de Uta Hick Chiropotes satanas utahicki Hershkovits, 1985 em dois sítios na Amazônia Oriental: Implicações para a conservação. Masters Dissertation, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Brasil. 62 pGoogle Scholar
  5. Bobadilla UL, Ferrari SF (2000) Habitat use by Chiropotes satanas utahicki and syntopic platyrrhines in eastern Amazonia. Am J Primatol 50:215–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carbone C, Christie S, Conforti K, Coulson T, Franklin N, Ginsberg JR, Griffiths M, Holden J, Kawanishi K, Kinnaird M, Laidlaw R, Lynam A, Macdonald DW, Martyr D, McDougal C, Nath L, O’Brien T, Seidensticker J, Smith DJL, Sunquist M, Tilson R, Wan Shahrudden WN (2001) The use of photographic rates to estimate densities of tigers and other cryptic mammals. Anim Conserv 4:75–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman FM (1927) Who treads our trails? Natl Geogr Mag 52:331–345Google Scholar
  8. Comiskey JA, Dallmeier F, Alonso A (2001) Framework for assessment and monitoring of biodiversity. In: Levin SA (ed) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Vol 3. Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp 63–73Google Scholar
  9. Costa JPR, de Moraes JC (2002) Médias mensais de variáveis meteorológicas. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 225–232Google Scholar
  10. Debinski DM, Humphrey PS (1997) An integrated approach to biological diversity assessment. Nat Areas J 17:355–365Google Scholar
  11. Estupiñán-T RA, Bernardi JAR, Galatti U (2002) Fauna Anura. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 541–553Google Scholar
  12. Ferraz MG, Lisboa PLB, Ninni K, Santana MRA, Andrade MS (2002) Programa Floresta-Modelo de Caxiuanã: desenvolvimento sustentável de comunidades ribeirinhas. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 127–163Google Scholar
  13. Jardim MMA (1997) Estratégias de forrageamento e uso de espaço por Alouatta belzebul (Primates, Cebidae) na Estação Científica Ferreira Penna, Melgaço, Pará, Masters Dissertation, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil. p 120.Google Scholar
  14. Jardim MMA, Oliveira LF (2002) Vocalização de um grupo de guaribas (Alouatta belzebul). In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 697–703Google Scholar
  15. Jardim MMA, Oliveira LF (1997) Uso do espaço de Alouatta belzebul (Primates, Cebidae) em função da temporalidade de recursos. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 417–436Google Scholar
  16. Jones LLC, Raphael MG (1993) Inexpensive camera systems for detecting martens, fishers, and other animals: guidelines for use and standardization. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-306. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Portland, OregonGoogle Scholar
  17. Joslin P (1977) Night stalking: setting a camera ‘trapline’ for nocturnal carnivores. Photo Life 7:34–35Google Scholar
  18. Hellawell JA (1991) Development of a rational for monitoring. In: Goldsmith B (ed) Monitoring for conservation and ecology. Chapman and Hall, London, UK, pp 12–16Google Scholar
  19. Henschel P, Ray J (2003) Leopards in African rainforests: Survey and monitoring techniques. Wildlife Conservation Society, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Karanth KU, Nichols JD (1998) Estimation of tiger densities in India using photographic captures and recaptures. Ecology 79:2852–2862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Karanth KU, Nichols JD (eds) (2002) Monitoring tigers and their prey. Centre for Wildlife Studies, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  22. Kremen C, Merenlender AM, Murphy DD (1994) Ecological monitoring: A vital need for integrated conservation and development programs in the tropics. Conserv Biol 8:388–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lambeck RJ (1997) Focal species: a multi-species umbrella for nature conservation. Conserv Biol 11:849–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lawler JJ, White D, Sifneos JC, Master LL (2003) Rare species and the use of indicator groups for conservation planning. Conserv Biol 17:875–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lisboa PLB (1997) A Estação Científica Ferreira Penna/ECFPn. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 23–49Google Scholar
  26. Lisboa PLB, Gomes IA, Lisboa RCL, Urbinati CV (2002) Parte III–O estilo amazônico de sobreviver: manejo dos recursos naturais. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Natureza, Homem e manejo de Recursos Naturais na Região de Caxiuanã, Melgaço. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, pp 43–170Google Scholar
  27. Lisboa PLB, Silva ASL, Almeida SS (1997) Florística e Estrutura dos Ambientes. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 163–193Google Scholar
  28. Mace R, Manley T, Aune K (1990) Use of systematically deployed remote cameras to monitor grizzly bears. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, Kalispell, Montana, 25 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. MacKenzie DI, Nichols JD, Royle JA, Pollock KP, Bailey LL, Hines JE (2006) Occupancy estimation and modeling. Elsivier Academic Press, NYGoogle Scholar
  30. MacKenzie DI, Nichols JD, Hines JE, Knutson MG, Franklin AB (2003) Estimating site occupancy, colonization, and local extinction when a species is detected imperfectly. Ecology 84:2200–2207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Malhi Y, Phillips OL, Lloyd J, Baker T, Wright J, Almeida S, Arroyo L, Frederiksen T, Grace J, Higuchi N, Killeen T, Laurance WF, Leaño C, Lewis S, Meir P, Monteaguudo A, Neill D, Núñez Vargas P, Panfil SN, Patiño S, Pitman N, Quesada CA, Rudas-L1 A, Salomão R, Saleska S, Silva N, Silveira M, Sombroek WG, Valencia R, Vãsquez Martínez R, Vieira ICG, Vinceti B (2002) An international network to monitor the structure, composition and dynamics of Amazônian forests (RAINFOR). J Veg Sci 13:439–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marques-Aguiar SA, Aguiar GFdS (2002) Interações de quirópteros em ecossistemas tropicais: perspectiva de estudo em Caxiuanã. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 651–668Google Scholar
  33. Moegenburg SM, Jardim MAG (2002) Utilization of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart) fruit and fruit patches by fruit-eating birds. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 641–650Google Scholar
  34. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation. Nature 403:853–858CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Nesbit W (1926) How to Hunt with the Camera. EP Dutton & Co., NYGoogle Scholar
  36. Oliveira MCF, Costa ACL, Costa JPR, Palheta MCP, Pereira MGP (2002) Comportamento dos elementos meteorológicos. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 217–224Google Scholar
  37. Pina ALCB (1999) Dinâmica sócio-ecológica em uma população de guaribas-das-mãos-vermelhas (Alouatta belzebul) na Estação Cientifica Ferreira Penna, Pará, Brazil. Masters Dissertation, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém. p 89.Google Scholar
  38. Pina ALCB, Souza LL, Ferrari SF (2002) Spacing patterns of Alouatta belzebul groups. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 685–695Google Scholar
  39. Santana MRA, Lisboa PLB (2002) Estratégias de sobrevivência. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 95–125Google Scholar
  40. Shiras G (1906) Photographing wild game with flashlight and camera. The National Geographic MagazineGoogle Scholar
  41. Silva JMC, Pimentel Neto DC (1997) As Aves. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 403–415Google Scholar
  42. Silva MNF, Rylands AB, Patton JL (2001) Biogeografia e conservação da mastofauna na floresta amazônica brasileira. In: Capobianco JPR, Veríssimo A, Moreira A, Saweyr D, Santos I, Pinto LP (eds) Biodiversidade na Amazônia Brasileira: Avaliação de Ações Prioritárias para a Conservação. Uso Sustentável e Repartição de Benefícios, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 110–131Google Scholar
  43. Silveira IM, Kern DC, Quaresma HDAB (2002) Reconstruindo uma ocupação. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 59–76Google Scholar
  44. Souza LL (1999) Comportamento alimentar e dispersão de sementes por guaribas (Alouatta belzebul) na Estação Científica Ferreira Penna, (Caxiuanã/Melgaço/Pará). Masters Dissertation, Universidade Federal do Pará and Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Brazil. p 168Google Scholar
  45. Souza LL, Pina ALCB, Ferrari SF (2002) Diet of the red-handed howler monkey (Alouatta belzebul). In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 669–683Google Scholar
  46. Srbek-Araujo AC, Chiarello AG (2005) Is camera-trapping an efficient method for surveying mammals in Neotropical forests? A case study in south-eastern Brazil. J Trop Ecol 21:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sunquist ME, Sunquist FC (2001) Changing landscapes: consequences for carnivores. In: Gittleman JL, Funk SM, Macdonald D, Wayne RK (eds) Carnivore Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 399–418Google Scholar
  48. Tavares LI (1999) Estratégias de forrageio de um grupo silvestre de sagüi-branco (Callithrix argentata Linnaeus 1771) na Estação Científica Ferreira Penna–Pará. Masters Dissertation, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Brazil. p 89.Google Scholar
  49. Tavares LI, Ferrari SF (2002) Diet of the silvery marmoset (Callithrix argentata). In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 705–717Google Scholar
  50. ter Keurs WJ, Meelis E (1986) Monitoring the biotic aspects of our environment as a policy instrument. Environ Monit Assess 7:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thompson WL, White GC, Gowan GC (1998) Monitoring Vertebrate Populations. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  52. Trolle M (2003) Mammal survey in the southeastern Pantanal, Brazil. Biodivers Conserv 12:823–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Trolle M, Kéry M (2003) Estimation of ocelot density in the Pantanal using capture-recapture analysis of camera trapping data. J Mammal 84:607–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Veracini C (1997) O comportamento alimentar de Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus, 1771) (Primata, Callithrichidae). In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 437–446Google Scholar
  55. Veracini C (2002) Ecologia alimentar e o uso dos habitats de Saguinus midas niger. In: Lisboa PLB (ed) Caxiuanã: Populações Tradicionais, Meio Físico e Diversidade Biológica. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brasil, pp 719–734Google Scholar
  56. Voss RS, Emmons LH (1996) Mammalian diversity in neotropical lowland rainforests: a preliminary assessment. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 230. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Wemmer C, Kunz TH, Lundie-Jenkins G, McShea WJ (1996) Mammalian sign. In: Wilson DE, Cole FR, Nichols JD, Rudran R, Foster MS (eds) Measuring and monitoring biological diversity. Standard methods for mammals, pp 157–176Google Scholar
  58. Yoccoz NG, Nichols JD, Boulinier T (2001) Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time. Trends Ecol Evol 16:446–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simone de Souza Martins
    • 1
  • James G. Sanderson
    • 2
  • José de Sousa e Silva-Júnior
    • 1
  1. 1.Zoology Department, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Campus de PesquisaTerra Firma, Belém, ParáBrasil
  2. 2.Tropical Ecology, Assesement and Monitoring, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation InternationalWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations