Biodiversity and Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 9, pp 2677–2694 | Cite as

Assessing environment and development outcomes in conservation landscapes

  • Jeffrey Sayer
  • Bruce Campbell
  • Lisa PetheramEmail author
  • Mark Aldrich
  • Manuel Ruiz Perez
  • Dominque Endamana
  • Zacharie-L Nzooh Dongmo
  • Louis Defo
  • Stephen Mariki
  • Nike Doggart
  • Neil Burgess
Original Paper


An approach to assessing the environmental outcomes and changes in peoples’ livelihoods resulting from landscape-scale conservation interventions was developed for three locations in Africa. Simple sets of performance indicators were developed through participatory processes that included a variety of stakeholders. The selection of indicators was designed to reflect wider landscape processes, conservation objectives and as local peoples’ preferred scenarios. This framework, combined with the use of social learning techniques, helped stakeholders develop greater understandings of landscape system dynamics and the linkages between livelihood and conservation objectives. Large scale conservation and development interventions should use these approaches to explore linkages and improve shared understanding of tradeoffs and synergies between livelihood and conservation initiatives. Such approaches provide the basis for negotiating and measuring the outcomes of conservation initiatives and for adapting these to changing perspectives and circumstances.


Adaptive management Conservation Evaluation Indicators Landscape performance Livelihoods Monitoring Tools 



Central African Republic


Department for International Development


Driving Force State Response Framework


Framework for the Evaluation of Sustainable Land Management


Non Government Organisation


Pressure State Response


Tanzania Forest Conservation Group


United Nations Development Program


World Wide Fund for Nature


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We would like to thank all participants of the three workshops for their valuable input in developing this tool.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey Sayer
    • 1
  • Bruce Campbell
    • 2
  • Lisa Petheram
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mark Aldrich
    • 1
  • Manuel Ruiz Perez
    • 4
  • Dominque Endamana
    • 5
  • Zacharie-L Nzooh Dongmo
    • 6
  • Louis Defo
    • 7
  • Stephen Mariki
    • 8
  • Nike Doggart
    • 9
  • Neil Burgess
    • 10
  1. 1.World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) InternationalGlandSwitzerland
  2. 2.School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, and Centre for International Forestry ResearchDarwinAustralia
  3. 3.School for Environmental ResearchCharles Darwin UniversityDarwinAustralia
  4. 4.Departmento de Ecologia-Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de MadridMadridSpain
  5. 5.WWF Northern Savannah ProjectYaoundeCameroon
  6. 6.Jengi South East Forest Project, WWF Cameroon Country Programme OfficeYaoundeCameroon
  7. 7.WWF South East Cameroon Forest ProgrammeYaoundeCameroon
  8. 8.WWF Tanzania Programme OfficeDar es SalaamTanzania
  9. 9.Tanzania Forest Conservation Group (TFCG)Dar es SalaamTanzania
  10. 10.Conservation Science program, WWFWashington, DCUSA

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